Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 564 in total

  1. Wong RS, Radhakrishnan AK, Ibrahim TA, Cheong SK
    Microsc. Microanal., 2012 Jun;18(3):462-9.
    PMID: 22640960 DOI: 10.1017/S1431927612000177
    Tocotrienols are isomers of the vitamin E family, which have been reported to exert cytotoxic effects in various cancer cells. Although there have been some reports on the effects of tocotrienols in leukemic cells, ultrastructural evidence of tocotrienol-induced apoptotic cell death in leukemic cells is lacking. The present study investigated the effects of three isomers of tocotrienols (alpha, delta, and gamma) on a human T lymphoblastic leukemic cell line (CEM-SS). Cell viability assays showed that all three isomers had cytotoxic effects (p < 0.05) on CEM-SS cells with delta-tocotrienol being the most potent. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the cytotoxic effects by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols were through the induction of an apoptotic pathway as demonstrated by the classical ultrastructural apoptotic changes characterized by peripheral nuclear chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. These findings were confirmed biochemically by the demonstration of phosphatidylserine externalization via flow cytometry analysis. This is the first study showing classical ultrastructural apoptotic changes induced by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols in human T lymphoblastic leukemic cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  2. Kaka A, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Yimer N, Khumran AM, Sarsaifi K, et al.
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2015 Feb;153:1-7.
    PMID: 25544152 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.12.001
    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing α-linolenic acid (ALA) into BioXcell(®) extender on post-cooling, post-thawed bovine spermatozoa and post thawed fatty acid composition. Twenty-four semen samples were collected from three bulls using an electro-ejaculator. Fresh semen samples were evaluated for general motility using computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA) whereas morphology and viability with eosin-nigrosin stain. Semen samples extended into BioXcell(®) were divided into five groups to which 0, 3, 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml of ALA were added, respectively. The treated samples were incubated at 37°C for 15 min for ALA uptake by sperm cells before being cooled for 2 h at 5°C. After evaluation, the cooled samples were packed into 0.25 ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h before thawing and evaluation for semen quality. Evaluation of cooled and frozen-thawed semen showed that the percentages of all the sperm parameters improved with 5 ng/ml ALA supplement. ALA was higher in all treated groups than control groups than control group. In conclusion, 5 ng/ml ALA supplemented into BioXcell(®) extender improved the cooled and frozen-thawed quality of bull spermatozoa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  3. Tiash S, Chowdhury EH
    J Drug Target, 2019 03;27(3):325-337.
    PMID: 30221549 DOI: 10.1080/1061186X.2018.1525388
    Chemotherapy, the commonly favoured approach to treat cancer is frequently associated with treatment failure and recurrence of disease as a result of development of multidrug resistance (MDR) with concomitant over-expression of drug efflux proteins on cancer cells. One of the most widely used drugs, doxorubicin (Dox) is a substrate of three different ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely, ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1, predominantly contributing to MDR phenotype in cancer. To silence these transporter-coding genes and thus enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Dox, pH-sensitive carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as a carrier system to co-deliver siRNAs against these genes and Dox in breast cancer cells and in a syngeneic breast cancer mouse model. siRNAs and Dox were complexed with NPs by incubation at 37 °C and used to treat cancer cell lines to check cell viability and caspase-mediated signal. 4T1 cells-induced breast cancer mouse model was used for treatment with the complex to confirm their action in tumour regression. Smaller (∼200 nm) and less polydisperse NPs that were taken up more effectively by tumour tissue could enhance Dox chemosensitivity, significantly reducing the tumour size in a very low dose of Dox (0.34 mg/kg), in contrast to the limited effect observed in breast cancer cell lines. The study thus proposes that simultaneous delivery of siRNAs against transporter genes and Dox with the help of CA NPs could be a potential therapeutic intervention in effectively treating MDR breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  4. Jafarlou M, Baradaran B, Shanehbandi D, Saedi TA, Jafarlou V, Ismail P, et al.
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand), 2016 May 30;62(6):44-9.
