One hundred and thirty-two newly diagnosed Asian diabetic patients (39 Malay, 30 Chinese and 63 Indians) have been studied in Kuala Lumpur. The highest proportion of diabetic patients were Indian and the lowest were Chinese. Vascular complications were equally common in Asian diabetic patients as in Europeans; coronary heart disease was relatively more common in Indians and cerebral vascular disease in Chinese. Twenty percent of all Asian diabetic patients requiring admission to hospital also had coronary heart disease, 9% had cerebral vascular disease and 8% had gangrene or ulceration of the feet. In Kuala Lumpur, diabetes is a very important risk factor for coronary heart disease: 17% of all patients admitted to the General Hospital with coronary heart disease were already diabetic.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association.
METHODS: The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004-2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association.
RESULTS: Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers.
CONCLUSIONS: In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse levels of various cardio-metabolic risk factors. This may reflect detrimental effects of television screen time on dietary habits rather than replacement of physical activity.
MESH: screen time
There is very little data regarding the factors related to intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery in normal individuals in those with non-insulin diabetes mellitus and perimenopausal women in Southeast Asian countries. Ultrasound imaging evaluating the carotid artery IMT in those with diabetes and those on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was performed beginning in August 2000 for a period of nearly two years at the Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 153 participants were included. Significant differences between the women on HRT and not on HRT were IMT and systolic blood pressure. When comparing those with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and normal individuals, the significant differences were IMT, total cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. IMT was high in those with NIDDM but not in those on HRT. Both those with NIDDM and those on HRT had associated dyslipidemia and systolic hypertension.
This study describes the prevalence of selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors screened in patients 30 years and above attending a health centre in Cheras, Selangor. The study involved 3772 patients screened from March 2002 to June 2008. Risk factors screened included blood pressure, height, weight, serum total cholesterol, random blood sugar levels and smoking status. Majority of respondents were between 40 and 49 years of age (58.1%), males (64.7%) and ethnic Malays (74.4%). About two thirds (62.6%) were found to be overweight or obese, two fifths (40.2%) had hypercholesterolemia, a third (34.2%) had hypertension and 31.6% were smokers at some time. Overall 87% and 60% had at least one and two CVD risk factors respectively. Prevalence of four of the five risk factors screened was highest among the Malay middle aged men and lowest among the Chinese. Thus a substantial proportion of middle aged men were at high risk of CVD. Our findings show the need for ongoing monitoring of CVD risk factors and implementation of effective preventive strategies.
There are contradictory results regarding the pattern of seasonal variation of serum lipids. The aim of this study was to compare serum lipid levels in different seasons in participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This was a cross-sectional study among 2890 men and 4004 women 20-64 years old from the participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) between 1999 and 2001. Mean values of serum lipids in different seasons were compared with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) after adjustment for age, physical activity level, smoking, BMI and Waist-to-hip ratio. In men, there was a significant trend for change in the values of cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C in different seasons, with higher cholesterol and LDL-C values in winter than in summer (P < 0.05). In women, only the mean values of triglycerides were significantly different between different seasons with values lower in winter than in summer. There was a 26.2% relative increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (> or = 240 mg/dl) in winter than in summer in men. The corresponding increase in the prevalence of high LDL-C (> or = 160 mg/dl) was 26.7% and 24.9% in men and women, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of high triglycerides (> or = _ 200mg/dl) in women significantly decreased (23.8%) in winter relative to summer (P < 0.001). This study showed that there is seasonal variability in serum lipid values and this variability is greater in men than women. The increase in the prevalence of high LDL in winter in both sexes must be considered in population screening and in the follow-up of hyperlipidemic patients.
