Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 121 in total

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  1. Thambiah CS, Mohamed Pesri NA, Mazalan N, Samsudin IN, Mohamad Ismuddin S, Appannah G, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Aug;42(2):215-225.
    PMID: 32860374
    INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidaemia is a recognised conventional risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even when traditional lipid parameters are normal, CVD risk can exist. Small dense lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL) has appeared as a significant risk marker for CVD. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of atherogenic lipoprotein Pattern B in the Malaysian population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 150 subjects aged 30 years and above who attended a health screening in a Malaysian tertiary institution. Sociodemographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters (lipids, glucose, and sdLDL) were obtained. Lipoprotein subfraction was analysed using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.

    RESULTS: Malays and females made up the majority of subjects and the median age was 37 years. Normolipidaemic Pattern B was significantly higher in women (p=0.008). Significant independent predictors of Pattern B were gender (p=0.02), race (p=0.01), body mass index (BMI) [p=0.02] and lipid status (p=0.01). Triglyceride was the only independent predictor of sdLDL (p=0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Pattern B of 33% in this study was comparatively high, of which 6.7% were normolipidaemic. Chinese males with dyslipidaemia and increased BMI independently predicted Pattern B. Differences in triglyceride levels alone among these ethnic groups do not fully explain the differences in the prevalence of Pattern B although it was the only lipid parameter to independently predict sdLDL. Individuals with atherogenic normolipidaemia are at greater risk for a CVD event as they are not included in the protective measures of primary CVD prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  2. Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Tan CP, Wang Y, Li Y, et al.
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2020;60(15):2509-2525.
    PMID: 31418288 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2019.1650001
    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a world leading anti-obesity functional cooking oil synthesized via structural modification of conventional fats and oils. DAG exits in three stereoisomers namely sn-1,2-DAG, sn-1,3-DAG, and sn-2,3-DAG. DAG particularly sn-1,3-DAG demonstrated to have the potential in suppressing body fat accumulation and lowering postprandial serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol and glucose level. DAG also showed to improve bone health. This is attributed to DAG structure itself that caused it to absorb and digest via different metabolic pathway than conventional fats and oils. With its purported health benefits, many studies attempt to enzymatically or chemically synthesis DAG through various routes. DAG has also received wide attention as low calorie fat substitute and has been incorporated into various food matrixes. Despite being claimed as healthy cooking oil the safety of DAG still remained uncertain. DAG was banned from sale as it was found to contain probable carcinogen glycidol fatty acid esters. The article aims to provide a comprehensive and latest review of DAG emphasizing on its structure and properties, safety and regulation, process developments, metabolism and beneficial health attributes as well as its applications in the food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  3. Gunasekaran B, Shukor MY
    Methods Mol Biol, 2020;2089:245-250.
    PMID: 31773659 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0163-1_16
    The main strategy for lowering blood cholesterol levels is through the inhibition of the NADPH-dependent HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase). The enzyme catalyses the reduction of HMG-CoA to mevalonate and this process is inhibited by statins that form the bulk of the therapeutic agents to treat high cholesterol since the 1970s. Newer drugs that are safer than statins are constantly being developed. The inhibition of candidate drugs to HMG-CoA reductase remains the mainstay of drug development research. The determination of the enzyme activity is important for the correct assessment of potency of the enzyme as well as determining the inhibition of potential therapeutic agents from the plant and microbial extracts. Also, this chapter covers the use of the popular four-parameter logistics model that can yield accurate estimation of the IC50 values of therapeutic agents and their 95% confidence intervals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  4. Leong Bin Abdullah MFI, Tan KL, Mohd Isa S, Yusoff NS, Chear NJY, Singh D
    PLoS One, 2020;15(6):e0234639.
    PMID: 32525924 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234639
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Kratom, or Mitragyna speciosa Korth., is a tropical plant that has been reported to exhibit opioid-like effects. Although opioids have been demonstrated to alter the lipid profile of regular users, data on the lipid-altering effects of kratom are scarce. This study aimed to compare the fasting lipid profile of regular kratom users to that of healthy subjects who do not use kratom. It also determined the association between various characteristics of kratom users and the serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels of regular kratom users.

