Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 153 in total

  1. Al-Japairai K, Hamed Almurisi S, Almonem Doolaanea A, Mahmood S, Alheibshy F, Alobaida A, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2023 Feb 05;632:122571.
    PMID: 36587776 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.122571
    Taste refers to those sensations perceived through taste buds on the tongue and oral cavity. The unpleasant taste of drugs leads to the refusal of taking the medicine in the paediatric population. It is widely known that a pharmaceutical product's general acceptability is the result of numerous contributing components such as swallowability, palatability (taste, flavour, texture, and mouthfeel), appearance, ease of administration, and patient characteristics. Multiparticulate as a dosage form is a platform technology for overcoming paediatrics' incapacity to swallow monolithic dosage forms, masking many medications' inherent nasty taste, and overcoming the obstacles of manufacturing a commercially taste masked dosage form. This review will discuss the considerations that must be taken into account to prepare taste masked multiparticulate dosage forms in the best way for paediatric use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  2. Kumar P, Chaudhary B, Jain V, Baboota S, Shivanandy P, Alharbi KS, et al.
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2023;20(9):1262-1274.
    PMID: 36380413 DOI: 10.2174/1567201820666221114113637
    Molecular pharmaceutics play a critical role in the drug delivery system, representing the direct interconnection of drug bioavailability with its molecular form. There is a diversity in the molecular structures by which it affects its properties, such as amorphous form, crystalline form, partialamorphous molecular dispersion, and disordered state. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients utilized in the formulation process contain various divergent modes used in the formulation process. They include better formulations of any type to obtain good quality pharmaceutical products. This review reveals how the molecular states affect the API and are important in maintaining the quality of dosage forms. Furthermore, the physio-chemical properties of the components and various pharmaceutical approaches employed in the formulation of dosage forms are studied from the point of view of molecular pharmaceutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical*
  3. Liew KB, Peh KK
    Arch Pharm Res, 2021 Aug;44(8):1-10.
    PMID: 25579848 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-014-0542-y
    Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) is a user friendly and convenient dosage form. The study aimed to investigate the effect of polymers and wheat starch on the tablet properties of lyophilized ODT, with dapoxetine as model drug. Three polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, carbopol 934P and Eudragit® EPO) and wheat starch were used as matrix forming materials in preparation of lyophilized ODT. The polymeric dispersion was casted into a mould and kept in a freezer at -20 °C for 4 h before freeze dried for 12 h. It was found that increasing in HPMC and Carbopol 934P concentrations produced tablets with higher hardness and longer disintegration time. In contrast, Eudragit® EPO was unable to form tablet with sufficient hardness at various concentrations. Moreover, HPMC seems to have a stronger effect on tablet hardness compared to Carbopol 934P at the same concentration level. ODT of less friable was obtained. Wheat starch acted as binder which strengthen the hardness of ODTs and prolonged the disintegration time. ODT comprising of HPMC and wheat starch at ratio of 2:1 was found to be optimum based upon the tablet properties. The optimum formulation was palatable and 80 % of the drug was released within 30 min in the dissolution study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  4. M Hanif A, Bushra R, Ismail NE, Bano R, Abedin S, Alam S, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2021 May;34(3(Supplementary)):1081-1087.
    PMID: 34602436
    The current investigation is based on efficient method development for the quantification of empagliflozin in raw and pharmaceutical dosage forms, as no pharmacopoeial method for the drug is available so far. The developed analytical method was validated as per ICH guidelines. C18 column with mobile phase (pH 4.8) consisted of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid solution and acetonitrile (70:30 v/v) was used for drug analysis. The calibration plot showed good linear regression (r2>0.999) over the concentration of 0.025-30 μg mL-1. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.020 μg mL-1 and 0.061 μg mL-1, respectively. The percentage recovery was estimated between 98.0 to 100.13%. Accuracy and precision data were found to be less than 2%, indicating the suitability of method for routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, the drug solution was found to be stable in refrigerator and ambient room temperature with mean % accuracy of >98%. Empagliflozin contents were also tested in both the raw API and marketed tablet brands using this newly developed method. The mean assay of raw empagliflozin and tablet brands were ranged from 99.29%±1.12 to 100.95%±1.69 and 97.18%±1.59 to 98.92%±1.00 respectively. Based on these findings, the present investigated approach is suitable for quantification of empagliflozin in raw and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  5. Pushpamalar J, Sathasivam T, Gugler MC
    Methods Mol Biol, 2021;2211:171-182.
