Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1124 in total

  1. Wan Muhaizan WM, Ahmad PK, Phang KS, Arni T
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Dec;28(2):93-9.
    PMID: 18376798 MyJurnal
    This study was carried out to determine the role of p53 and p21 in the pathogenesis of prostatic adenocarcinoma and their association with tumour grade.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  2. Lie-Injo LE, Ganesan J, Herrera A, Lopez CG
    Hum. Hered., 1978;28(1):37-40.
    PMID: 304028
    In a study of Malaysians of different racial groups, 1,510 sera (908 from Malays, 371 from Chinese and 231 from Indians) were identified for their protease inhibitor (Pi) types. The gene frequencies for the alleles PiM, PiS and PiX in Malays were, respectively, 0.979, 0.015, and 0.007. In Chinese, the frequencies were 0.981, 0.019 and 0.000, and in Indians they were 0.976, 0.24, and 0.000. It is interesting that the usually rare PiX type is found in appreciable frequency in the Malays. Two different types with unusual behavior and obscure origin were also found.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  3. See PP
    Med J Malaysia, 2016 Aug;71(4):199-200.
    PMID: 27770119
    Accessory muscles are relatively rare anatomic duplications of muscles that may appear anywhere in the muscular system. Though a wide array of accessory and supernumery muscles involving the ankle have been described in the literature, this is the first reported case we are aware of that features two accessory muscles. Accessory muscles are typically asymptomatic and often picked up as incidental findings but are important to be identified in the presence of chronic persistent ankle pain and the absence of other more common aetiologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  4. Yaakub JA, Abdullah MM
    Med J Malaysia, 1990 Sep;45(3):263-6.
    PMID: 2152092
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare form of chronic pyelonephritis affecting adults and children. Two patients with the disease are reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  5. Gill HK, Kumar HC, Cheng CK, Ming CC, Nallusamy R, Yusoff NM, et al.
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2013 Jun;31(2):167-72.
    PMID: 23859418 DOI: 10.12932/AP0274.31.2.2013
    BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency (PID) caused by a dysfunctional respiratory burst enzyme NADPH-oxidase. The concurrence of Klinefelter’s Syndrome (KS) and CGD would be extremely rare.
    OBJECTIVE: We describe the study of a family where the youngest male child had X-linked CGD (X-CGD) while his older brother was both an X-CGD carrier and a Klinefelter.
    METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to study respiratory burst and gp91-phox expression, while genetic investigation was done by RT-PCR, PCR and X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) analysis.
    RESULTS: The Dihydrorhodamine (DHR) assay showed the patient’s neutrophils failed to produce a respiratory burst, while both the mother and an older brother showed a bimodal response. gp91-phox expression was absent in the patient’s neutrophils, and bimodal in the mother’s and brother’s neutrophils. The patient’s cDNA showed a C>T change at nucleotide 676 of the CYBB gene. The same change was seen in the patient’s gDNA, while the brother and mother were heterozygous, with C and T, in this position. The c.676C>T is a nonsense mutation that leads to premature termination of the gp91-phox protein. The brother karyotyped as 47, XXY and X chromosome analysis showed that he had inherited both his mother’s X chromosomes.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the patient had gp91-phox deficient CGD while his older brother was a CGD carrier and a Klinefelter, who had inherited both his mother’s X chromosomes. This is the first report of such a concurrence in an individual, and argues for family members to be included in PID studies.
    Key words: Chronic granulomatous disease, CYBB, gp91-phox, Klinefelter’s syndrome NADPHoxidase
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  6. Shahrizaila N, Samulong S, Tey S, Suan LC, Meng LK, Goh KJ, et al.
    Muscle Nerve, 2014 Feb;49(2):198-201.
    PMID: 23649551 DOI: 10.1002/mus.23892
    Data regarding Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is lacking in Southeast Asian populations. We investigated the frequency of the common genetic mutations in a multiethnic Malaysian cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  7. Amin RM, Said ZM, Sutan R, Shah SA, Darus A, Shamsuddin K
    Int Breastfeed J, 2011;6(1):4.
    PMID: 21342506 DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-6-4
    This cross-sectional study assesses factors that contribute to discontinuing breastfeeding among employed mothers in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  8. Zailinawati AH, Ng CJ, Nik-Sherina H
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2006;18(1):10-5.
    PMID: 16629433 DOI: 10.1177/10105395060180010301
    Missed appointments affect patients' health in addition to reducing practice efficiency. This study explored the rate and reasons of non-attendance among patients with chronic illnesses. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in a family practice clinic over a one-month period in 2004. Those who failed turn up for scheduled appointments were interviewed by telephone based on a structured questionnaire. Out of 671 patients, the non-attendance rate was 16.7%. Sixty-seven percent of non-attenders were successfully interviewed. Males (p = 0.01), Indians (p = 0.015), patients with coronary artery disease (p = 0.017), multiple diseases (> 4) (p = 0.036) and shorter appointment intervals (p = 0.001) were more likely to default. The main reasons for non-attendance were: forgot the appointment dates (32.9%), not feeling well (12.3%), administrative errors (19.1%) and work or family commitments (8.2%). The majority would prefer a reminder through telephone (71.4%), followed by letters (41.3%). In conclusion, appropriate intervention could be taken based on the reasons identified in this study.

