Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 564 in total

  1. Hani H, Allaudin ZN, Mohd-Lila MA, Sarsaifi K, Rasouli M, Tam YJ, et al.
    Xenotransplantation, 2017 05;24(3).
    PMID: 28397308 DOI: 10.1111/xen.12302
    BACKGROUND: Dead islets replaced with viable islets are a promising offer to restore normal insulin production to a person with diabetes. The main reason for establishing a new islet source for transplantation is the insufficiency of human donor pancreas while using xenogeneic islets perhaps assists this problem. The expression of PDX1 is essential for the pancreas expansion. In mature β-cells, PDX1 has several critical roles such as glucose sensing, insulin synthesis, and insulin secretion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1) in treated caprine islets in culture and to assess the protective effects of antioxidant factors on the PDX1 gene in cultured caprine islets.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Purified islets were treated with serum-free, serum, IBMX, tocopherol, or IBMX and tocopherol media. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were carried out to compare the expression levels of PDX1 in treated purified islets cultured with different media.

    RESULTS: Islets treated with IBMX/tocopherol exhibited the highest fold change in the relative expression of PDX1 on day 5 post-treatment (relative expression: 6.80±2.08), whereas serum-treated islets showed the lowest fold changes in PDX1 expression on day 5 post-treatment (0.67±0.36), as compared with the expression on day 1 post-treatment. Insulin production and viability tests of purified islets showed superiority of islet at supplemented serum-free media with IBMX/tocopherol compared to other cultures (53.875%±1.59%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that supplemented serum-free medium with tocopherol and IBMX enhances viability and PDX1 gene expression compared to serum-added and serum-free media.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  2. Jinfeng EC, Mohamad Rafi MI, Chai Hoon K, Kok Lian H, Yoke Kqueen C
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2017 Jan;33(1):5.
    PMID: 27844243
    Plants are primary source of natural product drugs. However, with every new bioactive molecule reported from a plant source, there follows reports of endangered status or even extinction of a medicinally important plant due to over-harvesting. Hence, the attention turned towards fungi namely the endophytes, which reside within medicinally important plants and thus may have acquired their medicinal properties. Strobilanthes crispus is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used traditionally to treat kidney stones, diabetes, hypertension and cancer as well as having antimicrobial activities. In our efforts to bioprospect for anticancer and antimicrobial metabolites, two fungal endophytes most closely related to the Sordariomycetes sp. showed promising results. Sample (PDA)BL3 showed highest significant antimicrobial activity against 6 bacteria at 200 µg/disc whereas sample (PDA)BL5 has highest significant anticancer activity against all 5 cancer cell lines at concentrations ranging from 30 to 300 μg/ml. As for the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results, a total of 20 volatile metabolites identified from sample (PDA)BL3 and 21 volatile metabolites identified from sample (PDA)BL5 having more than 1% abundance. Both GC-MS analysis showed that compound Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl) has the highest abundance at 15.10% abundance for sample (PDA)BL3 and 19.00% abundance for sample (PDA)BL5 respectively. In conclusion, these results have shown bio-prospecting potential of endophytic fungi having antimicrobial and anticancer activities as well as its potential secondary metabolites of interest. Therefore, this work has further indicated the medicinal and industrial potential of endophytic fungi.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  3. Klaus A, Wan-Mohtar WAAQI, Nikolić B, Cvetković S, Vunduk J
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021 Jan 04;37(1):17.
    PMID: 33394203 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-020-02980-6
    Four types of mycelial extracts were derived from the airlift liquid fermentation (ALF) of Pleurotus flabellatus, namely exopolysaccharide (EX), endopolysaccharide (EN), hot water (WE), and hot alkali (AE) extracts. Such extracts were screened for their active components and biological potential. EN proved to be most effective in inhibition of lipid peroxidation (EC50 = 1.71 ± 0.02 mg/mL) and in Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay (EC50 = 2.91 ± 0.01 mg TE/g). AE exhibited most pronounced ability to chelate ferrous ions (EC50 = 4.96 ± 0.08 mg/mL) and to scavenge ABTS radicals (EC50 = 3.36 ± 0.03 mg TE/g). β-glucans and total phenols contributed most to the chelating ability and quenching of ABTS radicals. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation correlated best with total glucans, total proteins, and β-glucans. Total proteins contributed most to CUPRAC antioxidant capacity. Antifungal effect was determined against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC: 0.019-0.625 mg/mL; MFC: 0.039-2.5 mg/mL), and towards C. albicans clinical isolate (MIC and MFC: 10.0-20.0 mg/mL). Comparison of cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma HCT 116 cells (IC50: 1.8 ± 0.3-24.6 ± 4.2 mg/mL) and normal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts (IC50: 17.0 ± 4.2-42.1 ± 6.1 mg/mL) showed that EN, and especially AE possess selective anticancer activity (SI values 3.41 and 9.44, respectively). Slight genotoxicity was observed only for AE and EX, indicating the low risk concerning this feature. Notable antioxidative and anticandidal activities, selective cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma cells, and absence/low genotoxicity pointed out that ALF-cultivated P. flabellatus mycelium could be considered as a valuable source of bioactive substances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  4. Jaganathan SK, Supriyanto E, Mandal M
    World J Gastroenterol, 2013 Nov 21;19(43):7726-34.