    PMID: 33336277 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0943-9_12
    Polysaccharides are excellent candidates for drug delivery applications as they are available in abundance from natural sources. Polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose, lignin, chitosan, alginate, and tragacanth gum are used to make hydrogels beads. Hydrogels beads are three-dimensional, cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers formed in spherical shape and sized in the range of 0.5-1.0 mm of diameter. Beads are formed by various cross-linking methods such as chemical and irradiation methods. Natural polymer-based hydrogels are biocompatible and biodegradable and have inherently low immunogenicity, which makes them suitable for physiological drug delivery approaches. The cross-linked polysaccharide-based hydrogels are environment-sensitive polymers that can potentially be used for the development of "smart" delivery systems, which are capable of control release of the encapsulated drug at a targeted colon site. This topic focuses on various aspects of fabricating and optimizing the cross-linking of polysaccharides, either by a single polysaccharide or mixtures and also natural-synthetic hybrids to produce polymer-based hydrogel vehicles for colon-targeted drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  6. Toopkanloo SP, Tan TB, Abas F, Azam M, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2020 Dec 11;25(24).
    PMID: 33322600 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25245873
    In order to improve the membrane lipophilicity and the affinity towards the environment of lipid bilayers, squalene (SQ) could be conjugated to phospholipids in the formation of liposomes. The effect of membrane composition and concentrations on the degradation of liposomes prepared via the extrusion method was investigated. Liposomes were prepared using a mixture of SQ, cholesterol (CH) and Tween80 (TW80). Based on the optimal conditions, liposome batches were prepared in the absence and presence of SQ. Their physicochemical and stability behavior were evaluated as a function of liposome constituent. From the optimization study, the liposomal formulation containing 5% (w/w) mixed soy lecithin (ML), 0.5% (w/w) SQ, 0.3% (w/w) CH and 0.75% (w/w) TW80 had optimal physicochemical properties and displayed a unilamellar structure. Liposome prepared using the optimal formulation had a low particle size (158.31 ± 2.96 nm) and acceptable %increase in the particle size (15.09% ± 3.76%) and %trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (%TEAC) loss (35.69% ± 0.72%) against UV light treatment (280-320 nm) for 6 h. The interesting outcome of this research was the association of naturally occurring substance SQ for size reduction without the extra input of energy or mechanical procedures, and improvement of vesicle stability and antioxidant activity of ML-based liposome. This study also demonstrated that the presence of SQ in the membrane might increase the acyl chain dynamics and decrease the viscosity of the dispersion, thereby limiting long-term stability of the liposome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  7. Vallavan V, Krishnasamy G, Zin NM, Abdul Latif M
    Molecules, 2020 Dec 11;25(24).
    PMID: 33322256 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25245848
    Fungi are a rich source of secondary metabolites with several pharmacological activities such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer to name a few. Due to the large number of diverse structured chemical compounds they produce, fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Muccoromycota have been intensively studied for isolation of bioactive compounds. Basidiomycetes-derived secondary metabolites are known as a promising source of antibacterial compounds with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The continued emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major challenge to patient health as it leads to higher morbidity and mortality, higher hospital-stay duration and substantial economic burden in global healthcare sector. One of the key culprits for AMR crisis is Staphylococcus aureus causing community-acquired infections as the pathogen develops resistance towards multiple antibiotics. The recent emergence of community strains of S. aureus harbouring methicillin-resistant (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant (VRSA) genes associated with increased virulence is challenging. Despite the few significant developments in antibiotic research, successful MRSA therapeutic options are still needed to reduce the use of scanty and expensive second-line treatments. This paper provides an overview of findings from various studies on antibacterial secondary metabolites from basidiomycetes, with a special focus on antistaphylococcal activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  8. Hand RM, Senarathna SMDKG, Page-Sharp M, Gray K, Sika-Paotonu D, Sheel M, et al.
    Pharmacol Res Perspect, 2020 12;8(6):e00668.
    PMID: 33090729 DOI: 10.1002/prp2.668
    Benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is used as first-line treatment for most forms of syphilis and as secondary prophylaxis against rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Perceptions that poor quality of BPG is linked to reported adverse effects and therapeutic failure may impact syphilis and RHD control programs. Clinical networks and web-based advertising were used to obtain vials of BPG from a wide range of countries. The quality of BPG was assessed using a high performance liquid chromatography assay capable of detecting relevant impurities and degradation products. Tests for water content, presence of heavy metals and physical characteristics of BPG, including particle size analysis and optical microscopy, also were conducted. Thirty-five batches of BPG were sourced from 16 countries across 4 WHO regions. All batches passed the US Pharmacopeia requirements for BPG injection (content), with no evidence of breakdown products or other detected contaminants. Water content and heavy metal analysis (n = 11) indicated adherence to regulatory standards and Good Manufacturing Practice. Particle size analysis (n = 20) found two batches with aggregated particles (>400 µm) that were dispersed following sonication. Current batches of BPG were of satisfactory pharmaceutical quality but aggregated particles were found in a modest proportion of samples. Future studies should focus on the physical characteristics of BPG which may contribute to variations in plasma penicillin concentrations an observed needle blockages in clinical practice. Pharmacopeial monographs could be revised to include standards on particle size and crystal morphology of BPG.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods; Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/standards*
  9. Mahesparan VA, Bin Abd Razak FS, Ming LC, Uddin AH, Sarker MZI, Bin LK
    Int J Pharm Compd, 2020 3 21;24(2):148-155.
    PMID: 32196477
    Orodispersible tablets disintegrate rapidly (within 3 minutes) in the oral cavity and release the medicament before swallowing. The mode of disintegrant addition might affect the properties of orodispersible tablets. The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate orodispersible tablets by studying different modes of disintegration addition with varying concentrations of disintegrants. The wet granulation method was used to produce the orodispersible tablets. Two methods of disintegration addition were compared (i.e., intragranular, extragranular). Three disintegrants (i.e., cornstarch, sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone) were used at three levels (5%, 10%, and 15%) in the study. The formulations were tested for the powder flowability (angle of repose) and characterized physically (hardness, weight, thickness, friability, disintegration time). The mangosteen pericarp extract was used as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient to be incorporated into the optimum formulation. It was observed that the extragranular method produced granules with better flowability compared to that of the intragranular method. Crospovidone was found as the most efficient disintegrant among the three. The optimum formulation selected was one with the highest concentration of crospovidone (15%), which showed the fastest disintegration time. The mode of disintegrant addition into the orodispersible tablets formulation was found to show a marked difference in the disintegration, as well as other physical characteristics of the orodispersible tablets where the extragranular mode of addition showed better property, which caused the orodispersible tablets to disintegrate the fastest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  10. Bin LK, Helaluddin ABM, Islam Sarker MZ, Mandal UK, Gaurav A
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Mar;33(2):551-559.
    PMID: 32276897
    Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) is a friendly dosage form that requires no access to water and serves as a solution to non-compliance. There are many co-processed adjuvants available in the market. However, there is no single product possesses all the ideal characteristics such as good compressibility, fast disintegration and good palatability for ODT application. The aim of this research was to produce a xylitol-starch base co-processed adjuvant which is suitable for ODT application. Two processing methods namely wet granulation and freeze drying were used to compare the characteristics of co-processed adjuvant comprising of xylitol, starch and crospovidone XL-10 mixed at various ratios. The co-processed excipients were compressed into ODT and physically characterized for powder flow, particle size, hardness, thickness, weight, friability, in-vitro disintegration time and in-situ disintegration time, lubricant sensitivity, dilution potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Formulation F6 was selected as the optimum formulation due to the fastest in-vitro (135.33±11.52 s) and in-situ disintegration time (88.67±13.56s) among all the formulations (p<0.05). Increase in starch component decreases disintegration time of ODT. The powder flow fell under the category of fair flow. Generally, it was observed that freeze drying method produced smaller particle size granules compared to wet granulation method. ODT produced from freeze drying method had shorter disintegration time compared to ODT from wet granulation batch. In conclusion, a novel co-processed excipient comprised of xylitol, starch and crospovidone XL-10, produced using freeze drying method with fast disintegration time, good compressibility and palatability was developed and characterized. The co-processed excipient is suitable for ODT application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  11. Greco G, Di Piazza S, Chan J, Zotti M, Hanna R, Gheno E, et al.
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2020 Mar;29:101575.