    Study site: Family Practice Clinic of the
    Department of Primary Care
    Medicine, University of Malaya
    Medical Centre, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  9. Low WY, Zulkifli SN, Wong YL, Tan HM
    Aging Male, 2002 Mar;5(1):57-63.
    PMID: 12040977 DOI: 10.1080/tam.
    This paper highlights women's perceptions of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Pfizer). It is based on a qualitative study on perceptions of erectile dysfunction in the Malaysian multicultural society. Six focus groups were conducted, consisting of 69 women, aged between 40 and 70 years, recruited from the general public and who had given informed consent. The findings revealed that the women were aware of erectile dysfunction and Viagra. Due to their concern about the negative aspects of Viagra, the Chinese and Malay traditional methods of treatment were commonly mentioned. The women from three ethnic groups viewed the possibility of their husband starting to take Viagra with lots of suspicion, mistrust and fear. They would prefer their husband discussing with them the issue of resorting to taking Viagra. The Chinese and Indian women perceived that if a man takes Viagra, it will boost his ego and he will feel more manly. Indian women felt that a man taking Viagra is proof of his love for his wife. The Malay women felt that a man would be ashamed and have a low self-esteem if he were to resort to taking Viagra. Although Viagra is meant for the male, understanding of women's perception of it is beneficial for a couple's sexual relationship.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  10. Sivarao S, Vidyadaran MK, Jammal AB, Zainab S, Goh YM, Ramesh KN
    Placenta, 2002 10 4;23(8-9):691-6.
    PMID: 12361688
    This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethnicity on maternal, placental and neonatal parameters. Maternal, placental, and the newborn parameters were corrected for gestational age. The male:female sex ratio was 1:1.03. One hundred and forty-four freshly delivered placentae from 55 Malaysian, 51 Chinese, and 38 Indian normal healthy patients were collected and standard stereological methods used to estimate the placental parameters. Pearson's correlation, Spearman's correlation and 1-way ANOVA were used to test significance of differences. Placental surface area, placental weight and placental volume of Indians were lower than Malays (P< 0.05). Placental weight correlated significantly with neonatal length (r=0.527), birthweight (r=0.665), head circumference (r=0.371) and booking weight (r=0.193) while placental volume correlated with neonatal length (r=0.588), birthweight (r=0.688), head circumference (r=0.384), parity (r=0.202) and booking weight (r=0.219) at P< 0.05. Indian babies weight and length were less than Chinese and Malay babies (P< 0.05) while booking weight of Indian mothers was less than those of Chinese mothers (P< 0.05). Even after being corrected for booking weight, placental parameters of Indian patients were still significantly less than Malays and Chinese (P< 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  11. Hughes K, Ong CN
    J Epidemiol Community Health, 1998 Mar;52(3):181-5.
    PMID: 9616423
    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that the higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians (South Asians) compared with Malays and Chinese is partly because of differences in antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, and selenium) and pro-oxidants (iron).
    DESIGN: Cross sectional study of the general population.
    SETTING: Singapore.
    PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 941 persons aged 30 to 69 years.
    MAIN RESULTS: There were moderate correlations between vitamin A and vitamin E, and between these vitamins and selenium. Mean plasma vitamins A and E were similar by ethnic group. Vitamin A concentration for Indians were (men 0.66 and women 0.51 mg/l), Malays (men 0.67 and women 0.54 mg/l), and Chinese (men 0.68 and women 0.52 mg/l). Vitamin E concentrations for Indians were (men 12.9 and women 12.8 mg/l), Malays (men 13.6 and women 13.3 mg/l), and Chinese (men 12.6 and women 12.6 mg/l). In contrast, mean plasma vitamin C concentrations were lower in Indians (men 5.7 and women 6.9 mg/l) and Malays (men 5.1 and women 6.4 mg/l) than Chinese (men 6.3 and women 8.4 mg/l). Mean serum selenium was lower in Indians (men 117 and women 115 micrograms/l) than Malays (men 122 and women 122 micrograms/l) and Chinese (men 126 and women 119 micrograms/l). Mean serum ferritin was much lower in Indians (men 132 and women 50 micrograms/l) than Malays (men 175 and women 85 micrograms/l) and Chinese (men 236 and women 92 micrograms/l).
    MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Lower vitamin C and selenium in Indians, particularly in combination, could play a part in their increased risk of CHD. Vitamins A and E, and ferritin (iron) have no such role. Lower vitamin C in Indians and Malays is probably because of its destruction by more prolonged cooking. In Indians, lower selenium is probably because of a lower dietary intake and the much lower ferritin to a lower dietary intake of iron and its binding by phytates.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  12. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Ibrahim S, Mohamed IN, Wan Ngah WZ
    Nutrients, 2014 Nov 26;6(12):5419-33.
    PMID: 25431881 DOI: 10.3390/nu6125419
    Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid (PTH), total calcium and inorganic phosphate assays. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level <30 nmol/L and insufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D level between 30 and 50 nmol/L. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 0.5%, and insufficiency was 22.7%. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were more prevalent in the Malays compared to the Chinese. Being Chinese, older in age, having lower body mass index (BMI) and a high physical activity status were associated significantly with a higher serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). The serum PTH level was inversely associated with the serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, a significant proportion of Malaysian men have vitamin D insufficiency, although deficiency is uncommon. Steps should be taken to correct the vitamin D status of these men.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  13. Ngai M, Lin V, Wong HC, Vathsala A, How P
    Clin. Nephrol., 2014 Oct;82(4):231-9.
    PMID: 25161115 DOI: 10.5414/CN108182
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and mineral and bone disorder (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, and the association between vitamin D status and MBD in a multi-ethnic CKD population in Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: Predialysis CKD patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patient demographics, medical/medication histories, and laboratory parameters (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), creatinine, phosphate (P), calcium, albumin, and intact-PTH (i-PTH)) were collected and compared among patients with various CKD stages. The association between 25(OH)D and these parameters was determined by multiple linear regression.

