METHODS: We isolated a strain of C. albicans from plaques on the oral mucus membrane of an infected patient. Colonies of this strain were exposed for 1 24 h, to 5%ALA-PTt, 5%ALA-PTt buffered to pH 6.5 (the pH of the oral mucosa) (5%ALA-PTtb) or not exposed (control). The 1 h-exposed samples were also irradiated at a wavelength of 630 nm with 0.14 watts (W) and 0.37 W/cm2 for 7 min at a distance of <1 mm.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The 5% ALA-PTt preparation was shown to be effective in reducing the growth of biofilm and inoculum of C. albicans. This effect seems to be linked to the intrinsic characteristics of 5%ALA-TPt, such acidic pH and the induction of free radical production. This outcome was significantly enhanced by the effect of PDT at relatively short incubation and irradiation times, which resulted in growth inhibition of both treated biofilm and inoculum by ∼80% and ∼95%, respectively.
Purpose: A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used purposely to optimize process parameters conditions for formulating nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole using high emulsification methods.
Methods: This design is used to investigate the influences of four independent variables (overhead stirring time (A), shear rate (B), shear time (C), and the cycle of high-pressure homogenizer (D)) on the response variable namely, a droplet size (Y) of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole.
Results: The optimum conditions suggested by the predicted model were: 120 min of overhead stirring time, 15 min of high shear homogenizer time, 4400 rpm of high shear homogenizer rate and 11 cycles of high-pressure homogenizer, giving a desirable droplet size of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole of 64.52 nm for experimental value and 62.59 nm for predicted value. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the quadratic polynomial fitted the experimental values with F-value (9.53), a low p-value (0.0003) and a non-significant lack of-fit. It proved that the models were adequate to predict the relevance response. The optimized formulation with a viscosity value of 3.72 mPa.s and pH value of 7.4 showed good osmolality value (297 mOsm/kg) and remained stable for three months in three different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 45°C).
Conclusion: This proven that response surface methodology is an efficient tool to produce desirable droplet size of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole for parenteral delivery application.