Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 313 in total

  1. Ahmad T, Danish M, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2012 Jun;19(5):1464-84.
    PMID: 22207239 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-011-0709-8
    BACKGROUND: In tropical countries, the palm tree is one of the most abundant and important trees. Date palm is a principal fruit grown in many regions of the world. It is abundant, locally available and effective material that could be used as an adsorbent for the removal of different pollutants from aqueous solution.

    REVIEW: This article presents a review on the role of date palm as adsorbents in the removal of unwanted materials such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, and phenolic compounds. Many studies on adsorption properties of various low cost adsorbent, such as agricultural waste and activated carbons based on agricultural waste have been reported in recent years.

    CONCLUSION: Studies have shown that date palm-based adsorbents are the most promising adsorbents for removing unwanted materials. No previous review is available where researchers can get an overview of the adsorption capacities of date palm-based adsorbent used for the adsorption of different pollutants. This review provides the recent literature demonstrating the usefulness of date palm biomass-based adsorbents in the adsorption of various pollutants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  2. Islam MA, Asif M, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Mar;179:227-233.
    PMID: 25545092 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.115
    The pyrolysis of karanj fruit hulls (KFH) and karanj fruit hull hydrothermal carbonization (KFH-HTC) hydrochar was thermogravimetrically investigated under a nitrogen environment at 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, and 20 °C/min. The pyrolysis decomposition of KFH biomass was faster than that of KFH-HTC hydrochar because of the high volatility and fixed carbon of KFH biomass. Weight loss percentage was also affected by the heating rates. The kinetic data were evaluated with the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The activation energy values obtained with these two methods were 61.06 and 68.53 kJ/mol for KFH biomass and 130.49 and 135.87 kJ/mol for KFH-HTC hydrochar, respectively. The analysis of kinetic process mechanisms was verified with the Coats-Redfern method. KFH-HTC hydrochar may play a potential role in transforming biomass to energy-rich feedstock for thermochemical applications because of its high heating value, high fixed carbon, and low ash and sulfur contents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  3. Asih DR, Alam MZ, Alam Z, Salleh MN, Salleh N, Salihu A
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(8):779-85.
    PMID: 25017863
    A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  4. Khayoon MS, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Oct;102(19):9229-35.
    PMID: 21840708 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.035
    Oxygenated fuel additives can be produced by acetylation of glycerol. A 91% glycerol conversion with a selectivity of 38%, 28% and 34% for mono-, di- and triacetyl glyceride, respectively, was achieved at 120 °C and 3 h of reaction time in the presence of a catalyst derived from activated carbon (AC) treated with sulfuric acid at 85 °C for 4h to introduce acidic functionalities to its surface. The unique catalytic activity of the catalyst, AC-SA5, was attributed to the presence of sulfur containing functional groups on the AC surface, which enhanced the surface interaction between the glycerol molecule and acyl group of the acetic acid. The catalyst was reused in up to four consecutive batch runs and no significant decline of its initial activity was observed. The conversion and selectivity variation during the acetylation is attributed to the reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst loading and glycerol to acetic acid molar ratio.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  5. Muhamad MH, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Abu Hasan H, Abd Rahim RA
    J Environ Manage, 2015 Nov 1;163:115-24.
    PMID: 26311084 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.08.012
    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  6. Akinpelu AA, Chowdhury ZZ, Shibly SM, Faisal ANM, Badruddin IA, Rahman MM, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Feb 19;22(4).
    PMID: 33669883 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22042090
    This study deals with the preparation of activated carbon (CDSP) from date seed powder (DSP) by chemical activation to eliminate polyaromatic hydrocarbon-PAHs (naphthalene-C10H8) from synthetic wastewater. The chemical activation process was carried out using a weak Lewis acid of zinc acetate dihydrate salt (Zn(CH3CO2)2·2H2O). The equilibrium isotherm and kinetics analysis was carried out using DSP and CDSP samples, and their performances were compared for the removal of a volatile organic compound-naphthalene (C10H8)-from synthetic aqueous effluents or wastewater. The equilibrium isotherm data was analyzed using the linear regression model of the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The R2 values for the Langmuir isotherm were 0.93 and 0.99 for naphthalene (C10H8) adsorption using DSP and CDSP, respectively. CDSP showed a higher equilibrium sorption capacity (qe) of 379.64 µg/g. DSP had an equilibrium sorption capacity of 369.06 µg/g for C10H8. The rate of reaction was estimated for C10H8 adsorption using a pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich kinetic equation. The reaction mechanism for both the sorbents (CDSP and DSP) was studied using the intraparticle diffusion model. The equilibrium data was well-fitted with the pseudo-second order kinetics model showing the chemisorption nature of the equilibrium system. CDSP showed a higher sorption performance than DSP due to its higher BET surface area and carbon content. Physiochemical characterizations of the DSP and CDSP samples were carried out using the BET surface area analysis, Fourier-scanning microscopic analysis (FSEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Fourier-transform spectroscopic analysis (FTIR). A thermogravimetric and ultimate analysis was also carried out to determine the carbon content in both the sorbents (DSP and CDSP) here. This study confirms the potential of DSP and CDSP to remove C10H8 from lab-scale synthetic wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  7. Nizam NUM, Hanafiah MM, Mahmoudi E, Halim AA, Mohammad AW
    Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 21;11(1):8623.