    PMID: 24282361 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7726
    AIM: To investigate the events associated with the apoptotic effect of p-Coumaric acid, one of the phenolic components of honey, in human colorectal carcinoma (HCT-15) cells.

    METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tertazolium-bromide assay was performed to determine the antiproliferative effect of p-Coumaric acid against colon cancer cells. Colony forming assay was conducted to quantify the colony inhibition in HCT 15 and HT 29 colon cancer cells after p-Coumaric acid treatment. Propidium Iodide staining of the HCT 15 cells using flow cytometry was done to study the changes in the cell cycle of treated cells. Identification of apoptosis was done using scanning electron microscope and photomicrograph evaluation of HCT 15 cells after exposing to p-Coumaric acid. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of HCT 15 cells exposed to p-Coumaric acid was evaluated using 2', 7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate. Mitochondrial membrane potential of HCT-15 was assessed using rhodamine-123 with the help of flow cytometry. Lipid layer breaks associated with p-Coumaric acid treatment was quantified using the dye merocyanine 540. Apoptosis was confirmed and quantified using flow cytometric analysis of HCT 15 cells subjected to p-Coumaric acid treatment after staining with YO-PRO-1.

    RESULTS: Antiproliferative test showed p-Coumaric acid has an inhibitory effect on HCT 15 and HT 29 cells with an IC₅₀ (concentration for 50% inhibition) value of 1400 and 1600 μmol/L respectively. Colony forming assay revealed the time-dependent inhibition of HCT 15 and HT 29 cells subjected to p-Coumaric acid treatment. Propidium iodide staining of treated HCT 15 cells showed increasing accumulation of apoptotic cells (37.45 ± 1.98 vs 1.07 ± 1.01) at sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle after p-Coumaric acid treatment. HCT-15 cells observed with photomicrograph and scanning electron microscope showed the signs of apoptosis like blebbing and shrinkage after p-Coumaric acid exposure. Evaluation of the lipid layer showed increasing lipid layer breaks was associated with the growth inhibition of p-Coumaric acid. A fall in mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing ROS generation was observed in the p-Coumaric acid treated cells. Further apoptosis evaluated by YO-PRO-1 staining also showed the time-dependent increase of apoptotic cells after treatment.

    CONCLUSION: These results depicted that p-Coumaric acid inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through ROS-mitochondrial pathway.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  5. Wernsdorfer WH, Ismail S, Chan KL, Congpuong K, Wernsdorfer G
    Wien. Klin. Wochenschr., 2009 Oct;121 Suppl 3:23-6.
    PMID: 19915812 DOI: 10.1007/s00508-009-1230-7
    The habitats of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, a slender tree, are jungles in Malaysia and Indonesia. It belongs to the family Simaroubaceae and is a source of quassinoids with anabolic, antimalarial and cytostatic activity. In this study, conducted during 2008 in Mae Sot, Thailand, a standardized extract of E. longifolia containing three major quassinoids, eurycomanone (1), 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone (2) and 13alpha(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (3) was evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and its activity has been compared with that of artemisinin, using 38 fresh parasite isolates and assessment of inhibition of schizont maturation. The IC(50), IC(90) and IC(99) values for artemisinin were 4.30, 45.48 and 310.97 microg/l, and those for the root extract from E. longifolia 14.72, 139.65 and 874.15 microg/l respectively. The GMCOC for artemisinin was 337.81 mug/l, and for the plant extract it was 807.41 microg/l. The log-concentration probit regressions were parallel. The inhibitory activity of the E. longifolia extract was higher than that expected from the three quassinoids isolated from the plant, suggesting synergism between the quassinoids or the presence of other unidentified compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  6. Yap MS, Tang YQ, Yeo Y, Lim WL, Lim LW, Tan KO, et al.