    PMID: 27262801
    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most frequent types of leukemia which mostly affects adult people. Resistance to therapeutic drugs is considered as a major clinical concern resulting in a weaker response to chemotherapy, disease relapse and decreased survival rate. Survivin, a member of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs), is associated with drug resistance and inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms in numerous hematological malignancies. In the present study, we examined the combined effect of etoposide and siRNA-mediated silencing of survivin on U-937 acute myeloid leukemia cells. The AML cells were transfected with survivin specific siRNA and gene knockdown was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR and western blotting. Subsequently, U-937 cells were assessed for response to etoposide treatment and apoptosis rate was measured with flowcytometery. The cytotoxic effects in siRNA-etoposide group were measured and compared to etoposide single therapy group. Survivin siRNA effectively knocked down the mRNA and protein levels of survivin, which led to lower cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, combined treatment of etoposide and survivin siRNA synergistically increased the cell toxic effects of etoposide and its ability to induce apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  5. Reena K, Ng KY, Koh RY, Gnanajothy P, Chye SM
    Environ Toxicol, 2017 Jan;32(1):265-277.
    PMID: 26784575 DOI: 10.1002/tox.22233
    para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) has long been used in two-thirds of permanent oxidative hair dye formulations. Epidemiological studies and in vivo studies have shown that hair dye is a suspected carcinogen of bladder cancer. However, the toxicity effects of PPD to human bladder remains elusive. In this study, the effects of PPD and its involvement in the apoptosis pathways in human urothelial cells (UROtsa) was investigated. It was demonstrated that PPD decreased cell viability and increased the number of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells in UROtsa cells. Cell death due to apoptosis was detected using Annexin V binding assay. Further analysis showed PPD generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), induced mitochondrial dysfunction through the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased caspase-3 level in UROtsa cells. Western blot analysis of PPD-treated UROtsa cells showed down-regulation of phosphorylated proteins from NF-κB, mTOR, and Wnt pathways. In conclusion, PPD induced apoptosis via activation of ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway, and possibly through inhibition of NF-κB, mTOR, and Wnt pathways. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 265-277, 2017.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  6. Shah SA, Sohail M, Minhas MU, Nisar-Ur-Rehman, Khan S, Hussain Z, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):555-577.
    PMID: 29450805 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0486-8
    Cellulose acetate phthalate-based pH-responsive hydrogel was synthesized for fabrication of polymeric matrix tablets for gastro-protective delivery of loxoprofen sodium. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) was cross-linked with methacrylic acid (MAA) using free radical polymerization technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed the formation of cross-linked structure of CAP-co-poly(methacrylic acid). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the thermal stability of polymeric networks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) images unveiled that the prepared formulations were porous in nature and thus the developed formulations had shown better diffusibility. Swelling and in vitro drug release was performed at various pHs and maximum swelling and release was obtained at pH 7.4, while swelling and release rate was very low at pH 1.2 which confirmed the pH-responsive behavior of CAP-co-poly(MAA). CAP-co-poly(MAA) copolymer prevents the release of loxoprofen sodium into the stomach due to reduced swelling at gastric pH while showing significant swelling and drug release in the colon. Cytotoxicity studies revealed higher biocompatibility of fabricated hydrogel. Acute oral toxicity studies were performed for the evaluation and preliminary screening of safety profile of the developed hydrogels. Matrix tablets were evaluated for release behavior at simulated body pH. The investigations performed for analysis of hydrogels and fabricated matrix tablets indicated the controlled drug release and gastro-protective drug delivery of CAP-co-poly(MAA) hydrogels and pH-sensitive matrix tablets for targeted delivery of gastro-sensitive/irritative agents. Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  7. Lee HB, Ho AS, Teo SH
    Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., 2006 Jul;58(1):91-8.
    PMID: 16211395
    Given that p53 is a tumor suppressor that plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage and that more than 50% of all cancers have mutated p53, the wider utility of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of cancer will depend on an understanding of whether p53 status modulates response to PDT. In this study, we investigated the photosensitivity of isogenic cell lines that differ only in their p53 status to PDT using hypericin as the photosensitizer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  8. Chowchaikong N, Nilwarangkoon S, Laphookhieo S, Tanunyutthawongse C, Watanapokasin R
    Int J Oncol, 2018 Jun;52(6):2031-2040.