    PMID: 33883637 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-88084-z
    In this study, two biomass-based adsorbents were used as new precursors for optimizing synthesis conditions of a cost-effective powdered activated carbon (PAC). The PAC removed dyes from an aqueous solution using carbonization and activation by KOH, NaOH, and H2SO4. The optimum synthesis, activation temperature, time and impregnation ratio, removal rate, and uptake capacity were determined. The optimum PAC was analyzed and characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Zeta potential, and Raman spectroscopy. Morphological studies showed single-layered planes with highly porous surfaces, especially PAC activated by NaOH and H2SO4. The results showed that the experimental data were well-fitted with a pseudo-second-order model. Based on Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for removing methylene blue (MB) was 769.23 mg g-1 and 458.43 mg g-1 for congo red (CR). Based on the isotherm models, more than one mechanism was involved in the adsorption process, monolayer for the anionic dye and multilayer for the cationic dye. Elovich and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models showed that rubber seed shells (RSS) has higher α values with a greater tendency to adsorb dyes compared to rubber seed (RS). A thermodynamic study showed that both dyes' adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic due to the negative values of the enthalpy (ΔH) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG). The change in removal efficiency of adsorbent for regeneration study was observed in the seventh cycles, with a 3% decline in the CR and 2% decline in MB removal performance. This study showed that the presence of functional groups and active sites on the produced adsorbent (hydroxyl, alkoxy, carboxyl, and π - π) contributed to its considerable affinity for adsorption in dye removal. Therefore, the optimum PAC can serve as efficient and cost-effective adsorbents to remove dyes from industrial wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  8. Agudosi ES, Abdullah EC, Numan A, Mubarak NM, Aid SR, Benages-Vilau R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 Jul 08;10(1):11214.
    PMID: 32641769 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-68067-2
    Electrochemical stability of energy storage devices is one of their major concerns. Polymeric binders are generally used to enhance the stability of the electrode, but the electrochemical performance of the device is compromised due to the poor conductivity of the binders. Herein, 3D binder-free electrode based on nickel oxide deposited on graphene (G-NiO) was fabricated by a simple two-step method. First, graphene was deposited on nickel foam via atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition followed by electrodeposition of NiO. The structural and morphological analyses of the fabricated G-NiO electrode were conducted through Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). XRD and Raman results confirmed the successful growth of high-quality graphene on nickel foam. FESEM images revealed the sheet and urchin-like morphology of the graphene and NiO, respectively. The electrochemical performance of the fabricated electrode was evaluated through cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in aqueous solution at room temperature. The G-NiO binder-free electrode exhibited a specific capacity of ≈ 243 C g-1 at 3 mV s-1 in a three-electrode cell. A two-electrode configuration of G-NiO//activated charcoal was fabricated to form a hybrid device (supercapattery) that operated in a stable potential window of 1.4 V. The energy density and power density of the asymmetric device measured at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 were estimated to be 47.3 W h kg-1 and 140 W kg-1, respectively. Additionally, the fabricated supercapattery showed high cyclic stability with 98.7% retention of specific capacity after 5,000 cycles. Thus, the proposed fabrication technique is highly suitable for large scale production of highly stable and binder-free electrodes for electrochemical energy storage devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  9. Farasyahida A. Samad, Wan Salida Wan Mansor, idayatul Aini Zakaria
    Clean, safe and readily available water is very crucial in everyday life, especially for health, hygiene, and the productivity of the community. Unfortunately, increase in contaminants in water supplies from human activities and industrialization is very worrying. Conventional wastewater treatment includes the usage of alum that will affect health with prolonged consumption. This research was carried out to focus on the development of wastewater treatment system using adsorbent from Moringa oleifera seeds. Adsorbent was successfully synthesized from the seeds of Moringa oleifera. Characterization of the sample was made using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), while the effectiveness of water treatment was analyzed using Turbidity Meter. Then, all samples were tested against kaolin wastewater. XRD results showed that all the adsorbent samples were amorphous in nature. FTIR results indicated that there were hydroxyl group and carboxylic group in the sample representing numerous oxygen-riddled functional groups on the surface. From SEM results, it was clearly shown that the pore structure and size of Moringa oleifera affected the capability of adsorption where the smaller the size, the more effective the sample. Turbidity test showed that the sample that worked best for wastewater treatment was adsorbent from Moringa oleifera seeds in size of 125µm that was heated for 4 hours with 93.76% turbidity removal. Therefore, this study proved that the adsorbent from Moringa oleifera seeds is very suitable for high turbidity wastewater treatment. Further studies investigating the combination of conventional activated carbon with adsorbent from Moringa oleifera seeds should be conducted before these samples are made available for further use so that we can compare which sample works best for wastewater treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  10. Ahmad MH, Zezi AU, Anafi SB, Alhassan Z, Mohammed M, Danraka RN
    Data Brief, 2021 Jun;36:107155.
