Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 121 in total

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  1. Roohinejad S, Omidizadeh A, Mirhosseini H, Saari N, Mustafa S, Yusof RM, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Jan 30;90(2):245-51.
    PMID: 20355038 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3803
    Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health. Brown rice (BR) and pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol, dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the present study, the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24, 48 h pre-germination) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  2. Mani V, Parle M, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Jan 15;91(1):186-92.
    PMID: 20848667 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4171
    Coriandrum sativum L., commonly known as coriander and belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional value. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fresh Coriandrum sativum leaves (CSL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. In this study, CSL (5, 10 and 15% w/w of diet) was fed orally with a specially prepared diet for 45 days consecutively to experimental animals. Elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam, scopolamine and ageing-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  3. Harizal SN, Mansor SM, Hasnan J, Tharakan JK, Abdullah J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Sep 15;131(2):404-9.
    PMID: 20643198 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.013
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) is widely used in Malaysia as a medicinal agent for treating diarrhea, worm infestations and also acts as an analgesic and antipyretic.
    AIM: The aim of the study is to determine the acute toxicity of Mitragyna speciosa Korth standardized methanol extract in vivo in 4-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats.
    METHODOLOGY: Rats were orally administrated single dose of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg Mitragyna speciosa Korth standardized methanol extract and the control group received 430 mg/kg of morphine orally. There were 10 rats in each group. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days of treatment. Eight parameters were tested: cage side observation, body weight measurement, food and water consumption, blood pressure, absolute and relative organ weight, hematology, biochemical analysis and histopathology, to look for evidence of toxicity.
    RESULT: No mortality was noted after 14 days of treatment. In general, behavior, food and water consumption, hematological studies and organ weights showed no significant changes. The standardized methanol extraction of Mitragyna speciosa Korth increased rat blood pressure (systolic: 147.4+/-1.01, 131.64+/-4.94 and 137.8+/-4.46) after an hour of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, respectively. Biochemical studies showed significant elevation of ALT, AST, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol and albumin (p>0.05), at all levels of doses. But, nephrotoxicity evidenced by elevated creatinine was seen only at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. Histological examination showed congestion of sinusoids, hemorrhage hepatocytes, fatty change, centrilobular necrosis and increased number of Kuppfer cells in the liver of all Mitragyna speciosa Korth standardized methanol extract treated groups.
    CONCLUSION: Oral administration of standardized methanolic extraction of Mitragyna speciosa Korth resulted in increasing rat blood pressure after an hour of drug administration. The highest dose of extract also induced acute severe hepatotoxicity and mild nephrotoxicity. However, Mitragyna speciosa Korth shows no effects on body weight, food and water consumption, absolute and relative organ weight and also hematology parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  4. Ellulu MS, Rahmat A, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Abed Y
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:3405-12.
    PMID: 26170625 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S83144
    Obesity is well associated as being an interfering factor in metabolic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes by increasing the secretion of proinflammatory markers from adipose tissue. Having healthy effects, vitamin C could work as an anti-inflammatory agent through its antioxidant capacity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  5. Choo KE, Davis TM, Mansur MA, Azman E, Achana S
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1996 Oct;32(5):428-32.
    PMID: 8933405
    OBJECTIVE: Preliminary epidemiological data suggest that dyslipidaemia contributes significantly to rising mortality due to atherosclerosis in Peninsular Malays. The aim of this study was to determine whether abnormal serum lipid profiles are present at birth in this population.

    METHODOLOGY: The patients were 487 non-diabetic Malay women who had an uncomplicated antenatal course and delivered healthy singleton babies at term. Cord blood and maternal post-partum venous blood samples were taken for assay of serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations using standard enzymatic methods.

    RESULTS: Maternal total serum cholesterol concentrations (mean +/- SD; 7.5 +/- 2.5 mmol/L) were higher than in other reported series (range of published means 5.2-6.5 mmol/L) with a correspondingly low high-density lipoprotein (HDL): total cholesterol ratio. The mean cord blood total serum cholesterol (1.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/L) was consistent with previously reported population means (1.5-1.9 mmol/L) but there was a relatively high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and depressed HDL: cholesterol ratio. Significant correlations between maternal and neonatal serum total (P = 0.038) and especially HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.001) were observed. Maternal and cord blood serum triglyceride levels were comparable to those in other series.

    CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional data provide evidence that abnormal serum cholesterol profiles are found in pregnant Malay women and their neonates which may have implications for the prevalence of macrovascular disease in the Malay population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  6. Rahim MZA, Govender-Hondros G, Adeloju SB
    Talanta, 2018 Nov 01;189:418-428.
    PMID: 30086941 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2018.06.041
    The development of free and total cholesterol nanobiosensors based on a single step electrochemical integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), cholesterol oxidase (COx), cholesterol esterase (CE) and a mediator with polypyrrole (PPy) films is described. The incorporation of the various components in the PPy films was confirmed by chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The free cholesterol, PPy-NO3--Fe(CN)64--AuNPs-COx, nanobiosensor achieved a minimum detectable concentration of 5 μM, a linear concentration range of 5-25 μM and a sensitivity of 1.6 µA cm-2 µM-1 in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.00). For the total cholesterol, PPy-NO3--Fe(CN)64--AuNPs-COx-CE, nanobiosensor which also involved the co-incorporation of cholesterol esterase (CE) with the other components, the achieved performances include a minimum detectable total cholesterol concentration of 25 μM, a broader linear concentration range of 25-170 μM and a lower sensitivity of 0.1 µA µM-1 cm-2. Owing to its high selectivity, the presence of common interferants did not affect the total cholesterol measurement with the PPy-NO3--Fe(CN)64--AuNPs-COx-CE nanobiosensor. Both nanobiosensors were successfully used for direct and indirect determination of total cholesterol in human blood serum samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  7. Mikail MA, Ahmed IA, Ibrahim M, Hazali N, Abdul Rasad MS, Abdul Ghani R, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Jun;55(4):1435-44.
    PMID: 26091909 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0961-7
    PURPOSE: The consequence of the increased demand due to the population expansion has put tremendous pressure on the natural supply of fruits. Hence, there is an unprecedented growing interest in the exploration of the potentials of underutilized fruits as alternatives to the commercially available fruits. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit widely distributed in Borneo Island of Malaysia. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of B. angulata whole fruit (WF), skin (SK) and pulp (PL) juices on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant enzymes in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet.

    METHODS: Thirty-six male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to six groups. Rabbits were fed either a standard pellet (group NC) or a high-cholesterol diet (groups HC, PC, WF, SK and PL). Groups WF, SK and PL were also given 1 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF, SK and PL juices, respectively.

    RESULTS: Baccaurea angulata had high antioxidant activities. The administration of the various juices significantly reduced (p cholesterol feeding was also ameliorated with B. angulata.

    CONCLUSION: Our results show that B. angulata fruit is beneficial in positively influencing and managing oxidative damage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  8. Dehghan F, Soori R, Gholami K, Abolmaesoomi M, Yusof A, Muniandy S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 12 05;6:37819.
    PMID: 27917862 DOI: 10.1038/srep37819
    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers to purslane seed consumption and aerobic training in women with T2D. 196 women with T2D were assigned into; (1) placebo (PL), (2) aerobic training+placebo (AT + PL), 3) purslane seeds (PS), aerobic training+purslane seeds (AT + PS). The training program and purslane seeds consumption (2.5 g lunch and 5 g dinner) were carried out for 16 weeks. The components of purslane seed were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Blood samples were withdrawn via venipuncture to examine blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), creatinine, urea, uric acid, NF-κB, GLP1, GLP1R, TIMP-1, MMP2, MMP9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS expressions. Blood glucose, LDL, cholesterol, TG, creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels in the (P), (AT), and (AT + PS) groups were significantly decreased compared to the pre-experimental levels or the placebo group, while HDL, significantly increased. Furthermore, the protein and mRNA levels of NF-κB, TIMP-1, MMP2 &9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS in the (P), (AT), (AT + PS) significantly decreased compared to pre-experimental or the placebo group, while level of GLP1 and GLP1-R increased drastically. Findings suggest that purslane seed consumption alongside exercising could improve atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers through synergistically mechanisms in T2D.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  9. Beh BK, Mohamad NE, Yeap SK, Ky H, Boo SY, Chua JYH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 27;7(1):6664.
    PMID: 28751642 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-06235-7
    Recently, food-based bioactive ingredients, such as vinegar, have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the global obesity epidemic. Although acetic acid has been identified as the main component in vinegar that contributes to its anti-obesity effect, reports have shown that vinegar produced from different starting materials possess different degrees of bioactivity. This study was performed to compare the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet. In this work, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 33 weeks. At the start of week 24, obese mice were orally fed synthetic acetic acid vinegar or Nipa vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg BW) until the end of week 33. Mice fed a standard pellet diet served as a control. Although both synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar effectively reduced food intake and body weight, a high dose of Nipa vinegar more effectively reduced lipid deposition, improved the serum lipid profile, increased adipokine expression and suppressed inflammation in the obese mice. Thus, a high dose of Nipa vinegar may potentially alleviate obesity by altering the lipid metabolism, inflammation and gut microbe composition in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  10. Kee CC, Sumarni MG, Lim KH, Selvarajah S, Haniff J, Tee GHH, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2017 May;20(7):1226-1234.
    PMID: 28077198 DOI: 10.1017/S136898001600344X
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults.

    DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers.

    SETTING: All fourteen states in Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey.

    RESULTS: Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, while obesity (BMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2).

    CONCLUSIONS: Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  11. Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, Carson AP, et al.
    Circulation, 2019 03 05;139(10):e56-e528.
    PMID: 30700139 DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000659
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  12. Khoo YS, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Apr;34(2):133-45.
    PMID: 19250134 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00998.x
    Prevention of cardiovascular disease by modifying its major risk factors, including serum cholesterol levels, is an important strategy. Regular intake of garlic has been suggested, but its impact on cholesterol levels has been inconsistent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  13. Hadaegh F, Harati H, Zabetian A, Azizi F
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Aug;61(3):332-8.
    PMID: 17240585
    There are contradictory results regarding the pattern of seasonal variation of serum lipids. The aim of this study was to compare serum lipid levels in different seasons in participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This was a cross-sectional study among 2890 men and 4004 women 20-64 years old from the participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) between 1999 and 2001. Mean values of serum lipids in different seasons were compared with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) after adjustment for age, physical activity level, smoking, BMI and Waist-to-hip ratio. In men, there was a significant trend for change in the values of cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C in different seasons, with higher cholesterol and LDL-C values in winter than in summer (P < 0.05). In women, only the mean values of triglycerides were significantly different between different seasons with values lower in winter than in summer. There was a 26.2% relative increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (> or = 240 mg/dl) in winter than in summer in men. The corresponding increase in the prevalence of high LDL-C (> or = 160 mg/dl) was 26.7% and 24.9% in men and women, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of high triglycerides (> or = _ 200mg/dl) in women significantly decreased (23.8%) in winter relative to summer (P < 0.001). This study showed that there is seasonal variability in serum lipid values and this variability is greater in men than women. The increase in the prevalence of high LDL in winter in both sexes must be considered in population screening and in the follow-up of hyperlipidemic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  14. Nepal S, Kumar V, Makkar HPS, Stadtlander T, Romano N, Becker K
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2018 Feb;44(1):143-162.
    PMID: 28900838 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-017-0420-x
    Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av. wt. ± SD; 11.4 ± 0.25 g). The growth, feeding efficiencies, digestibility, plasma biochemistry, and intestinal enzymes were measured. Results showed that growth performance of fish fed the S 75- or DJPI-based diets were not significantly different from those fed the C ontrol diet, while carp fed the S 50 had significantly better growth than the J 75 diet. Fish fed the J 75 diet had significantly lower protein and lipid digestibility as well as significantly lower intestinal amylase and protease activities than all other groups. However, all plant protein-based diets led to significantly higher crude protein, crude lipid, and gross energy in the body of common carp compared to the control treatment. Plasma cholesterol and creatinine significantly decreased in the plant protein fed groups, although plasma triglyceride as well as the red blood cells count, hematocrit, albumin, globulin, total plasma protein, and lysozyme activity were higher in plant protein fed groups compared to FM fed group. White blood cells, hemoglobulin concentration, alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities, and glucose level in blood did not differ significantly among treatments. The results suggest that the DJPI is non-toxic to carp and can be used to replace FM in the diets of common carp up to 75%, but further research to potentially reduce some inherent ANF within this protein source, such as non-starch polysaccharides, may improve nutrient utilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  15. Loh TC, Choe DW, Foo HL, Sazili AQ, Bejo MH
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:149.
    PMID: 24996258 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-149
    Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are able to colonize the host digestive system, increasing the natural flora and preventing colonization of pathogenic organisms and thus, securing optimal utility of the feed. However, commercial probiotic often do not meet the expected standards and the viability of the efficacy of these strains remains questionable. Another major issue has been highlighted in relation to the application of antibiotic resistant probiotics, the antibiotic resistant gene can be transferred between organisms. Recently, postbiotic metabolites produced from microbes have been extensively studied as feed additive in order to substitute in-feed antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  16. Bhattathiry EP
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Dec;23(2):123-6.
    PMID: 4240822
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  17. Htet AS, Kjøllesdal MK, Aung WP, Moe Myint AN, Aye WT, Wai MM, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 Nov 15;7(11):e017465.
    PMID: 29146640 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017465
    OBJECTIVE: The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol.

    DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology.

    SETTING: Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded.

    RESULTS: Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women.

    CONCLUSION: The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar. Preventive measures to reduce cholesterol levels in the population are therefore needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  18. Wang X, Dalmeijer GW, den Ruijter HM, Anderson TJ, Britton AR, Dekker J, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(3):e0173393.
    PMID: 28323823 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173393
    BACKGROUND: The relation of a single risk factor with atherosclerosis is established. Clinically we know of risk factor clustering within individuals. Yet, studies into the magnitude of the relation of risk factor clusters with atherosclerosis are limited. Here, we assessed that relation.

    METHODS: Individual participant data from 14 cohorts, involving 59,025 individuals were used in this cross-sectional analysis. We made 15 clusters of four risk factors (current smoking, overweight, elevated blood pressure, elevated total cholesterol). Multilevel age and sex adjusted linear regression models were applied to estimate mean differences in common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between clusters using those without any of the four risk factors as reference group.

    RESULTS: Compared to the reference, those with 1, 2, 3 or 4 risk factors had a significantly higher common CIMT: mean difference of 0.026 mm, 0.052 mm, 0.074 mm and 0.114 mm, respectively. These findings were the same in men and in women, and across ethnic groups. Within each risk factor cluster (1, 2, 3 risk factors), groups with elevated blood pressure had the largest CIMT and those with elevated cholesterol the lowest CIMT, a pattern similar for men and women.

    CONCLUSION: Clusters of risk factors relate to increased common CIMT in a graded manner, similar in men, women and across race-ethnic groups. Some clusters seemed more atherogenic than others. Our findings support the notion that cardiovascular prevention should focus on sets of risk factors rather than individual levels alone, but may prioritize within clusters.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  19. Ismail M, Al-Naqeep G, Chan KW
    Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2010 Mar 01;48(5):664-72.
    PMID: 20005291 DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.12.002
    The antioxidant activities of the thymoquinone-rich fraction (TQRF) extracted from Nigella sativa and its bioactive compound, thymoquinone (TQ), in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were investigated. Rats were fed a semipurified diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) cholesterol and were treated with TQRF and TQ at dosages ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 g/kg and 20 to 100 mg/kg body wt, respectively, for 8 weeks. The hydroxyl radical (OH(.))-scavenging activity of plasma samples collected from experimental rats was measured by electron spin resonance. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System was used to study the molecular mechanism that mediates the antioxidative properties of TQRF and TQ. Plasma total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in the TQRF- and TQ-treated rats compared to untreated rats. Feeding rats a 1% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in plasma antioxidant capacity, as measured by the capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. However, rats treated with TQRF and TQ at various doses showed significant inhibitory activity toward the formation of OH(.) compared to untreated rats. Upon examination of liver RNA expression levels, treatment with TQRF and TQ caused the up-regulation of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX) genes compared to untreated rats (P<0.05). In support of this, liver antioxidant enzyme levels, including SOD1 and GPX, were also apparently increased in the TQRF- and TQ-treated rats compared to untreated rats (P<0.05). In conclusion, TQRF and TQ effectively improved the plasma and liver antioxidant capacity and enhanced the expression of liver antioxidant genes of hypercholesterolemic rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  20. Hughes K, Yeo PP, Lun KC, Sothy SP, Thai AC, Wang KW, et al.
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1989 May;18(3):245-9.
    PMID: 2774470
    Mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Singapore is now reaching comparability with the West. For the early 1980s, rates for Indians and Malays were higher than in U.S.A. and England and Wales and while those for Chinese were lower they were considerably higher than in Japan. In keeping with this the levels of the major risk factors in Singapore are now comparable to the West. Cigarette smoking in males is virtually the same as in Britain, while the proportion of hypertensives on medication is higher than in the West. The main cause for concern is the current high levels of serum cholesterol in Singapore and strenuous health education efforts are needed to bring about dietary changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
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