    RESULTS: A total of 196 patients with mean ± SD eGFR of 26.4 ± 11.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 was included. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D concentration < 15 ng/mL) and insufficiency (25(OH)D concentration 16 - 30 ng/mL) was found in 29.1% and 57.7% of the patients, respectively. Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D was 20.8 ± 9.3 ng/mL. Female patients had lower vitamin D concentrations than males (16.9 ng/mL vs. 23.9 ng/mL; p < 0.001). Vitamin D levels were also higher in Chinese (22.3 ng/mL) than Malay (17.3 ng/mL) and Indian (13.1 ng/mL) patients (p < 0.05). Nonadjusted analyses showed higher i-PTH concentration in vitamin D deficient patients (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Despite being a sun-rich country all year round, the majority (86.8%) of predialysis CKD patients in Singapore have suboptimal vitamin D status. Lower vitamin D concentrations were found in females and in those with darker skin tone. Vitamin D deficient patients also tended to have higher i-PTH levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  14. Rahman SA, Chee WS, Yassin Z, Chan SP
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2004;13(3):255-60.
    PMID: 15331337
    Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) were determined in 276 (103 Malays and 173 Chinese) postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years. The level of 25 (OH) D was significantly lower in the postmenopausal Malay women (44.4 +/-10.6 nmol/L) compared to the Chinese women (68.8 +/- 15.7 nmol/L) (P<0.05). There were 27% Malay women with serum 25 (OH) D in the range of 50 - 100 nmol/L (defined as lowered vitamin D status, or hypovitaminosis D) and 71% with levels in the range of 25 - 50 nmol/L (defined as vitamin D insufficiency) compared to 87% and 11% Chinese women respectively. Serum 25 (OH) D was found to significantly correlate with BMI, fat mass and PTH level. Multivariate analyses showed that race has a strong association with vitamin D status. The high prevalence of inadequate levels of serum vitamin D found in our study may have important public health consequences and warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in the older adult Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  15. Tan KM, Saw S, Sethi SK
    J Clin Lab Anal, 2013 Jul;27(4):301-4.
    PMID: 23852789 DOI: 10.1002/jcla.21602
    BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to determine the normal ranges of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D(3) (25-OHD(3)), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and the markers of bone turnover, procollagen type 1 N propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), in normal healthy women in Singapore, and to explore the relationship between vitamin D, PTH, and these markers of bone turnover in the women.