    PMID: 34041327 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107155
    This article describes the dataset for the elucidation of the possible mechanisms of antidiarrhoeal actions of methanol leaves extract of Combretum hypopilinum (Diels) Combretaceae in mice. The plant has been used in traditional medicine to treat diarrhoea in Nigeria and other African countries. We introduce the data for the antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol leaf extract of Combretum hypopilinum at 1,000 mg/kg investigated using charcoal meal test in mice with loperamide (5 mg/kg) as the standard antidiarrhoeal agent. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of its antidiarrhoeal action, naloxone (2 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg), yohimbine (2 mg/kg), propranolol (1 mg/kg), pilocarpine (1 mg/kg) and isosorbide dinitrate (150 mg/kg) were separately administered to different groups of mice 30 minutes before administration of the extract. Each mouse was dissected using dissecting set, and the small intestine was immediately removed from pylorus to caecum, placed lengthwise on moist filter paper and measured the distance travelled by charcoal relative to the length of the intestine using a calibrated ruler in centimetre. Besides, the peristaltic index and inhibition of charcoal movement of each animal were calculated and recorded. The methods for the data collection is similar to the one used to investigate the possible pathways involved in the antidiarrhoeal action of Combretum hypopilinum in mice in the research article by Ahmad et al. (2020) "Mechanisms of Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Methanol Leaf Extract of Combretum hypopilinum Diels (Combretaceae): Involvement of Opioidergic and (α1 and β)-Adrenergic Pathways" (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113750) [1]. Therefore, this datasets could form a basis for in-depth research to elucidate further the pharmacological properties of the plant Combretum hypopilinum and its bioactive compounds to develop standardized herbal product and novel compound for management of diarrhoea. It could also be instrumental for evaluating the plant's pharmacological potentials using other computational-based and artificial intelligence approaches, including predictive modelling and simulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  11. Ma, Mei Siang, Zalini Yunus, Ahmad Razi Mohammad Yunus, Zukri Ahmad, Haryanti Toosa
    Abstract Water quality in the dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) is important to the patients and dental health care personnel as they are at risk of being infected with opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas or Legionella species. In this study, a total of 86 samples were collected from DUWLs of 19 dental units in 11 Malaysian Armed Forces dental centres (MAFDC). 350 ml water sample was collected in sterile thiosulphite bags from the outlets of 3–way syringe, high speed handpiece, scaler, cup filler, independent water reservoir or the tap of the same surgery respectively. Samples were transported to the laboratory within 24 hours and kept in the refrigerator at 40C. 100ml of each sample was filtered through a 0.45 μm polycarbonate membrane filter. The filter was then inoculated onto plate count agar and incubated at 370 C for 24 hours, after which the formed colonies were enumerated. Another separate 100ml of water sample was poured onto buffered charcoal yeast extract agar and cetrimide agar to culture Legionnella and Pseudomonas respectively. Identification of these bacteria were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 9.5% of the samples but Legionnella was not detected in any of the samples. 77% of the samples met American Dental Association (ADA) recommendation of less than 200 cfu/ml. The result of this study showed that it is difficult if not impossible to eliminate biofilm from the DUWLs. Regular monitor of water quality from DUWL is required to maximise the health of the dental patients and dental health care personnel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  12. Chung ELT, Predith M, Nobilly F, Samsudin AA, Jesse FFA, Loh TC
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2018 Jun 20.