To examine a possible association between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 100 type 2 diabetic patients were assessed with the following parameters: age, body mass index, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, Lp(a), and albumin excretion rate (AER). Retinopathy was classified as normal retina (NR), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) by an ophthalmologist. The PDR group had higher cholesterol (t=-2.24, p<0.05) and creatinine (z=-2.547, p<0.05) levels than the NPDR group. The PDR group had a higher value of AER (z=-2.439, p<0.01) than the NR group. The possibility of developing diabetic retinopathy after 10 years of diabetes was found to be 6.5 fold high (OR; 6.57, 95% CI 1.74-24.79; p<0.05). The Lp(a) levels were similar in the patients with retinopathy and those without retinopathy. In the study, there was no evidence for a relationship between the serum Lp(a) levels and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients.
Study site: diabetic outpatient clinic at Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey.
We describe the distribution of capillary blood total cholesterol (BC) by age, sex and ethnicity in Malaysian adults. A national sample of 20,041 individuals aged 30 or older had usable data. They were selected by stratified 2-stage cluster sampling. BC was measured using reflectance photometer. Percentile tables and curves by age, sex and ethnicity are presented. The BC distribution was right skewed and showed the expected increase with age. There were ethnic differences. Malay had the highest BC concentration, followed by Indian, Chinese and other indigenous ethnic group. However, for all ethnic groups, BC concentrations were low in comparison those prevailing in Western populations.
Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-1996)
The paper presents the results of a health screening programme conducted in 10 major centers in Malaysia--Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Alor Star, Kuala Terengganu, Malacca, Kota Bahru, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu during the National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997. There were 6,858 participants of both sexes aged between 6 years to 81 years old. The parameters involved in the screening programme were body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterol and glucose. The following are the results of the study:- 1. The mean and standard deviation for the body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), total cholesterol (TC) and non fasting (random) blood glucose (GL) of the volunteers studied were 24.3 +/- 4.0 kg/m2, 128.3 +/- 21.1 mmHg, 79.6 +/- 11.9 mmHg, 77.2 +/- 12.1 bpm, 5.33 +/- 1.37 mmol/l and 5.11 +/- 1.97 mmol/l respectively. 2. There was a rising trend for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC and GL with age. The HR was higher in the younger age group of those below 20 years. Males tended to have higher mean values than females except for HR which was similar in both sexes. 3. The Malays, Chinese and Indians seemed to have closely similar mean values for SBP, DBP and HR but the Indians possessed the highest BMI (25.62 +/- 3.90 kg/m2), TC (5.61 +/- 1.48 mmol/l) and GL (5.41 +/- 2.43 mmol/l) among the three major ethnic groups. While the Ibans had highest TC (6.07 + 1.09 mmol/l), their GL level was the lowest (4.76 +/- 1.15 mmol/l). The Kadazans had the lowest TC level (4.94 +/- 1.39 mmol/l) among all the ethnic groups. 4. Among the participants screened, 31.9% were overweight (BMI > or = 25), 7.6% were obese (BMI > or = 30); 26.8% had raised SBP (> or = 140 mmHg) and 19.3% had raised DBP (> or = 90 mmHg); 13.6% of the participants had increased HR (> or = 90 bpm), 22% had raised TC (> or = 6.20 mmol/l) and 2% had raised GL (> or = 11.00 mmol/l). There was a higher prevalence for abnormal values with increasing age until between the ages of 60 or 70 years, when the values began to fall. 5. Age was positively correlated with SBP (r = 0.41***, df = 4351), DBP (r = 0.27***, df = 4351), TC (r = 0.22***, df = 3303) and GL (r = 0.16***, df = 2442) but negatively correlated with HR (r = -0.13***, df = 4351). The BMI was positively correlated with SBP (r = 0.29***, df = 2769), DBP (r = 0.31***, df = 2769), TC (r = 0.16***, df = 2137) and GL (r = 0.11**, df = 1637) but there was no correlation with HR (r = 0.03NS, df = 2771). The SBP and DBP were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.75***, df = 4351) and they also showed highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.08***-0.13***, df = 2441-3301) with TC and GL. TC was positively correlated with GL (r = 0.05* df = 2319) but only at the 5% probability level.