    Virol J, 2016 Jan 06;13:5.
    PMID: 26738773 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-015-0454-6
    The incidence of neurological complications and fatalities associated with Hand, Foot & Mouth disease has increased over recent years, due to emergence of newly-evolved strains of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). In the search for new antiviral therapeutics against EV71, accurate and sensitive in vitro cellular models for preliminary studies of EV71 pathogenesis is an essential prerequisite, before progressing to expensive and time-consuming live animal studies and clinical trials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  7. Rothan HA, Zulqarnain M, Ammar YA, Tan EC, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Jun;31(2):286-96.
    PMID: 25134897 MyJurnal
    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Screening large numbers of medicinal plants for anti-dengue activities is an alternative strategy in order to find the potent therapeutic compounds. Therefore, this study was designed to identify anti-dengue activities in nineteen medicinal plant extracts that are used in traditional medicine. Local medicinal plants Vernonia cinerea, Hemigraphis reptans, Hedyotis auricularia, Laurentia longiflora, Tridax procumbers and Senna angustifolia were used in this study. The highest inhibitory activates against dengue NS2B-NS3pro was observed in ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves, methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems. These findings were further verified by in vitro viral inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves, ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems and at less extent ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves were able to maintain the normal morphology of DENV2-infected Vero cells without causing much cytopathic effects (CPE). The percentage of viral inhibition of V. cinerea and T. procumbens extracts were significantly higher than S. angustifolia extract as measured by plaque formation assay and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, The outcome of this study showed that the methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems possessed high inhibitory activates against dengue virus that worth more investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  8. Rothan HA, Buckle MJ, Ammar YA, Mohammadjavad P, Shatrah O, Noorsaadah AR, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Dec;30(4):681-90.
    PMID: 24522138
    Various clinical symptoms are caused by dengue virus ranging from mild fever to severe hemorrhagic fever while there is no successful anti-dengue therapeutics available. Among different strategies towards identifying and developing anti-dengue therapeutics, testing anti-dengue properties of known drugs could represent an efficient strategy for which information of its medical approval, toxicity and side effects is readily available. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of some medical compounds towards dengue NS2B-NS3 protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) as a target to inhibit dengue virus replication. Mefenamic acid, a non-steroid anti inflammatory drug and doxycycline, a derivative antibiotic of tetracycline both showed significant inhibition potential against DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro Ki values 32 ± 2 μM and 55 ± 5 μM respectively. The effective cytotoxic concentrations of 50% (CC50) against Vero cells were evaluated for mefenamic acid (150 ± 5 μM) and doxycycline (125 ± 4 μM). Concentrations lower than CC50 were used to test the inhibition potential of these compounds against DENV2 replication in Vero cells. The results showed significant reduction in viral load after applying mefenamic acid and doxycyline in concentration dependent manner. Mefenamic acid reduced viral RNA at EC50 of 32 ± 4 μM whilst doxycycline EC50 was 40 ± 3 μM. Mefenamic acid showed higher selectivity against dengue virus replication in vitro compared to doxycycline. These findings underline the need for further experimental and clinical studies on these drugs utilizing its anti-dengue and anti-inflammatory activities to attenuate the clinical symptoms of dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  9. Dyary HO, Arifah AK, Sharma RS, Rasedee A, Mohd-Aspollah MS, Zakaria ZA, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Mar;31(1):89-96.
    PMID: 24862048 MyJurnal
    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 μg/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 μg/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  10. Muhd Haffiz J, Norhayati I, Getha K, Nor Azah MA, Mohd Ilham A, Lili Sahira H, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Mar;30(1):9-14.
    PMID: 23665703 MyJurnal
    Essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei BS221 (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and cytotoxic effect on normal kidney (Vero) cells (IC50 = >100 μg/mL). The crude essential oil was subjected to various chromatography techniques afforded active sub fractions with antitrypanosomal activity; F4 (IC50 = 0.61 ± 0.06 μg/mL), F6 (IC50= 0.73 ± 0.33 μg/mL), F7 (IC50 = 1.15 ± 0 μg/mL) and F8 (IC50 = 1.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL). These active fractions did not exhibit any toxic effects against Vero cell lines and the chemical profiles investigation indicated presence of α-and γ-eudesmol, elemol, α-cadinol and eugenol by GC/MS analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  11. Yeo EH, Goh WL, Chow SC
    Toxicol. Mech. Methods, 2018 Mar;28(3):157-166.
