Among 350 inhabitants of two villages, 31 (8.9%) cleaned their teeth using table salt and charcoal applied to their forefinger or a Melastoma brush. As a result, all had distinct forms of abrasion cavity on the labial surfaces of their teeth. All of the above three agents are highly abrasive and injurious to both the hard and soft oral tissues. This dying practice is only popular among a very small number of persons in the older age group, and should be discouraged.
1. Thirty male rabbits of local strain (weighing 1.5-2 kg) were divided into five groups. Four groups were treated with an oral dose of paraquat, which was followed by either Fuller's Earth or activated charcoal 0.5 or 2.0 h later. The remaining group acted as the control group and was treated only with an oral dose of paraquat. The dose of paraquat was 20.0 mg/kg given in a concentration of 20.0 mg/mL. 2. Both adsorbents were administered in 15 mL normal saline as a 30% slurry. Blood was sampled from the ear vein 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h after the administration of paraquat. 3. Paraquat concentration was determined spectophotometrically at 600 nm by comparing against a standard curve of paraquat obtained by the addition of standard paraquat into normal rabbit serum and extracting interfering substances with ether. 4. The results of the present study show that either adsorbent can bring down the serum paraquat level. There was no significant difference found in the effectiveness of either adsorbent. 5. It is concluded that the administration of an adsorbent as early as possible will help in the reduction of paraquat absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. 6. Activated charcoal is still effective in lowering serum paraquat concentration when given more than 1 h after ingestion of paraquat.
This paper discusses heavy metal removal from wastewater by batch study and filtration technique through low-cost coarse media. Batch study has indicated that more than 90% copper (Cu) with concentration up to 50 mg/l could be removed from the solution with limestone quantity above 20 ml (equivalent to 56 g), which indicates the importance of limestone media in the removal process. This indicates that the removal of Cu is influenced by the media and not solely by the pH. Batch experiments using limestone and activated carbon indicate that both limestone and activated carbon had similar metal-removal efficiency (about 95%). Results of the laboratory-scale filtration technique using limestone particles indicated that above 90% removal of Cu was achieved at retention time of 2.31 h, surface-loading rate of 4.07 m3/m2 per day and Cu loading of 0.02 kg/m3 per day. Analyses of the limestone media after filtration indicated that adsorption and absorption processes were among the mechanisms involved in the removal processes. This study indicated that limestone can be used as an alternative to replace activated carbon.
A series of experiments were conducted to compare the pore development in palm-shell and coconut-shell-based activated carbons produced under identical experimental conditions. Carbonization and activation processes were carried out at 850 degrees C using a fluidized bed reactor. Within the range of burn-off studied, at any burn-off, the micropore and mesopore volumes created in palm-shell-based activated carbon were always higher than those of coconut-shell-based activated carbon. On macropore volume, for palm-shell-based activated carbon, the volume increased with increase in burn-off up to 30% and then decreased. However, for coconut-shell-based activated carbon, the change in macropore volume with burn-off was almost negligible but the absolute macropore volume decreased with burn-off.
The role of bioregeneration process in renewing the adsorbent surface for further adsorption of organics during simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes has been well recognized. The extent of bioregeneration of powdered activated carbon (PAC) as an adsorbent loaded with phenol, p-methylphenol, p-ethylphenol and p-isopropylphenol, respectively, in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes were quantitatively determined using oxygen uptake as a measure of substrate consumption. Bioregeneration phenomenon was also evaluated in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes under sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation to treat synthetic wastewater containing 1200 mg l(-1) phenol and p-methylphenol, respectively. The SBR systems were operated with FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE periods in the ratio of 4:6:1:0.75:0.25 for a cycle time of 12 h. The results show that the percentage of desorption from loaded PAC decreased in the order phenol>p-methylphenol>p-ethylphenol>p-isopropylphenol. For the treatment of phenol and p-methylphenol in the SBR reactors, respectively, the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes were able to produce a consistent effluent quality of COD < or = 100 mg l(-1) when the applied PAC dosage was 0.115 and 0.143 g PAC per cycle, respectively. When no further PAC was added, the treatment performance deteriorated to that of the case without PAC addition after 68 and 48 cycles of SBR operation, respectively, for phenol and p-methylphenol. This observation is consistent with the greater extent of bioregeneration for phenol-loaded PAC as compared to p-methylphenol-loaded PAC.
Phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treated rice husks, followed by carbonization in a flowing nitrogen were used to study the adsorption of malachite green (MG) in aqueous solution. The effect of adsorption on contact time, concentration of MG and adsorbent dosage of the samples treated or carbonized at different temperatures were investigated. The results reveal that the optimum carbonization temperature is 500 degrees C in order to obtain adsorption capacity that is comparable to the commercial activated carbon for the husks treated by H(3)PO(4). It is interesting to note that MG adsorbed preferably on carbon-rich than on silica rich-sites. It is found that the behaviour of H(3)PO(4) treated absorbent followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich models while NaOH treated best fitted to only the Langmuir model.
The performance of a commercially available palm shell based activated carbon to remove lead ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption was evaluated. The adsorption experiments were carried out at pH 3.0 and 5.0. The effect of malonic and boric acid presence on the adsorption of lead ions was also studied. Palm shell activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for lead ions, especially at pH 5 with an ultimate uptake of 95.2mg/g. This high uptake showed palm shell activated carbon as amongst the best adsorbents for lead ions. Boric acid presence did not affect significantly lead uptake, whereas malonic acid decreased it. The diffuse layer surface complexation model was applied to predict the extent of adsorption. The model prediction was found to be in concordance with the experimental values.
The study was attempted to produce activated carbons from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced was evaluated in aqueous solution of phenol. Two types of activation were followed, namely, thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800 degrees C, and physical activation at 15 degrees C (boiling treatment). A control (raw POME sludge) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced. The results indicated that the activation temperature of 800 degrees C showed maximum absorption capacity by the activated carbon (POME 800) in aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon of POME 800. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption of phenol onto the activated carbon POME 800 was studied in terms of pseudo- first and second order kinetics to predict the rate constant and equilibrium capacity with the effect of initial phenol concentrations. The rate of adsorption was found to be better correlation for the pseudo-second order kinetics compared to the first order kinetics.
Palm shell activated carbon was modified via surface impregnation with polyethyleneimine (PEI) to enhance removal of Cu(2+) from aqueous solution in this study. The effect of PEI modification on batch adsorption of Cu(2+) as well as the equilibrium behavior of adsorption of metal ions on activated carbon were investigated. PEI modification clearly increased the Cu(2+) adsorption capacities by 68% and 75.86% for initial solution pH of 3 and 5 respectively. The adsorption data of Cu(2+) on both virgin and PEI-modified AC for both initial solution pH of 3 and 5 fitted the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms considerably better than the Freundlich isotherm.
In this work, the adsorption of malachite green (MG) was studied on activated carbon prepared from bamboo by chemical activation with K(2)CO(3) and physical activation with CO(2) (BAC). Adsorption studies were conducted in the range of 25-300 mg/L initial MG concentration and at temperature of 30 degrees C. The experimental data were analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the multilayer adsorption isotherm. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 263.58 mg/g. The rates of adsorption were found to confirm to pseudo-second-order kinetics with good correlation and the overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by pore diffusion throughout the entire adsorption period. The results indicate that the BAC could be used to effectively adsorb MG from aqueous solutions.
This study investigated the adsorption potential of oil palm shell-based activated carbon to remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solution using fixed-bed adsorption column. The effects of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol inlet concentration, feed flow rate and activated carbon bed height on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the oil palm shell-based activated carbon was evaluated using ethanol desorption technique. Through ethanol desorption, 96.25% of the adsorption sites could be recovered from the regenerated activated carbon.
Optimizing the production of microporous activated carbon from waste palm shell was done by applying experimental design methodology. The product, palm shell activated carbon was tested for removal of SO2 gas from flue gas. The activated carbon production was mathematically described as a function of parameters such as flow rate, activation time and activation temperature of carbonization. These parameters were modeled using response surface methodology. The experiments were carried out as a central composite design consisting of 32 experiments. Quadratic models were developed for surface area, total pore volume, and microporosity in term of micropore fraction. The models were used to obtain the optimum process condition for the production of microporous palm shell activated carbon useful for SO2 removal. The optimized palm shell activated carbon with surface area of 973 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.78 cc/g and micropore fraction of 70.5% showed an excellent agreement with the amount predicted by the statistical analysis. Palm shell activated carbon with higher surface area and microporosity fraction showed good adsorption affinity for SO2 removal.