Postprandial changes in plasma total cholesterol (TC) are minimal and there is essentially no difference between fasting vs random TC concentrations, as reflected in the small diurnal coefficient of variation (CV) for TC of 2.5%. Similarly, a cholesterol-rich meal within the last 24 hours lacked an impact on plasma TC. Thus, random specimens are acceptable in blood cholesterol screening. The intraindividual biological CV (CVb) for plasma TC as measured over a long period was estimated from the data of several published studies to be 6.0%, which, when combined with a probable analytical CV (CVa) of 5% during screening, gave a total intraindividual CV (CVt) of about 8% for the single cholesterol assay. There is consensus that 'high TC values' acquired during screening should be confirmed under the conventional laboratory setting capable of CVa of 3% or less.
Twenty eight patients who satisfied the entry criteria and had completed an initial 2 weeks treatment with placebo were titrated fortnightly with doses of Nicardipine ranging from 30 mg to 90 mg daily in two or three divided doses. Nicardipine treatment significantly reduced blood pressures both in the supine and standing positions (p < 0.0004) when compared with placebo treatment. Heart rates however did not change significantly. Forty six percent (13/28) of patients on 20 mg twice daily, 25% (7/28) on 10 mg three times daily, 18% (5/28) of patients on 20 mg three times daily and 11% (3/28) on 30 mg three times daily achieved supine diastolic blood pressures < 90 mm Hg. Nicardipine treatment at 16 weeks and at 24 weeks did not significantly alter the lipid profile when compared to the end of placebo treatment period. No other biochemical abnormalities were reported during the study period. Except for 2 cases of mild pedal oedema and 2 cases of transient headaches, no serious side-effects were encountered.
Cholesterol reduction reduces ischaemic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the asymptomatic healthy population as well as in those with known coronary artery disease. Angiographic studies have also demonstrated regression of atherosclerotic plaques as well as retardation of new atheroma formation with such therapy. Yet, there is a consistent inability to reduce overall mortality in cholesterol-lowering drug trials. An excess of suicide, homicide and violence has been attributed to cholesterol reduction interfering with membrane lipids and receptors, leading to aggressive behaviour. The risk and benefits of cholesterol reduction must thus be weighed in the individual patient; it is more useful in those with known coronary artery disease who are at high risk of subsequent ischaemic cardiovascular events.
Coronary atheroma is the principal cause of ischaemic heart disease. Among the factors considered to predispose to atheroma formation is raised plasma cholesterol and although it is regarded as a minor risk factor by some, others see its contribution as one of major importance. Whichever the view, the debate on plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD) has long moved out of the exclusive domain of the scientific journal to the public arena and is reflected in the increasing frequency with which doctors are consulted by patients on the subject. The incidence of CHD in South-East Asian countries is also rising. For the practising clinician, the problem resolves itself into deciding if the evidence incriminating plasma cholesterol as a predisposing factor is strong enough, and if it is, what prophylactic and therapeutic steps are of value in reducing the incidence of CH D. An updated and brief review of lipid metabolism and the relationship of lipids to CHD is now necessary in view of the rapid accumulation of data from recent trials and prospective studies.
Antioxidants such as tocotrienols may protect against atherosclerosis since tissue injury from free radicals is a final common pathway of damage in arterial disease. In this study, the effects of tocotrienols on serum cholesterol, lipid peroxides, and aorta atheroma were assessed in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Tocotrienols were more effective than tocopherols in preventing increases in serum LDL (p = 0.03) and total cholesterol (p = 0.008) levels in the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Elevation of serum lipid peroxides was effectively suppressed by tocotrienols (p = 0.01). Both tocopherols and tocotrienols offered significant protection against atheroma in the rabbit aorta, but tocotrienols had a stronger hypolipidaemic effect.
Comment in: Pathmanathan R, Wong KT. Protection by tocotrienols against hypercholesterolaemia and atheroma. Med J Malaysia. 1995 Mar;50(1):117