    PMID: 28849708 DOI: 10.1080/15376516.2017.1373882
    The leucine aminopeptidase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-leucine-chloromethylketone (z-L-CMK), was found to be toxic and readily induce cell death in Jurkat T cells. Dose-response studies show that lower concentration of z-L-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentration causes necrosis. In z-L-CMK-induced apoptosis, both the initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3 and -6) were processed to their respective subunits. However, the caspases remained intact in z-L-CMK-induced necrosis. The caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK inhibited z-L-CMK-mediated apoptosis and caspase processing but has no effect on z-L-CMK-induced necrosis in Jurkat T cells. The high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) protein was found to be released into the culture medium by the necrotic cells and not the apoptotic cells. These results indicate that the necrotic cell death mediated by z-L-CMK at high concentrations is via classical necrosis rather than secondary necrosis. We also demonstrated that cell death mediated by z-L-CMK was associated with oxidative stress via the depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was blocked by N-acetyl cysteine. Taken together, the results demonstrated that z-L-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. The toxic side effects in Jurkat T cells mediated by z-L-CMK are associated with oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH and accumulation of ROS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  12. Inayat-Hussain SH, Wong LT, Chan KM, Rajab NF, Din LB, Harun R, et al.
    Toxicol Lett, 2009 Dec 15;191(2-3):118-22.
    PMID: 19698770 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.08.012
    Goniothalamin, a styryllactone, has been shown to induce cytotoxicity via apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. In this study, we have examined the potential role of several genes, which were stably transfected into T-cell lines and which regulate apoptosis in different ways, on goniothalamin-induced cell death. Overexpression of full-length receptor for activated protein C-kinase 1 (RACK-1) and pc3n3, which up-regulates endogenous RACK-1, in both Jurkat and W7.2 T cells resulted in inhibition of goniothalamin-induced cell death as assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays. However, overexpression of rFau (antisense sequence to Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus-associated ubiquitously expressed gene) in W7.2 cells did not confer resistance to goniothalamin-induced cell death. Etoposide, a clinically used cytotoxic agent, was equipotent in causing cytotoxicity in all the stable transfectants. Assessment of DNA damage by Comet assay revealed goniothalamin-induced DNA strand breaks as early as 1 h in vector control but this effect was inhibited in RACK-1 and pc3n3 stably transfected W7.2 cells. This data demonstrate that RACK-1 plays a crucial role in regulating cell death signalling pathways induced by goniothalamin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  13. Lim CK, Yaacob NS, Ismail Z, Halim AS
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2010 Apr;24(3):721-7.
    PMID: 20079826 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.01.006
    Biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-d-glucosamine) comprises the copolymer mixture of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. The natural biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan have recently highlighted its potential use for applications in wound management. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability, but it is unknown as to what degree. Hence, the biocompatibility of the chitosan porous skin regenerating templates (PSRT 82, 87 and 108) was determined using an in vitro toxicology model at the cellular and molecular level on primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (pNHEK). Cytocompatibility was accessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay from 24 to 72h. To assess the genotoxicity of the PSRTs, DNA damage to the pNHEK was evaluated by using the Comet assay following direct contact with the various PSRTs. Furthermore, the skin pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-8 were examined to evaluate the tendency of the PSRTs to provoke inflammatory responses. All PSRTs were found to be cytocompatible, but only PSRT 108 was capable of stimulating cell proliferation. While all of the PSRTs showed some DNA damage, PSRT 108 showed the least DNA damage followed by PSRT 87 and 82. PSRT 87 and 82 induced a higher secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-8 in the pNHEK cultures than did PSRT 108. Hence, based on our experiments, PSRT 108 is the most biocompatible wound dressing of the three tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  14. Wahab NFAC, Kannan TP, Mahmood Z, Rahman IA, Ismail H
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2018 Mar;47:207-212.