    METHODS: A total of 200 participants (n = 100 kratom users and n = 100 healthy subjects who do not use kratom) were recruited for this analytical cross-sectional study. Data on sociodemographic status, kratom use characteristics, cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), fasting serum lipid profile, and liver function were collected from all participants.

    RESULTS: The liver parameters of the study participants were within normal range. The serum total cholesterol and LDL of kratom users were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects who do not use kratom. There were no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and HDL levels. However, higher average daily frequency of kratom use and increasing age were associated with increased serum total cholesterol among kratom users. Other kratom use characteristics such as age of first kratom intake, duration of kratom use, and quantity of daily kratom intake were not associated with increased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest regular kratom consumption was not linked to elevated serum lipids, except when there is a higher frequency of daily kratom intake. However, the study was limited by the small sample size, and hence a more comprehensive study with larger sample size is warranted to confirm the findings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  5. Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, Carson AP, et al.
    Circulation, 2019 03 05;139(10):e56-e528.
    PMID: 30700139 DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000659
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  6. Chaudhry SRY, Akram A, Aslam N, Wajid M, Iqbal Z, Nazir I, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Mar;32(2):505-514.
    PMID: 31081759
    Echinops echinatus is traditionally an important plant that finds its extensive use as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, nerve tonic, abortifacient, aphrodisiac, antiasthmatic, and antidiabetic agent. The current study investigates protection against the hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced (type I diabetes) and fructose-fed insulin resistance (type II diabetes) models of diabetes treated with aqueous methanolic root extract of E. echinatus (Ee.Cr). Albino rats were treated orally with Ee.Cr at doses 100, 300 and 500mg/kg. The fasting blood glucose was measured by glucometer, while standard kits were used to determine the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL. The administration of Ee.Cr significantly (P<0.001) reduced the FBG concentration in a dose-dependent pattern in alloxan-induced and fructose-fed diabetic rats. The Ee.Cr also corrected the dyslipidemia associated with fructose and alloxan-induced diabetes by significantly (P<0.001) decreasing the concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL and by increasing HDL concentration. Ee.Cr also significantly (P<0.001) improved the glucose tolerance in fructose-fed rats. We conclude that Ee.Cr has antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effects in both insulin-dependent alloxan-induced diabetes and fructose-induced insulin resistance diabetes rat models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  7. Cheng HS, Phang SCW, Ton SH, Abdul Kadir K, Tan JBL
    J Food Biochem, 2019 02;43(2):e12717.
    PMID: 31353646 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12717
    The present study aimed to outline the physiological and metabolic disparity between chow- and purified ingredient-based high-fat diets and their efficacy in the induction of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Male, 3-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to chow-based control diet, chow-based high-fat diet, purified control diet, and purified high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Physical and biochemical changes were documented. Chow-based diets, irrespective of the lipid content, resulted in significantly lower weight gain and organ weight compared to purified ingredient-based diets. Circulating insulin, total proteins, albumin, and certain lipid components like the triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were also lower in the chow-based diet groups. Both chow- and purified high-fat diets induced central obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia, but the latter was associated with earlier onset of the metabolic aberrations and additionally, dyslipidaemia. In conclusion, purified high-fat diet is a better diet for MetS induction in rats. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Modeling metabolic syndrome is commonly accomplished with the use of chow- or purified ingredient diets enriched with carbohydrates and/or lipids, but the differences and associated drawbacks are unclear. This study highlights that chow- or modified chow-based diets have a tendency to introduce unwanted metabolic changes which are inconsistent with the progression of metabolic syndrome. Thus, the use of these diets in metabolic disease study should be avoided. On the other hand, purified high-fat diet which can effectively induce the features of metabolic syndrome is highly recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  8. Adams CD, Richmond R, Ferreira DLS, Spiller W, Tan V, Zheng J, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2019 01;28(1):208-216.
    PMID: 30352818 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0079
    BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).

    METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centers with men ages 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.

    RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (P < 0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: (i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); (ii) fatty acids and ratios; (iii) amino acids; (iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.

    IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  9. Rahim MZA, Govender-Hondros G, Adeloju SB
    Talanta, 2018 Nov 01;189:418-428.
    PMID: 30086941 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2018.06.041
    The development of free and total cholesterol nanobiosensors based on a single step electrochemical integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), cholesterol oxidase (COx), cholesterol esterase (CE) and a mediator with polypyrrole (PPy) films is described. The incorporation of the various components in the PPy films was confirmed by chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The free cholesterol, PPy-NO3--Fe(CN)64--AuNPs-COx, nanobiosensor achieved a minimum detectable concentration of 5 μM, a linear concentration range of 5-25 μM and a sensitivity of 1.6 µA cm-2 µM-1 in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.00). For the total cholesterol, PPy-NO3--Fe(CN)64--AuNPs-COx-CE, nanobiosensor which also involved the co-incorporation of cholesterol esterase (CE) with the other components, the achieved performances include a minimum detectable total cholesterol concentration of 25 μM, a broader linear concentration range of 25-170 μM and a lower sensitivity of 0.1 µA µM-1 cm-2. Owing to its high selectivity, the presence of common interferants did not affect the total cholesterol measurement with the PPy-NO3--Fe(CN)64--AuNPs-COx-CE nanobiosensor. Both nanobiosensors were successfully used for direct and indirect determination of total cholesterol in human blood serum samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  10. Whitton C, Rebello SA, Lee J, Tai ES, van Dam RM
    J Nutr, 2018 04 01;148(4):616-623.
    PMID: 29659965 DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy016
    Background: Healthful dietary patterns are associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Western populations. However, a consistent healthful dietary pattern across major Asian ethnic groups has yet to be identified.

    Objective: We aimed to identify a posteriori dietary patterns for Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in an urban Asian setting, compare these with a priori dietary patterns, and ascertain associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension, obesity, and abnormal blood lipid concentrations.

    Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 8433 Singapore residents (aged 21-94 y) from the Multi-Ethnic Cohort study of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 169-item food-frequency questionnaire. With the use of 28 food groups, dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis, and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors was assessed using multiple linear regression. Associations between derived patterns and a priori patterns (aHEI-2010-Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, aMED-alternate Mediterranean Diet, and DASH-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) were assessed, and the magnitude of associations with risk factors compared.