    METHODS: One hundred and ninety-seven healthy women, aged 25 to 60, were selected from a hospital staff health screening program; 68% were Chinese, 18% Malay, and 14% Indian. P1NP, CTX, and 25-OHD(3) were measured using the Roche Cobas® electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum PTH was measured using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur® immunoassay.

    RESULTS: Sixty-five percent had 25-OHD(3) concentrations <50 nmol/l. Vitamin D insufficiency (25-OHD(3) < 50 nmol/l) was more prevalent in Malays (89%) and Indians (82%) compared to Chinese (56%). There was no correlation between vitamin D and age. PTH positively correlated with age, and Malays and Indians had higher PTH concentrations than Chinese. There was an inverse correlation between PTH and 25-OHD(3), but no threshold of 25-OHD(3) concentrations at which PTH plateaued. The bone turnover markers P1NP and CTX inversely correlated with age but were not different between ethnic groups. CTX and P1NP exhibited good correlation, however, there was no significant correlation between 25-OHD(3) or PTH concentrations and the bone turnover markers P1NP and CTX.

    CONCLUSIONS: Healthy women in Singapore have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in Malays and Indians compared to Chinese.

    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  16. Saha N, Ng TB, Tan PY, Wee KP
    Br J Nutr, 1988 Nov;60(3):407-12.
    PMID: 3219311 DOI: 10.1079/bjn19880112
    1. The vitamin A content of human liver tissue was determined in 363 autopsy samples. The sample comprised a total of 181 subjects dying after accidents and 182 dying from coronary heart disease among Singapore ethnic groups of both sexes. 2. The medium vitamin A reserve was 146 mg/kg in accident victims and 141 mg/kg in those who had died of coronary heart disease. Of all the samples 16% contained less than 40 mg/kg, 45% had 100-300 mg/kg, while 9% contained more than 500 mg/kg liver. 3. Among the accident victims, Indians had the lowest median liver vitamin A reserve (118 mg/kg) compared with that in other ethnic groups (137 mg/kg in Chinese, 191 mg/kg in Malays, 155 mg/kg in Caucasians). 4. The ethnic distribution of vitamin A reserve in coronary deaths was similar to that in accident victims. 5. There was no significant difference between the sexes in hepatic vitamin A reserve. 6. The distribution of vitamin A reserve in all the groups was skewed to the right.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  17. Chia YC, Ching SM, Lim HM
    J Hypertens, 2017 05;35 Suppl 1:S50-S56.
    PMID: 28350621 DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001333
    OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to determine the relationship of long-term visit-to-visit variability of SBP to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic primary care setting.
    METHOD: This is a retrospective study of a cohort of 807 hypertensive patients over a period of 10 years. Three-monthly clinic blood pressure readings were used to derive blood pressure variability (BPV), and CVD events were captured from patient records.
    RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 9.8 years with 63.3% being women. The BPV and mean SBP over 10 years were 14.7 ± 3.5 and 142 ± 8 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of cardiovascular event was 13%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BPV was the predictor of CVD events, whereas the mean SBP was not independently associated with cardiovascular events in this population. Those with lower SBP and lower BPV had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same low mean SBP but higher BPV (10.5 versus 12.8%). Similarly those with higher mean SBP but lower BPV also had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same high mean and higher BPV (11.6 versus 16.7%). Other variables like being men, diabetes and Indian compared with Chinese are more likely to be associated with cardiovascular events.
    CONCLUSION: BPV is associated with an increase in CVD events even in those who have achieved lower mean SBP. Thus, we should prioritize not only control of SBP levels but also BPV to reduce CVD events further.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  18. Loganathan A, Ng CJ, Low WY
    BMC Geriatr, 2016;16:97.
    PMID: 27153989 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-016-0274-6
    BACKGROUND: Few studies on falls interventions have been conducted in South East Asia. Despite its population ageing rapidly, the acceptability of interventions among the older population in this region remains variable. This study aims to explore views and experiences regarding falls and their prevention among older persons at high risk of falls.
    METHOD: Sixteen individuals aged 60 years and over with at least one fall in the preceding 12 months were recruited from our Primary Care clinics. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews among individuals and focus-groups was conducted. Thematic analyses were conducted on transcriptions of audio-taped interviews using the WeftQDA software. The interviews ceased when data saturation was achieved.
    RESULTS: The three themes included older persons' views on falls, help-seeking behaviour and views on falls interventions. Many older persons interviewed did not perceive falls as a serious problem, some reported a stigma surrounding falls, while others felt they had not sustained more serious injuries due to God's grace. Older persons sought traditional medicine and other alternative treatments for pain relief and other fall-related symptoms. Accessibility of healthcare facilities often prevented older persons from receiving physiotherapy or eye tests.
    CONCLUSION: The delivery of complex interventions for a multifactorial condition such as falls in the older persons in our setting is inhibited by various cultural barriers, falls perceptions as well as logistic difficulties. Efforts to establish a multi-disciplinary intervention among our older population will need to include strategies to overcome these issues.
    KEYWORDS: Accidental falls; Aged; Falls interventions; Falls preventions; Older adults; Qualitative study

    Study site: Primary Care Clinics at University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  19. Sivanesaratnam V, Abd Rahman A
    Med J Malaysia, 1984 Mar;39(1):69-72.
    PMID: 6513843
    A review of our experience of 916 cases ofpartial bilateral vasectomy performed under local anaesthesia at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur during the
    period between January 1971 and June 1980 is presented. Minor post-operative complications occurred in 5.8% of cases with a low post-operative infection rate of 1.2%. In 35% ofpatients, persistence of non-motile sperms in the semen were seen after at least ten ejaculations in each instance. In four of these cases non-motile sperms continued to persist into the sixth month of follow-up even after at least 50 ejaculations in each instance.
    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
  20. Lim J, Lal S, Ng KC, Ng KS, Saha N, Heng CK
    Int J Cardiol, 2003 Aug;90(2-3):269-73.
    PMID: 12957761
    BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of the glycoprotein IIIa receptor have been shown to be associated with differences in platelet aggregability. The PI(A2) variant of the polymorphism has been reported to be an inherited risk factor for acute coronary events. Although the allele frequency of this polymorphism is well documented in Caucasian populations, studies involving Asian Indians, Malays and Chinese are lacking. We studied 706 random male individuals to determine the genotypic distribution of this polymorphism in Singapore.

    METHODS: Male subjects included in this study were drawn from those undergoing routine annual medical examinations offered by their employers. Venous blood was obtained from these patients after an overnight fast and from which genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with restriction enzyme NciI. Personal and family medical history of the subjects were also taken.

    RESULTS: The genotype distribution of the individuals studied was in accordance to a population at Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the PI(A2) allele was 0.1, 0.01 and 0.01 in the Indians, Malays and Chinese, respectively. The differences in frequencies of the PI(A2) variant are significant among different ethnic groups (P<0.001 for Indians vs. Chinese and Indians vs. Malays).

    CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly higher frequency of the PI(A2) allele among Indians relative to the Chinese and Malays in Singapore. The effect of this genotype may partially explain the higher rate of ischaemic heart disease seen among Indians compared to the Chinese and Malay ethnic groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: China/ethnology
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