    PMID: 29620273 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2018.4353
    Colorectal cancer, which is the third most common type of cancer diagnosed in both men and women, is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cowanin is a pure compound extracted from Garcinia cowa Roxb., a tree species present in Thailand, Malaysia and Myanmar. The crude extract has been demonstrated to have antitumor activity, inflammation induction, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antimalarial activity. In the present study, the effects of cowanin on apoptosis induction and on the apoptosis-related and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were investigated in the LoVo human colorectal cancer cell line. The cytotoxicity of cowanin in LoVo cells was determined by MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 and JC‑1 staining were used to determine nuclear morphological changes and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. The expression levels of BCL2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl‑2) family, MAPK and AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt) pathway proteins following cowanin treatment were determined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cowanin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death via the apoptosis pathway. Cowanin treatment increased BCL2 associated X (Bax) and decreased Bcl‑2 expression. In addition, cowanin activated caspase‑9, -7 and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase expression. Furthermore, cowanin decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p‑ERK), p‑Akt, p‑3‑phosphoinositide‑dependent protein kinase‑1, while it increased p‑p38 expression, thus resulting in the induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, cowanin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of LoVo cells via the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways. Notably, inhibition of p38 by using a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) prevented the cowanin-induced apoptosis in LoVo cells. These results suggested that cowanin may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colorectal cancer and provided important information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its antitumor activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  9. Makpol S, Abidin AZ, Sairin K, Mazlan M, Top GM, Ngah WZ
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2010 Jan-Feb;3(1):35-43.
    PMID: 20716926 DOI: 10.4161/oxim.3.1.9940
    The effects of palm gamma-tocotrienol (GGT) on oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing was investigated in normal human skin fibroblast cell lines derived from different age groups; young (21-year-old, YF), middle (40-year-old, MF) and old (68-year-old, OF). Fibroblast cells were treated with gamma-tocotrienol for 24 hours before or after incubation with IC50 dose of H2O2 for 2 hours. Changes in cell viability, telomere length and telomerase activity were assessed using the MTS assay (Promega, USA), Southern blot analysis and telomere repeat amplification protocol respectively. Results showed that treatment with different concentrations of gamma-tocotrienol increased fibroblasts viability with optimum dose of 80 microM for YF and 40 microM for both MF and OF. At higher concentrations, gamma-tocotrienol treatment caused marked decrease in cell viability with IC50 value of 200 microM (YF), 300 microM (MF) and 100 microM (OF). Exposure to H2O2 decreased cell viability in dose dependent manner, shortened telomere length and reduced telomerase activity in all age groups. The IC50 of H2O2 was found to be; YF (700 microM), MF (400 microM) and OF (100 microM). Results showed that viability increased significantly (p < 0.05) when cells were treated with 80 microM and 40 microM gamma-tocotrienol prior or after H2O2-induced oxidative stress in all age groups. In YF and OF, pretreatment with gamma-tocotrienol prevented shortening of telomere length and reduction in telomerase activity. In MF, telomerase activity increased while no changes in telomere length was observed. However, post-treatment of gamma-tocotrienol did not exert any significant effects on telomere length and telomerase activity. Thus, these data suggest that gamma-tocotrienol protects against oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing by modulating the telomere length possibly via telomerase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  10. Aisha AF, Abu-Salah KM, Ismail Z, Majid AM
    Molecules, 2012;17(3):2939-54.
    PMID: 22402764 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17032939
    Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. α-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by α-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of α-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of α-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. α-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, α-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, α-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  11. Ismail KS, Sakamoto T, Hasunuma T, Zhao XQ, Kondo A
    Biotechnol J, 2014 Dec;9(12):1519-25.
    PMID: 24924214 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201300553
    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential substrate for ethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials produces inhibitory compounds such as acetic acid, which negatively affect ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Supplementation of the medium with three metal ions (Zn(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) increased the tolerance of S. cerevisiae toward acetic acid compared to the absence of the ions. Ethanol production from xylose was most improved (by 34%) when the medium was supplemented with 2 mM Ca(2+) , followed by supplementation with 3.5 mM Mg(2+) (29% improvement), and 180 μM Zn(2+) (26% improvement). Higher ethanol production was linked to high cell viability in the presence of metal ions. Comparative transcriptomics between the supplemented cultures and the control suggested that improved cell viability resulted from the induction of genes controlling the cell wall and membrane. Only one gene, FIT2, was found to be up-regulated in common between the three metal ions. Also up-regulation of HXT1 and TKL1 might enhance xylose consumption in the presence of acetic acid. Thus, the addition of ionic nutrients is a simple and cost-effective method to improve the acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  12. Rahman HS, Rasedee A, How CW, Abdul AB, Zeenathul NA, Othman HH, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:2769-81.