    PMID: 29926360 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1641-4
    Brachiaria decumbens is an extremely productive tropical grass due to its aggressive growth habit and its adaptation to a varied range of soil types and environments. As a result of the vast availability, treated B. decumbens demonstrates as a promising local material that could be utilised as an improved diet for sheep and goats. Despite the fact that the grass significantly increases weight gains in grazing farm animals, there were many reports of general ill-thrift and sporadic outbreaks of photosensitivity in livestock due to the toxic compound of steroidal saponin found in B. decumbens. Ensiling and haymaking were found to be effective in removing toxin and undesirable compounds in the grass. Biological treatments using urea, activated charcoal, polyethylene glycol, and effective microorganisms were found to be useful in anti-nutritional factor deactivation and improving the nutritive values of feedstuffs. Besides, oral administration of phenobarbitone showed some degree of protection in sheep that fed on B. decumbens pasture. In this review, we aim to determine the effect of B. decumbens toxicity and possible treatment methods on the grass to be used as an improved diet for small ruminant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  13. Marsin FM, Wan Ibrahim WA, Nodeh HR, Sanagi MM
    J Chromatogr A, 2020 Feb 08;1612:460638.
    PMID: 31676087 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460638
    Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) employing oil-palm fiber activated carbon (OPAC) modified with magnetite (Fe3O4) and polypyrrole (OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy) was successfully used for the determination of two organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely endosulfan and dieldrin in environmental water samples. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The effects of three preparation variables, namely Fe3O4:OPAC ratio, amount of pyrrole monomer, and amount of FeCl3 oxidant were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) (R2 < 0.99, p-value < 0.001%). The optimum conditions were as follows: Fe3O4:OPAC ratio of 2:1 w/w, 1 g of FeCl3 and 100 μL of pyrrole monomer. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model prediction (> 90% agreement). Optimized OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy composite was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Four numerical parameters of MSPE procedure was optimized using BBD. The significance of the MSPE parameters were salt addition > sample solution pH > extraction time and desorption time. Under the optimized conditions (extraction time: 90 s, desorption time: 10 min, salt: 0%, and pH: 5.8), the method demonstrated good linearity (25-1000 ng L-1) with coefficients of determination, R2 > 0.991, and low detection limits for both endosulfan (7.3 ng L-1) and dieldrin (8.6 ng L-1). The method showed high analyte recoveries in the range of 98.6-103.5% for environmental water samples. The proposed OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy MSPE method offered good features such as sustainability, simplicity, and rapid extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  14. Talebi A, Razali YS, Ismail N, Rafatullah M, Azan Tajarudin H
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Mar 10;707:134533.
    PMID: 31865088 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134533
    An adsorption-desorption process was applied on fermented landfill leachate to adsorb and recover acetic and butyric acid, using activated carbon. In this study, the first, volatile fatty acids adsorption process from fermented leachate was optimized, by investigating various affecting factors such as pH, time, agitation speed, activated carbon dosage, and temperature. The optimum condition for maximum adsorption of 88.94% acetic acid and 98.53% butyric acid, was 19.79 %wt activated carbon dosage, 40.00 rpm of agitation speed, in 9.45 °C and contact time of 179.89 h, while the pH of the substrate was kept fixed at pH:3.0. Results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and zeta potential revealed that carbon is the dominant component in the adsorbent with a significant effect to remove organic impurities, and it was observed that the activated carbon after the adsorption process showed an amorphous structure peak with a large internal surface area and pore volume. The results exposed that the adsorption on the surface of activated carbon was due to the chemisorption, and the chemisorption mechanism was supported by covalent bonding. The kinetic study displayed excellent fit to Pseudo-second order kinetics model. The second phase of this study was to recover the adsorbed VFAs using multistage desorption unit, in which application of deionized water and ethanol (as desorption agents) resulted in 89.1% of acetic acid and 67.8% of the butyric acid recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  15. Basheer AO, Alsaadi MA, Wan Yaacob WZ, Al-Douri Y
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Jun 08;12(6).