    PMID: 29247761 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.12.002
    Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) with a ratio of 20/80 Hydroxyapatite (HA)/Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promotes the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). In the current study, the genotoxicity of locally produced BCP of modified porosity (65%) with a mean pore size of 300micrometer (μm) was assessed using Comet and Ames assays. HDPCs were treated with BCP extract at three different inhibitory concentrations which were obtained based on cytotoxicity test conducted with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment of HDPCs treated with BCP extract at all three concentrations showed no significant difference compared to negative control (p>0.05), indicating that BCP did not induce DNA damage to HDPCs. The BCP was evaluated using five tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1537 and TA1538. Each strain was incubated with BCP extract with five different concentrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (S9) mix. Concurrently, negative and positive controls were included. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with the BCP extract was less than double as compared to the number of revertant colonies in negative control plate and no dose-related increase was observed. Results from both assays suggested that the BCP of modified porosity did not exhibit any genotoxic effect under the present test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  15. Paudel KR, Wadhwa R, Mehta M, Chellappan DK, Hansbro PM, Dua K
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2020 Oct;68:104961.
    PMID: 32771431 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2020.104961
    Airway inflammation and infections are the primary causes of damage in the airway epithelium, that lead to hypersecretion of mucus and airway hyper-responsiveness. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their components in the pathophysiological mechanisms of airway inflammation have been well-studied and emphasized for the past several decades. Rutin, a potent bioflavonoid, is well-known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, especially in bronchial inflammation. However, poor solubility and rapid metabolism have led to its low bioavailability in biological systems, and hence limit its application. The present study aims to investigate the beneficial effects of rutin-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative damage in human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2-B) cells in vitro. LPS was used to stimulate BEAS-2-B cells, causing the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that had led to cellular apoptosis. The levels of NO and ROS were detected by, Griess reagent kit and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) respectively, whereas, cell apoptosis was studied by Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. The findings revealed that rutin-loaded LCNs significantly reduced NO, ROS levels and prevented apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. The observations and findings provide a mechanistic understanding of the effectiveness of rutin-loaded LCNs in protecting the bronchial cells against airway inflammation, thus possessing a promising therapeutic option for the management of airway diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  16. Liow KY, Chow SC
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2013 Nov 1;272(3):559-67.
    PMID: 23933532 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.07.022
    The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethylketone (z-FA-CMK) was found to be toxic and readily induced cell death in the human T cell line, Jurkat, whereas two other analogs benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethylketone (z-FA-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethylketone (z-FA-DMK) were not toxic. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK requires not only the CMK group, but also the presence of alanine in the P1 position and the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal. Dose-response studies showed that lower concentrations of z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentrations induced necrosis. In z-FA-CMK-induced apoptosis, both initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3, -6 and -7) were processed to their respective subunits in Jurkat T cells. However, only the pro-form of the initiator caspases were reduced in z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and no respective subunits were apparent. The caspase inihibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-(O-methyl)-fluoromehylketone (z-VAD-FMK) inhibits apoptosis and caspase processing in Jurkat T cells treated with low concentration of z-FA-CMK but has no effect on z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and the loss of initiator caspases. This suggests that the loss of initiator caspases in Jurkat T cells during z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis is not a caspase-dependent process. Taken together, we have demonstrated that z-FA-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects*
  17. Ong LC, Tan YF, Tan BS, Chung FF, Cheong SK, Leong CO
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2017 08 15;329:347-357.
    PMID: 28673683 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2017.06.024
    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that possess immense industrial potential. Despite accumulating evidence that exposure to SWCNTs might be toxic to humans, our understanding of the mechanisms for cellular toxicity of SWCNTs remain limited. Here, we demonstrated that acute exposure of short (1-3μm) and regular-length (5-30μm) pristine, carboxylated or hydroxylated SWCNTs inhibited cell proliferation in human somatic and human stem cells in a cell type-dependent manner. The toxicity of regular-length pristine SWCNT was most evidenced in NP69>CYT00086>MCF-10A>MRC-5>HaCaT > HEK-293T>HepG2. In contrast, the short pristine SWCNTs were relatively less toxic in most of the cells being tested, except for NP69 which is more sensitive to short pristine SWCNTs as compared to regular-length pristine SWCNTs. Interestingly, carboxylation and hydroxylation of regular-length SWCNTs, but not the short SWCNTs, significantly reduced the cytotoxicity. Exposure of SWCNTs also induced caspase 3 and 9 activities, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and significant apoptosis and necrosis in MRC-5 embryonic lung fibroblasts. In contrast, SWCNTs inhibited the proliferation of HaCaT human keratinocytes without inducing cell death. Further analyses by gene expression profiling and Connectivity Map analysis showed that SWCNTs induced a gene expression signature characteristic of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibition in MRC-5 cells, suggesting that SWCNTs may inhibit the HSP90 signaling pathway. Indeed, exposure of MRC-5 cells to SWCNTs results in a dose-dependent decrease in HSP90 client proteins (AKT, CDK4 and BCL2) and a concomitant increase in HSP70 expression. In addition, SWCNTs also significantly inhibited HSP90-dependent protein refolding. Finally, we showed that ectopic expression of HSP90, but not HSP40 or HSP70, completely abrogated the cytotoxic effects of SWCNTs, suggesting that SWCNT-induced cellular toxicity is HSP90 dependent. In summary, our findings suggest that the toxic effects of SWCNTs are mediated through inhibition of HSP90 in human lung fibroblasts and keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  18. Tan JW, Israf DA, Harith HH, Md Hashim NF, Ng CH, Shaari K, et al.