    PMID: 23946649 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S45313
    Zerumbone, a natural dietary lipophilic compound with low water solubility (1.296 mg/L at 25°C) was used in this investigation. The zerumbone was loaded into nanostructured lipid carriers using a hot, high-pressure homogenization technique. The physicochemical properties of the zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (ZER-NLC) were determined. The ZER-NLC particles had an average size of 52.68 ± 0.1 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.29 ± 0.004 μm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the particles were spherical in shape. The zeta potential of the ZER-NLC was -25.03 ± 1.24 mV, entrapment efficiency was 99.03%, and drug loading was 7.92%. In vitro drug release of zerumbone from ZER-NLC was 46.7%, and for a pure zerumbone dispersion was 90.5% over 48 hours, following a zero equation. Using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Jurkat) cells, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ZER-NLC was 5.64 ± 0.38 μg/mL, and for free zerumbone was 5.39 ± 0.43 μg/mL after 72 hours of treatment. This study strongly suggests that ZER-NLC have potential as a sustained-release drug carrier system for the treatment of leukemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  13. Zainal NS, Gan CP, Lau BF, Yee PS, Tiong KH, Abdul Rahman ZA, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2018 Jan 15;39:33-41.
    PMID: 29433681 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.12.011
    BACKGROUND: The CXCR4-RhoA and PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways play crucial roles in the dissemination and tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Activation of these pathways have made them promising molecular targets in the treatment of OSCC. Zerumbone, a bioactive monocyclic sesquiterpene isolated from the rhizomes of tropical ginger, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. has displayed promising anticancer properties with the ability to modulate multiple molecular targets involved in carcinogenesis. While the anticancer activities of zerumbone have been well explored across different types of cancer, the molecular mechanism of action of zerumbone in OSCC remains largely unknown.

    PURPOSE: Here, we investigated whether OSCC cells were sensitive towards zerumbone treatment and further determined the molecular pathways involved in the mechanism of action.

    METHODS: Cytotoxicity, anti-proliferative, anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects of zerumbone were tested on a panel of OSCC cell lines. The mechanism of action of zerumbone was investigated by analysing the effects on the CXCR4-RhoA and PI3K-mTOR pathways by western blotting.

    RESULTS: Our panel of OSCC cells was broadly sensitive towards zerumbone with IC50 values of less than 5 µM whereas normal keratinocyte cells were less responsive with IC50 values of more than 25 µM. Representative OSCC cells revealed that zerumbone inhibited OSCC proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, zerumbone treatment inhibited migration and invasion of OSCC cells, with concurrent suppression of endogenous CXCR4 protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner. RhoA-pull down assay showed reduction in the expression of RhoA-GTP, suggesting the inactivation of RhoA by zerumbone. In association with this, zerumbone also inhibited the PI3K-mTOR pathway through the inactivation of Akt and S6 proteins.

    CONCLUSION: We provide evidence that zerumbone could inhibit the activation of CXCR4-RhoA and PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways leading to the reduced cell viability of OSCC cells. Our results suggest that zerumbone is a promising phytoagent for development of new therapeutics for OSCC treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  14. E M Eid E, S Alanazi A, Koosha S, A Alrasheedy A, Azam F, M Taban I, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 13;24(14).
    PMID: 31337024 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142554
    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are highly promising tools to deliver therapeutic molecules into tumours. αVβ3 integrins are cell-matrix adhesion receptors, and are considered as an attractive target for anticancer therapies owing to their roles in the process of metastasis and angiogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effect of co-administration of zerumbone (ZER) and ZERencapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with TP5-iRGD peptide towards cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and proliferation of normal and cancerous breast cells utilizing in vitro assays, as well as to study the molecular docking of ZER in complex with TP5-iRGD peptide. Cell viability assay findings indicated that ZER and ZERencapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (ZER-HPβCD) inhibited the growth of estrogen receptor positivebreast cancer cells (ER+ MCF-7) at 72 h treatment with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 7.51 ± 0.2 and 5.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively, and inhibited the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) with an IC50 of 14.96 ± 1.52 µg/mL and 12.18 ± 0.7 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, TP5-iRGD peptide showed no significant cytotoxicity on both cancer and normal cells. Interestingly, co-administration of TP5-iRGD peptide in MCF-7 cells reduced the IC50 of ZER from 7.51 ± 0.2 µg/mL to 3.13 ± 0.7 µg/mL and reduced the IC50 of ZER-HPβCD from 5.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL to 0.49 ± 0.004 µg/mL, indicating that the co-administration enhances the potency and increases the efficacy of ZER and ZER-HPβCD compounds. Acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining under fluorescence microscopy showed evidence of early apoptosis after 72 h from the co-administration of ZER or ZER-HPβCD with TP5-iRGD peptide in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The findings of the computational modelling experiment provide novel insights into the ZER interaction with integrin αvβ3 in the presence of TP5-iRGD, and this could explain why ZER has better antitumor activities when co-administered with TP5-iRGD peptide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  15. Velaithan V, Okuda KS, Ng MF, Samat N, Leong SW, Faudzi SM, et al.