The effects of three preparation variables: CO(2) activation temperature, CO(2) activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO(2) activation temperature of 814 degrees C, CO(2) activation time of 1.9h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm(3)/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.
The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ), standard free energy (DeltaG degrees ) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.
The bioregeneration efficiencies of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and pyrolyzed rice husk loaded with phenol and p-nitrophenol were quantified by oxygen uptake measurements using the respirometry technique in two approaches: (i) simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation and (ii) sequential adsorption and biodegradation. It was found that the applicability of the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation approach was constrained by the requirement of adsorption preceding biodegradation in order to determine the initial adsorbent loading accurately. The sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach provides a good estimate of the upper limit of the bioregeneration efficiency for the loaded adsorbent in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes. The results showed that the mean bioregeneration efficiencies for PAC loaded with phenol and p-nitrophenol, respectively, obtained using the two approaches were in good agreement.
The effects of polyethyleneimine (PEI) impregnation on the Pb(2+) adsorption kinetics of palm shell-activated carbon and pH profile of bulk solution were investigated. Adsorption data were fitted to four established adsorption kinetics models, namely, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion. It was found that PEI impregnation at 16.68 and 29.82 wt% PEI/AC increased the Pb(2+) uptake rate while the opposite was observed for PEI impregnation at 4.76 and 8.41 wt% PEI/AC. The increased uptake rates were due to higher concentration of PEI molecules on the surface of clogged pores as well as varying pore volumes. The adsorption kinetics data fitted the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model, implying chemisorption was the rate-controlling step. The bulk solution pH generally showed an increasing trend from the use of virgin to PEI-impregnated activated carbon.
In this work, the removal of SO(2) and NO from simulated flue gas from combustion process was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor using rice husk ash (RHA)/CaO-based sorbent. Various metal precursors were used in order to select the best metal impregnated over RHA/CaO sorbents. The results showed that RHA/CaO sorbents impregnated with CeO(2) had the highest sorption capacity among other impregnated metal oxides for the simultaneous removal of SO(2) and NO. Infrared spectroscopic results indicated the formation of both sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) species due to the catalytic role played by CeO(2). Apart from that, the catalytic activity of the RHA/CaO/CeO(2) sorbent was found to be closely related to its physical properties (specific surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter).
Stepping into the new globalizes and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the electrochemical industry. From a humble candidate of the superconductor resources, today electrosorption has demonstrated its wide variety of usefulness, almost in every part of the environmental conservation. With the renaissance of activated carbon (AC), there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. The paper presents a state of art review of electrosorption technology, its background studies, fundamental chemistry and working principles. Moreover, recent development of the activated carbon assisted electrosorption process, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of electrosorption in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation.
The purpose of this work is to obtain optimal preparation conditions for activated carbons prepared from rattan sawdust (RSAC) for removal of disperse dye from aqueous solution. The RSAC was prepared by chemical activation with phosphoric acid using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM based on a three-variable central composite design was used to determine the effect of activation temperature (400-600 degrees C), activation time (1-3h) and H(3)PO(4):precursor (wt%) impregnation ratio (3:1-6:1) on C.I. Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) percentage removal and activated carbon yield were investigated. Based on the central composite design, quadratic model was developed to correlate the preparation variables to the two responses. The most influential factor on each experimental design responses was identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for preparation of RSAC, which were based on response surface and contour plots, were found as follows: temperature of 470 degrees C, activation time of 2h and 14min and chemical impregnation ratio of 4.45.
The antidiarrhoeal effect of the water extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Melastomataceae) leaves were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhea in Swiss mice. Melastoma malabathricum water extract treated mice showed significant reduction in the fecal output and protected them from castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extract also reduced the intestinal fluid secretion induced by magnesium sulphate and gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in the mice. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose.