METHODS: Predialysis CKD patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patient demographics, medical/medication histories, and laboratory parameters (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), creatinine, phosphate (P), calcium, albumin, and intact-PTH (i-PTH)) were collected and compared among patients with various CKD stages. The association between 25(OH)D and these parameters was determined by multiple linear regression.
RESULTS: A total of 196 patients with mean ± SD eGFR of 26.4 ± 11.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 was included. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D concentration < 15 ng/mL) and insufficiency (25(OH)D concentration 16 - 30 ng/mL) was found in 29.1% and 57.7% of the patients, respectively. Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D was 20.8 ± 9.3 ng/mL. Female patients had lower vitamin D concentrations than males (16.9 ng/mL vs. 23.9 ng/mL; p < 0.001). Vitamin D levels were also higher in Chinese (22.3 ng/mL) than Malay (17.3 ng/mL) and Indian (13.1 ng/mL) patients (p < 0.05). Nonadjusted analyses showed higher i-PTH concentration in vitamin D deficient patients (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Despite being a sun-rich country all year round, the majority (86.8%) of predialysis CKD patients in Singapore have suboptimal vitamin D status. Lower vitamin D concentrations were found in females and in those with darker skin tone. Vitamin D deficient patients also tended to have higher i-PTH levels.
METHODS: One hundred and ninety-seven healthy women, aged 25 to 60, were selected from a hospital staff health screening program; 68% were Chinese, 18% Malay, and 14% Indian. P1NP, CTX, and 25-OHD(3) were measured using the Roche Cobas® electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum PTH was measured using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur® immunoassay.
RESULTS: Sixty-five percent had 25-OHD(3) concentrations <50 nmol/l. Vitamin D insufficiency (25-OHD(3) < 50 nmol/l) was more prevalent in Malays (89%) and Indians (82%) compared to Chinese (56%). There was no correlation between vitamin D and age. PTH positively correlated with age, and Malays and Indians had higher PTH concentrations than Chinese. There was an inverse correlation between PTH and 25-OHD(3), but no threshold of 25-OHD(3) concentrations at which PTH plateaued. The bone turnover markers P1NP and CTX inversely correlated with age but were not different between ethnic groups. CTX and P1NP exhibited good correlation, however, there was no significant correlation between 25-OHD(3) or PTH concentrations and the bone turnover markers P1NP and CTX.
CONCLUSIONS: Healthy women in Singapore have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in Malays and Indians compared to Chinese.
METHODS: Male subjects included in this study were drawn from those undergoing routine annual medical examinations offered by their employers. Venous blood was obtained from these patients after an overnight fast and from which genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with restriction enzyme NciI. Personal and family medical history of the subjects were also taken.
RESULTS: The genotype distribution of the individuals studied was in accordance to a population at Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the PI(A2) allele was 0.1, 0.01 and 0.01 in the Indians, Malays and Chinese, respectively. The differences in frequencies of the PI(A2) variant are significant among different ethnic groups (P<0.001 for Indians vs. Chinese and Indians vs. Malays).
CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly higher frequency of the PI(A2) allele among Indians relative to the Chinese and Malays in Singapore. The effect of this genotype may partially explain the higher rate of ischaemic heart disease seen among Indians compared to the Chinese and Malay ethnic groups.