METHODS: Participants were part of a prospective birth cohort study that recruited 1,247 pregnant women (57.2% Chinese, 25.5% Malay, and 17.3% Indian) during their first trimester. The 1,220 participants were followed up 3 weeks postpartum at home when questionnaires were administered to ascertain the frequency of adherence to the following confinement practices: showering; confinement-specific meals; going out with or without the baby; choice of caregiver assistance; and the use of massage therapy.
RESULTS: Most participants reported that they followed confinement practices during the first 3 weeks postpartum (Chinese: 96.4%, Malay: 92.4%, Indian: 85.6%). Chinese and Indian mothers tended to eat more special confinement diets than Malay mothers (p < 0.001), and Chinese mothers showered less and were more likely to depend on confinement nannies during this period than mothers from the two other ethnic groups (p < 0.001 for all). Malay mothers tended to make greater use of massage therapy (p < 0.001), whilst Indian mothers tended to have their mothers or mothers-in-law as assistant caregivers (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Most Singapore mothers follow confinement practices, but the three Asian ethnic groups differed in specific confinement practices. Future studies should examine whether ethnic differences persist in later childrearing practices.
METHODS: A discovery cohort of Malaysian Chinese descent (NPC patients, n = 140; Healthy controls, n = 256) were genotyped using Illumina® HumanOmniExpress BeadChip. PennCNV and cnvPartition calling algorithms were applied for CNV calling. Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR were used to validate CNV calls and replicate candidate copy number variant region (CNVR) associations in a follow-up Malaysian Chinese (NPC cases, n = 465; and Healthy controls, n = 677) and Malay cohort (NPC cases, n = 114; Healthy controls, n = 124).
RESULTS: Six putative CNVRs overlapping GRM5, MICA/HCP5/HCG26, LILRB3/LILRA6, DPY19L2, RNase3/RNase2 and GOLPH3 genes were jointly identified by PennCNV and cnvPartition. CNVs overlapping GRM5 and MICA/HCP5/HCG26 were subjected to further validation by Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR. Combined analysis in Malaysian Chinese cohort revealed a strong association at CNVR on chromosome 11q14.3 (Pcombined = 1.54x10-5; odds ratio (OR) = 7.27; 95% CI = 2.96-17.88) overlapping GRM5 and a suggestive association at CNVR on chromosome 6p21.3 (Pcombined = 1.29x10-3; OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.75-10.11) overlapping MICA/HCP5/HCG26 genes.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the association of CNVs towards NPC susceptibility, implicating a possible role of CNVs in NPC development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EEG signal was used as a brain response signal, which was evoked by two auditory stimuli (Tones and Consonant Vowels stimulus). The study was carried out on Malaysians (Malay and Chinese) with normal hearing and with hearing loss. A ranking process for the subjects' EEG data and the nonlinear features was used to obtain the maximum classification accuracy.
RESULTS: The study formulated the classification of Normal Hearing Ethnicity Index and Sensorineural Hearing Loss Ethnicity Index. These indices classified the human ethnicity according to brain auditory responses by using numerical values of response signal features. Three classification algorithms were used to verify the human ethnicity. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classified the human ethnicity with an accuracy of 90% in the cases of normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL); the SVM classified with an accuracy of 84%.
CONCLUSION: The classification indices categorized or separated the human ethnicity in both hearing cases of normal hearing and SNHL with high accuracy. The SVM classifier provided a good accuracy in the classification of the auditory brain responses. The proposed indices might constitute valuable tools for the classification of the brain responses according to the human ethnicity.