    PMID: 31614222 DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.10.010
    BACKGROUND: A large number of systemic diseases can be linked to oral candida pathogenicity. The global trend of invasive candidiasis has increased progressively and is often accentuated by increasing Candida albicans resistance to the most common antifungal medications. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising therapeutic approach for oral microbial infections. A new formulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5%ALA) in a thermosetting gel (t) (5%ALA-PTt) was patented and recently has become available on the market. However, its antimicrobial properties, whether mediated or not by PDT, are not yet known. In this work we characterised them.

    METHODS: We isolated a strain of C. albicans from plaques on the oral mucus membrane of an infected patient. Colonies of this strain were exposed for 1 24 h, to 5%ALA-PTt, 5%ALA-PTt buffered to pH 6.5 (the pH of the oral mucosa) (5%ALA-PTtb) or not exposed (control). The 1 h-exposed samples were also irradiated at a wavelength of 630 nm with 0.14 watts (W) and 0.37 W/cm2 for 7 min at a distance of <1 mm.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The 5% ALA-PTt preparation was shown to be effective in reducing the growth of biofilm and inoculum of C. albicans. This effect seems to be linked to the intrinsic characteristics of 5%ALA-TPt, such acidic pH and the induction of free radical production. This outcome was significantly enhanced by the effect of PDT at relatively short incubation and irradiation times, which resulted in growth inhibition of both treated biofilm and inoculum by ∼80% and ∼95%, respectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  12. Salam NA, Naeem MA, Malik NS, Riaz M, Shahiq-Uz-Zaman -, Masood-Ur-Rehman -, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Jan;33(1(Supplementary)):269-279.
    PMID: 32122858
    The main objective of the present study was to explore the potential of matrix tablets as extended release dosage form of tianeptine, using HMPC K100 as a polymer. HPMC K100 extended the release of the drug from formulation due to the gel-like structure. Direct compression method was adopted to compress the tablets using different concentrations of polymer. Tablets were evaluated for pre-compression and post-compression parameters. Drug release study showed that tablet extends the release of drug with the increasing concentration of polymer. Drug, polymers and tablets were analyzed and/or characterized for compatibility, degradation, thermal stability, amorphous or crystalline nature via FTIR, DSC, TGA, XRD studies. SEM study predicted that tablets had a uniform structure. HPMC K100 based tablets were similar to that of the reference product. Acute toxicity study conducted on Swiss albino mice showed that matrix tablets were safe and non-toxic, as no changes in physical activity and functions of organs were observed. Biochemical and histopathological study revealed lack of any kind of abnormality in liver and renal function. Moreover, necrotic changes were absent at organ level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  13. Samiun WS, Ashari SE, Salim N, Ahmad S
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:1585-1594.
    PMID: 32210553 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S198914
    Background: Aripiprazole, which is a quinolinone derivative, has been widely used to treat schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder.

    Purpose: A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used purposely to optimize process parameters conditions for formulating nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole using high emulsification methods.

    Methods: This design is used to investigate the influences of four independent variables (overhead stirring time (A), shear rate (B), shear time (C), and the cycle of high-pressure homogenizer (D)) on the response variable namely, a droplet size (Y) of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole.

    Results: The optimum conditions suggested by the predicted model were: 120 min of overhead stirring time, 15 min of high shear homogenizer time, 4400 rpm of high shear homogenizer rate and 11 cycles of high-pressure homogenizer, giving a desirable droplet size of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole of 64.52 nm for experimental value and 62.59 nm for predicted value. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the quadratic polynomial fitted the experimental values with F-value (9.53), a low p-value (0.0003) and a non-significant lack of-fit. It proved that the models were adequate to predict the relevance response. The optimized formulation with a viscosity value of 3.72 mPa.s and pH value of 7.4 showed good osmolality value (297 mOsm/kg) and remained stable for three months in three different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 45°C).

    Conclusion: This proven that response surface methodology is an efficient tool to produce desirable droplet size of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole for parenteral delivery application.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  14. Zainal-Abidin MH, Hayyan M, Ngoh GC, Wong WF, Looi CY
    J Control Release, 2019 12 28;316:168-195.
    PMID: 31669211 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.09.019
    The applications of eutectic systems, including deep eutectic solvents (DESs), in diverse sectors have drawn significant interest from researchers, academicians, engineers, medical scientists, and pharmacists. Eutecticity increases drug dissolution, improves drug penetration, and acts as a synthesis route for drug carriers. To date, DESs have been extensively explored as potential drug delivery systems on account of their unique properties such as tunability and chemical and thermal stability. This review discusses two major topics: first, the application of eutectic mixtures (before and after the introduction of DES) in the field of drug delivery systems, and second, the most promising examples of DES pharmaceutical activity. It also considers future prospects in the medical and biotechnological fields. In addition to the application of DESs in drug delivery systems, they show greatly promising pharmaceutical activities, including anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-cancer activities. Eutecticity is a valid strategy for overcoming many obstacles inherently associated with either introducing new drugs or enhancing drug delivery systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  15. Chieng N, Teo X, Cheah MH, Choo ML, Chung J, Hew TK, et al.
    J Pharm Sci, 2019 12;108(12):3848-3858.
    PMID: 31542436 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2019.09.013
    The study aims to characterize the structural relaxation times of quench-cooled co-amorphous systems using Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) and to correlate the relaxation data with the onset of crystallization. Comparison was also made between the relaxation times obtained by KWW and the width of glass transition temperature (ΔTg) methods (simple and quick). Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and polarized light microscopy were used to characterize the systems. Results showed that co-amorphous systems yielded a single Tg and ΔCp, suggesting the binary mixtures exist as a single amorphous phase. A narrow step change at Tg indicates the systems were fragile glasses. In co-amorphous nap-indo and para-indo, experimental Tgs were in good agreement with the predicted Tg. However, the Tg of co-amorphous nap-cim and indo-cim were 20°C higher than the predicted Tg, possibly due to stronger molecular interactions. Structural relaxation times below the experimental Tg were successfully characterized using the KWW and ΔTg methods. The comparison plot showed that KWW data are directly proportional to the ½ power of ΔTg data, after adjusting for a small offset. A moderate positive correlation was observed between the onset of crystallization and the KWW data. Structural relaxation times may be useful predictor of physical stability of co-amorphous systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  16. Soo HL, Quah SY, Sulaiman I, Sagineedu SR, Lim JCW, Stanslas J
    Drug Discov Today, 2019 09;24(9):1890-1898.
    PMID: 31154065 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2019.05.017
    Andrographolide (AGP), a naturally occurring bioactive compound, has been investigated as a lead compound in cancer drug development. Its multidimensional therapeutic effects have raised interest among medicinal chemists, which has led to extensive structural modification of the compound, resulting in analogues with improved pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties. Nevertheless, the analogues with the improved properties need to be rigorously studied to identify drug-like lead compounds. We scrutinised articles published from 2012 to 2018, to objectively provide opinions on the mechanisms of action of AGP and its analogues, as well as their potential as viable anticancer drugs. Preclinical and clinical data, along with the extensive medicinal chemistry efforts, indicate the compounds are potential anticancer agents with specific value in treating recalcitrant cancers such as pancreatic and lung cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  17. Singh I, Nair RS, Gan S, Cheong V, Morris A
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2019 Apr;24(4):448-454.
    PMID: 30084268 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2018.1509347
    The drawbacks associated with chemical skin permeation enhancers such as skin irritation and toxicity necessitated the research to focus on potential permeation enhancers with a perceived lower toxicity. Crude palm oil (CPO) is obtained by direct compression of the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palm belonging to the genus Elaeis. In this research, CPO and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil were evaluated for the first time as skin permeation enhancers using full-thickness human skin. The in vitro permeation experiments were conducted using excised human skin mounted in static upright 'Franz-type' diffusion cells. The drugs selected to evaluate the enhancing effects of these palm oil derivatives were 5-fluorouracil, lidocaine and ibuprofen: compounds covering a wide range of Log p values. It was demonstrated that CPO and TRF were capable of enhancing the percutaneous permeation of drugs across full-thickness human skin in vitro. Both TRF and CPO were shown to significantly enhance the permeation of ibuprofen with flux values of 30.6 µg/cm2 h and 23.0 µg/cm2 h respectively, compared to the control with a flux of 16.2 µg/cm2 h. The outcome of this research opens further scope for investigation on the transdermal penetration enhancement activity of pure compounds derived from palm oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  18. Fernando HV, Chan LL, Dang N, Santhanes D, Banneheke H, Nalliah S, et al.
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2019 Mar;24(3):348-356.