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2017 03 15;319:47-58.
    PMID: 28167223 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2017.02.002
    tHGA, a geranyl acetophenone compound originally isolated from a local shrub called Melicope ptelefolia, has been previously reported to prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma by targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis. Mast cells are immune effector cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases including asthma by releasing cysteinyl leukotrienes. The anti-asthmatic properties of tHGA could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation. As mast cell degranulation is an important event in allergic responses, this study aimed to investigate the anti-allergic effects of tHGA in cellular and animal models of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. For in vitro model of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, DNP-IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells were pre-treated with tHGA before challenged with DNP-BSA to induce degranulation. For IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, Sprague Dawley rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of DNP-IgE before challenged with DNP-BSA. Both in vitro and in vivo models showed that tHGA significantly inhibited the release of preformed mediators (β-hexosaminidase and histamine) as well as de novo mediators (interleukin-4, tumour necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene C4). Pre-treatment of tHGA also prevented IgE-challenged RBL-2H3 cells and peritoneal mast cells from undergoing morphological changes associated with mast cell degranulation. These findings indicate that tHGA possesses potent anti-allergic activity via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and inhibition of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis. Thus, tHGA may have the potential to be developed as a mast cell stabilizer for the treatment of allergic diseases in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  19. Kadir NH, David R, Rossiter JT, Gooderham NJ
    Toxicology, 2015 Aug 6;334:59-71.
    PMID: 26066520 DOI: 10.1016/j.tox.2015.06.002
    Cruciferous vegetable consumption correlates with reduced risk of cancer. This chemopreventative activity may involve glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates have been studied for their toxicity and chemopreventative properties, but other hydrolysis products (epithionitriles and nitriles) have not been thoroughly examined. We report that these hydrolysis products differ in their cytotoxicity to human cells, with toxicity most strongly associated with isothiocyanates rather than epithionitriles and nitriles. We explored mechanisms of this differential cytotoxicity by examining the role of oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability, reduced glutathione levels, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 2-Propenylisothiocyanate and 3-butenylisothiocyanate both inhibited cytochome P450 1A (CYP1A) enzyme activity in CYP expressing MCL-5 cells at high cytotoxic doses. Incubation of MCL-5 cells with non-cytotoxic doses of 2-propenylisothiocyanate for 24h resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, yet failed to affect CYP1A1 mRNA expression indicating interference with enzyme activity rather than inhibition of transcription. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was observed only for 2-propenylisothiocyanate treatment. 2-Propenylisothiocyanate treatment lowered reduced glutathione levels whereas no changes were noted with 3,4-epithiobutylnitrile. Cell cycle analysis showed that 2-propenylisothiocyanate induced a G2/M block whereas other hydrolysis products showed only marginal effects. We found that 2-propenylisothiocyanate and 3-butenylisothiocyanate induced cell death predominantly via necrosis whereas, 3,4-epithiobutylnitrile promoted both necrosis and apoptosis. Thus the activity of glucosinolate hydrolysis products includes cytotoxicity that is compound-class specific and may contribute to their putative chemoprotection properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  20. Abdul Hamid Z, Lin Lin WH, Abdalla BJ, Bee Yuen O, Latif ES, Mohamed J, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:258192.
    PMID: 25405216 DOI: 10.1155/2014/258192
    Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0-1000 ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P < 0.05) of BMCs at 500 and 1000 ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1(+) cells (HSCs) at 500 ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P < 0.05) the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
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