    Invest New Drugs, 2017 04;35(2):166-179.
    PMID: 28058624 DOI: 10.1007/s10637-016-0423-y
    Zebrafish represents a powerful in vivo model for phenotype-based drug discovery to identify clinically relevant small molecules. By utilizing this model, we evaluated natural product derived compounds that could potentially modulate Notch signaling that is important in both zebrafish embryogenesis and pathogenic in human cancers. A total of 234 compounds were screened using zebrafish embryos and 3 were identified to be conferring phenotypic alterations similar to embryos treated with known Notch inhibitors. Subsequent secondary screens using HEK293T cells overexpressing truncated Notch1 (HEK293TΔE) identified 2 compounds, EDD3 and 3H4MB, to be potential Notch antagonists. Both compounds reduced protein expression of NOTCH1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) in HEK293TΔE and downregulated Notch target genes. Importantly, EDD3 treatment of human oral cancer cell lines demonstrated reduction of Notch target proteins and genes. EDD3 also inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of ORL-150 cells through inducing p27KIP1. Our data demonstrates the utility of the zebrafish phenotypic screen and identifying EDD3 as a promising Notch antagonist for further development as a novel therapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  16. Ismail N, Pihie AH, Nallapan M
    Anticancer Res, 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2221-7.
    PMID: 16158967
    Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza, which is known locally as Temulawak. Traditionally, C. xanthorrhiza was found to have antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. The rhizome has also been used to treat inflammation in postpartum uterine bleeding. An antiproliferative assay using methylene blue staining revealed that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the cervical cancer cell line HeLa with an EC50 value of 6.16 microg/ml. Xanthorrhizol significantly increased apoptosis in HeLa cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and nuclear morphology by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blot analysis, which was further confirmed by the immunostaining results, implied an up-regulation of tumor suppressor protein p53 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol. Xanthorrhizol, however, did not affect the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 and the viral oncoprotein, E6. Hence, xanthorrhizol is a promising antiproliferative and anticancer agent which induces p53 and Bax-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  17. Batumalaie K, Amin MA, Murugan DD, Sattar MZ, Abdullah NA
    Sci Rep, 2016 06 02;6:27236.
    PMID: 27250532 DOI: 10.1038/srep27236
    Activation of inflammatory pathways via reactive oxygen species (ROS) by free fatty acids (FFA) in obesity gives rise to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Withaferin A (WA), possesses both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore would be a good strategy to suppress palmitic acid (PA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and hence, insulin resistance and dysfunction in the endothelium. Effect of WA on PA-induced insulin resistance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was determined by evaluating insulin signaling mechanisms whilst effect of this drug on PA-induced endothelial dysfunction was determined in acetylcholine-mediated relaxation in isolated rat aortic preparations. WA significantly inhibited ROS production and inflammation induced by PA. Furthermore, WA significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-6 production in endothelial cells by specifically suppressing IKKβ/NF-κβ phosphorylation. WA inhibited inflammation-stimulated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and improved the impaired insulin PI3-K signaling, and restored the decreased nitric oxide (NO) production triggered by PA. WA also decreased endothelin-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 levels, and restored the impaired endothelium-mediated vasodilation in isolated aortic preparations. These findings suggest that WA inhibited both ROS production and inflammation to restore impaired insulin resistance in cultured endothelial cells and improve endothelial dysfunction in rat aortic rings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  18. Wsoo MA, Razak SIA, Bohari SPM, Shahir S, Salihu R, Kadir MRA, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Jun 30;181:82-98.
