Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potentially fatal condition because neonates are obligatory nasal breathers. Bilateral choanal atresia is therefore a neonatal emergency. Several approaches for corrections of choanal atresia are available including the helium laser: YAG. A 5-year-old Chinese girl born with bilateral choanal atresia, had birth asphyxia that required intubation. She underwent multiple surgeries for correction of choanal atresia at other hospitals but failed to improve. She was referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) after presenting with intermittent respiratory distress and cyanosis following an upper respiratory tract infection. A repeat computed tomography (CT) scan done preoperatively showed complete bony stenosis over the left choana and finding was confirmed by examination under general anesthesia. She underwent endoscopic transnasal removal of left bony atretic plate. There was no intra or postoperative complications. During follow up 10 years later, the airway on both sides remains patent.
Choanal atresia is an uncommon malformation of the upper airway. Bilateral choanal atresia usually detected earlier as it is often associated with severe asphyxia immediately after birth. The diagnosis is often delayed in unilateral type, and mostly presented with unilateral chronic nasal discharge. This condition is rarely encountered but should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis of persistent nasal discharge. We present a case of unilateral congenital choanal atresia in a 4-month-old baby girl presented with persistent unilateral nasal discharge. Diagnostic investigation and possible surgical treatment techniques were discussed.
Neonates are obligate nasal breather until they are at least two to five months old. Congenital nasal airway obstruction is one of the commonest causes of respiratory problem in newborn. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) was first described by Brown et al in 1989  and is a rare cause of nasal airway obstruction which may clinically mimic choanal atresia.(Copied from article)
Reported cases of acquired posterior choanal atresia are very few in the English literature. A case of acquired posterior choanal atresia post radiotherapy is reported which was treated by endonasal endoscopic repair using microdebrider with untoward effect.
Choana atresia is a congenital abnormality of the posterior nasal apertures affecting the newborn. The aetiology is considered to be a persistence of the embroyological bucconasal membrane which separates the nasal cavity from the stomatodeum until it breaks down at seventh week, allowing communication through the primitive posterior nares. Bilateral choanal atresia almost always present as a respiratory emergency because newborn babies are obligate nasal breathers. The definitive surgical treatment is repair under general anaesthesia. We report our experience in doing a new technique of transnasal endoscopic repair.
Choanal stenosis has recently been recognized as a late complication of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The management of velopharyngeal stenosis is challenging with high risk of restenosis. We report a case of velopharyngeal stenosis post-radiotherapy and illustrated the use of mitomycin-C to prevent restenosis. Mitomycin-C application has being shown useful adjunct to surgical technique in managing nasopharyngeal stenosis for surgeons.