    PMID: 32521657 DOI: 10.3390/polym12061305
    Hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on biomass powder-activated carbon (bio-PAC) by loading iron nanoparticles (Fe) as catalyst templates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and using acetylene as carbon source, under specific conditions as reaction temperature, time, and gas ratio that are 550 °C, 47 min, and 1, respectively. Specifications of hybrid CNTs were analyzed and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopic (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and zeta potential. The results revealed the high quality and unique morphologies of hybrid CNTs. Furthermore, removal and capacity of Al3+ were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). However, the results revealed that the pseudo-second-order model well represented adsorption kinetic data, while the isotherm data were effectively fitted using a Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity was 347.88 mg/g. It could be concluded that synthesized hybrid CNTs are a new cost-effective and promising adsorbent for removing Al3+ ion from wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal
  16. Foo KY, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 May;112:143-50.
    PMID: 22414577 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.178
    The feasibility of preparing activated carbon (JPAC) from jackfruit peel, an industrial residue abundantly available from food manufacturing plants via microwave-assisted NaOH activation was explored. The influences of chemical impregnation ratio, microwave power and radiation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. JPAC was examined by pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, elemental analysis, surface acidity/basicity and zeta potential measurements. The adsorptive behavior of JPAC was quantified using methylene blue as model dye compound. The best conditions resulted in JPAC with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 400.06 mg/g and carbon yield of 80.82%. The adsorption data was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation, while the adsorption mechanism was well described by the intraparticle diffusion model. The findings revealed the versatility of jackfruit peels as good precursor for preparation of high quality activated carbon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/chemistry*
  17. Foo KY, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Jul;116:522-5.
    PMID: 22595094 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.123
    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/chemical synthesis*
  18. Damayanti A, Ujang Z, Salim MR
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Mar;102(6):4341-6.
    PMID: 21251818 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.12.061
    The main objective of this work was to determine the effectiveness of various biofouling reducers (BFRs) to operational condition in hybrid membrane bioreactor (MBR) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). A series of tests involving three bench scale (100 L) hybrid MBR were operated at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 30 days with biofouling reducer (BFR). Three different biofouling reducers (BFRs) were powdered actived carbon (PAC), zeolite (Ze), and Moringa oleifera (Mo) with doses of 4, 8 and 12 g L(-1) respectively were used. Short-term filtration trials and critical flux tests were conducted. Results showed that, all BFRs successfully removed soluble microbial products (SMP), for PAC, Ze, and Mo at 58%, 42%, and 48%, respectively. At their optimum dosages, PAC provided above 70% reductions and 85% in fouling rates during the short-term filtration and critical flux tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/pharmacology*
  19. Salman JM, Hameed BH
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Mar 15;175(1-3):133-7.
    PMID: 19879687 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.139
    Oil palm fronds (OPF) were used to prepare activated carbon (PFAC) using physiochemical activation method, which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide gasification. The effects of the preparation variables, which were activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratios (KOH: char by weight), on the carbon yield and bentazon removal were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), two factor interaction (2FI) and quadratic models were, respectively, employed to correlate the PFAC preparation variables to the bentazon removal and carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from OPF were found as follows: activation temperature of 850 degrees C, activation time of 1h and KOH:char ratio of 3.75:1. The predicted and experimental results for removal of bentazon and yield of PFAC were 99.85%, 20.5 and 98.1%, 21.6%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/chemistry*
  20. Krishnamoorthy R, Govindan B, Banat F, Sagadevan V, Purushothaman M, Show PL
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2019 Jul;128(1):88-97.
    PMID: 30679113 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2018.12.011
    Phosphoric acid impregnated activated carbon from date pits (DPAC) was prepared through single step activation. Prepared DPAC was studied for its structural, elemental, chemical, surface and crystal nature. Adsorption ability of the DPAC was assessed through divalent lead ions separation studies. Effect of adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH, operating temperature and initial feed concentration on lead removal by DPAC was studied. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacity of 101.35 mg/g was attained for a contact time of 30 min and pH of 6 at 30°C. Increase in initial feed concentration enhanced the adsorption ability of DPAC and the rise in adsorbent dosage resulted in improved Pb(II) removal efficiency. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the lead adsorption on DPAC was exothermic and instantaneous in nature. Kinetic and equilibrium studies confirmed the suitability of pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm for divalent lead ions binding on DPAC. Reusability studies showed that HCl was the effective regeneration medium and the DPAC could be reused for a maximum of 4 times with slight reduction in Pb(II) removal efficiency (<10%). Results indicated the promising use of date pits biomass as a low cost and efficient starting material to prepare activated carbon for divalent lead ions removal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/chemistry*
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