    PMID: 33771547 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.108
    Vitamin D deficiency is now a global health problem; despite several drug delivery systems for carrying vitamin D due to low bioavailability and loss bioactivity. Developing a new drug delivery system to deliver vitamin D3 is a strong incentive in the current study. Hence, an implantable drug delivery system (IDDS) was developed from the electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) and ε-polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous membrane, in which the core of implants consists of vitamin D3-loaded CA nanofiber (CAVD) and enclosed in a thin layer of the PCL membrane (CAVD/PCL). CA nanofibrous mat loaded with vitamin D3 at the concentrations of 6, 12, and 20% (w/w) of vitamin D3 were produced using electrospinning. The smooth and bead-free fibers with diameters ranged from 324 to 428 nm were obtained. The fiber diameters increased with an increase in vitamin D3 content. The controlled drug release profile was observed over 30-days, which fit with the zero-order model (R2 > 0.96) in the first stage. The mechanical properties of IDDS were improved. Young's modulus and tensile strength of CAVD/PCL (dry) were161 ± 14 and 13.07 ± 2.5 MPa, respectively. CA and PCL nanofibers are non-cytotoxic based on the results of the in-vitro cytotoxicity studies. This study can further broaden in-vivo study and provide a reference for developing a new IDDS to carry vitamin D3 in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  19. Mustafa Z, Shamsuddin HS, Ideris A, Ibrahim R, Jaafar H, Ali AM, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:248507.
    PMID: 23586025 DOI: 10.1155/2013/248507
    Oncolytic viruses have been extensively evaluated for anticancer therapy because this virus preferentially infects cancer cells without interfering with normal cells. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is an avian virus and one of the intensively studied oncolytic viruses affecting many types of cancer including glioma. Nevertheless, the capability of NDV infection on heterogeneous glioma tissue in a cerebrospinal fluid atmosphere has never been reported. Recently, Rac1 is reported to be required for efficient NDV replication in human cancer cells and established a link between tumourigenesis and sensitivity to NDV. Rac1 is a member of the Rho GTPases involved in the regulation of the cell migration and cell-cycle progression. Rac1 knockdown leads to significant inhibition of viral replication. In this work, we demonstrated that NDV treatment led to significant reduction of tumour tissue viability of freshly isolated heterogeneous human brain tumour slice, known as an ex vivo glioma acute slice (EGAS). Analysis of gene expression indicated that reduced tissue viability was associated with downregulation of Rac1. However, the viability reduction was not persistent. We conclude that NDV treatment induced EGAS viability suppression, but subsequent downregulation of Rac1 gene may reduce the NDV replication and lead to regrowth of EGAS tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  20. Hanafi NI, Mohamed AS, Md Noor J, Abdu N, Hasani H, Siran R, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2016 Jun 17;15(2).
    PMID: 27323195 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028150
    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat liver diseases and demonstrates cardioprotective effects. Accumulation of the plasma membrane sphingolipid sphingomyelin in the heart can lead to atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Sphingomyelinases (SMases) break down sphingomyelin, producing ceramide, and inhibition of SMases activity can promote cell survival. We hypothesized that UDCA regulates activation of ERK and Akt survival signaling pathways and SMases in protecting cardiac cells against hypoxia. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated from 0- to 2-day-old Sprague Dawley rats, and given 100 μM CoCl2, 150 μM H2O2, or placed in a hypoxia chamber for 24 h. The ameliorative effects of 100-μM UDCA treatment for 12 h were then assessed using MTS, QuantiGene Plex (for Smpd1 and Smpd2), and SMase assays, beating rate assessment, and western blotting (for ERK and Akt). Data were analyzed by the paired Student t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Cell viability decreased significantly after H2O2 (85%), CoCl2 (50%), and hypoxia chamber (52%) treatments compared to the untreated control (100%). UDCA significantly counteracted the effects of chamber- and CoCl2- induced hypoxia on viability and beating rate. However, no significant differences were observed in acid SMase gene and protein expression between the untreated, CoCl2, and UDCA-CoCl2 groups. In contrast, neutral SMase gene and protein expression did significantly differ between the latter two groups. ERK and Akt phosphorylation was higher in hypoxic cardiomyocytes treated with UDCA than those given CoCl2 alone. In conclusion, UDCA regulates the activation of survival signaling proteins and SMases in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during hypoxia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
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