    PMID: 29799300 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2018.1481430
    Microporous polymeric matrices prepared from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) [PCL] were evaluated for controlled vaginal delivery of the antiprotozoal agent (tinidazole) in the treatment of the sexually transmitted infection, trichomoniasis. The matrices were produced by rapidly cooling co-solutions of PCL and tinidazole in acetone to -80 °C to induce crystallisation and hardening of the polymer. Tinidazole incorporation in the matrices increased from 1.4 to 3.9% (w/w), when the drug concentration in the starting PCL solution was raised from 10 to 20% (w/w), giving rise to drug loading efficiencies up to 20%. Rapid 'burst release' of 30% of the tinidazole content was recorded over 24 h when the PCL matrices were immersed in simulated vaginal fluid. Gradual drug release occurred over the next 6 days resulting in delivery of around 50% of the tinidazole load by day 7 with the released drug retaining antiprotozoal activity at levels almost 50% that of the 'non-formulated' drug in solution form. Basic modelling predicted that the concentration of tinidazole released into vaginal fluid in vivo from a PCL matrix in the form of an intravaginal ring would exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration against Trichomonas vaginalis. These findings recommend further investigation of PCL matrices as intravaginal devices for controlled delivery of antiprotozoal agents in the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  19. Izadiyan Z, Basri M, Fard Masoumi HR, Abedi Karjiban R, Salim N, Kalantari K
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jan 01;94:841-849.
    PMID: 30423770 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.015
    Nanoemulsions have been used as a drug carrier system, particularly for poorly water-soluble drugs. Sorafenib is a poorly soluble drug and also there is no parenteral treatment. The aim of this study is the development of nanoemulsions for intravenous administration of Sorafenib. The formulations were prepared by high energy emulsification method and optimized by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Here, the effect of independent composition variables of lecithin (1.16-2.84%, w/w), Medium-Chain Triglycerides (2.32-5.68%, w/w) and polysorbate 80 (0.58-1.42%, w/w) amounts on the properties of Sorafenib-loaded nanoemulsion was investigated. The three responses variables were particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. Optimization of the conditions according to the three dependent variables was performed for the preparation of the Sorafenib-loaded nanoemulsions with the minimum value of particle size, suitable rage of zeta potential, and polydispersity index. A formulation containing 0.05% of Sorafenib kept its properties in a satisfactory range over the evaluated period. The composition with 3% Medium-Chain Triglycerides, 2.5% lecithin and 1.22% polysorbate 80 exhibited the smallest particle size and polydispersity index (43.17 nm and 0.22, respectively) with the zeta potential of -38.8 mV was the optimized composition. The fabricated nanoemulsion was characterized by the transmission electron microscope (TEM), viscosity, and stability assessment study. Also, the cytotoxicity result showed that the optimum formulations had no significant effect on a normal cell in a low concentration of the drug but could eliminate the cancer cells. The dose-dependent toxicity made it a suitable candidate for parenteral applications in the treatment of breast cancer. Furthermore, the optimized formulation indicated good storage stability for 3 months at different temperatures (4 ± 2 °C, 25 ± 2 °C and 45 ± 2 °C).
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  20. Ali MA, Yusof YA, Chin NL, Ibrahim MN, Muneer S
    J Diet Suppl, 2019;16(1):66-85.
    PMID: 29469600 DOI: 10.1080/19390211.2018.1429517
    Moringa oleifera leaves were selected as a model due to their hundreds of health benefits. On the other hand, the powder of these leaves has exhibited poor flowability, low tensile strength, bitter taste, poor dissolution rate, and lack of information regarding dosage. These are the common hurdles and limitations in the adaptation of herbal-based medications. Therefore, a comprehensive study was planned to introduce herbal-based medicines into mainstream medicines by standardization according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and international pharmaceutical standards. A Simplex Lattice Design (SLD) of Design Expert 8.0 software was used to formulate different concentrations of superdisintegrant, binder/diluent, and sweeteners. An Instron Universal Testing machine coupled with a 13 mm stainless cylindrical die was used to manufacture tablets by means of direct compression method at 20 kN applied force. Therefore, selection of excipients was made on the basis of their tensile strength, flowability, and taste-masking properties. Optimum formulation was tested on rabbits for toxicity and growth rate. All formulated tablets were evaluated on standard parameters for orally disintegrating tablets described by the Food and Drug Authority (U.S.). The optimum formulation fulfills all standard parameters such as hardness, disintegration time, friability, and dissolution rate. The present formulation showed no toxicity when tested on rabbits. The present study provides a fundamental understanding of the tableting characteristics of natural medicines. The present study provides information that will help to overcome the challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
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