    Results: We identified a "healthy" dietary pattern, similar across ethnic groups, and characterized by high intakes of whole grains, fruit, dairy, vegetables, and unsaturated cooking oil and low intakes of Western fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, poultry, processed meat, and flavored rice. This "healthy" pattern was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (-0.26 per 1 SD of the pattern score; 95% CI: -0.36, -0.16), waist circumference (-0.57 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.32), total cholesterol (-0.070 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.091, -0.048), LDL cholesterol (-0.054 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.074, -0.035), and fasting triglycerides (-0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004) and directly associated with HDL cholesterol (0.013 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.021). Generally, "healthy" pattern associations were at least as strong as a priori pattern associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Conclusion: A healthful dietary pattern that correlated well with a priori patterns and was associated with lower BMI, serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride concentrations was identified across 3 major Asian ethnic groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  11. Nepal S, Kumar V, Makkar HPS, Stadtlander T, Romano N, Becker K
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2018 Feb;44(1):143-162.
    PMID: 28900838 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-017-0420-x
    Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av. wt. ± SD; 11.4 ± 0.25 g). The growth, feeding efficiencies, digestibility, plasma biochemistry, and intestinal enzymes were measured. Results showed that growth performance of fish fed the S 75- or DJPI-based diets were not significantly different from those fed the C ontrol diet, while carp fed the S 50 had significantly better growth than the J 75 diet. Fish fed the J 75 diet had significantly lower protein and lipid digestibility as well as significantly lower intestinal amylase and protease activities than all other groups. However, all plant protein-based diets led to significantly higher crude protein, crude lipid, and gross energy in the body of common carp compared to the control treatment. Plasma cholesterol and creatinine significantly decreased in the plant protein fed groups, although plasma triglyceride as well as the red blood cells count, hematocrit, albumin, globulin, total plasma protein, and lysozyme activity were higher in plant protein fed groups compared to FM fed group. White blood cells, hemoglobulin concentration, alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities, and glucose level in blood did not differ significantly among treatments. The results suggest that the DJPI is non-toxic to carp and can be used to replace FM in the diets of common carp up to 75%, but further research to potentially reduce some inherent ANF within this protein source, such as non-starch polysaccharides, may improve nutrient utilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  12. Sin Teh S, Ong ASH, Choo YM, Mah SH
    J Oleo Sci, 2018;67(6):697-706.
    PMID: 29863090 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess18009
    Saturated fats are commonly claimed to raise human blood cholesterols and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Previous literature data were highlighted that although palm oil is 50% saturated, it does not behave like a saturated fat. Human trials were conducted to compare the effects on serum cholesterol levels given by palm olein and monounsaturated oils. It was postulated that saturation/unsaturation of the fatty acids situated at sn-2 positions of triglycerides in the fat molecules determine the induced blood lipid levels but not the overall saturation of oils. The results showed that the lipid parameters (LDL and HDL) effects induced by these oils are similar with no significant differences. This study provides concrete evidence that the unsaturation levels of these oils at sn-2 position of TG are similar (90-100%) which are claimed to be responsible for the lipid parameters. In conclusion, the public negative perception on believing that the overall saturation of oils is detrimental to health should be corrected because in fact the unsaturation at sn-2 positions of the saturated vegetable fat such as palm olein and cocoa butter make them behave like mono-unsaturated oils, unlike saturated animal fats that possess a high content of saturated fatty acids at sn-2 position.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  13. Htet AS, Kjøllesdal MK, Aung WP, Moe Myint AN, Aye WT, Wai MM, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 Nov 15;7(11):e017465.
    PMID: 29146640 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017465
    OBJECTIVE: The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol.

    DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology.

    SETTING: Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded.

    RESULTS: Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women.

    CONCLUSION: The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar. Preventive measures to reduce cholesterol levels in the population are therefore needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  14. Teng KT, Chang LF, Vethakkan SR, Nesaretnam K, Sanders TAB
    Clin Nutr, 2017 10;36(5):1250-1258.
    PMID: 27642057 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.08.026
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Modification of the amount and type of dietary fat has diverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS: We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets.

    RESULTS: No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  15. Tang SGH, Sieo CC, Ramasamy K, Saad WZ, Wong HK, Ho YW
    BMC Vet Res, 2017 Aug 17;13(1):248.
    PMID: 28814309 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1160-y
    BACKGROUND: The increasing trend of ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) across the globe in the poultry industry has led to a growing need for alternatives to AGPs. Prebiotic, probiotic and their combination as a synbiotic have been considered as potential alternatives. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide, IMO), a probiotic (PrimaLac®), and their combination (synbiotic) on hen performance, biochemical and haematological responses, and relative organ weights from 20 to 52 weeks of age.

    RESULTS: Supplementation of 1% IMO (PRE), 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO) and 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN) improved (P cholesterol at 36 weeks of age, and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at 36 and 52 weeks of age. At 36 and 52 weeks of age, supplementation of PRE, PRO or SYN increased (P cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ALT, ALP and H/L ratio of hens from 20 to 52 weeks of age. These results demonstrated the use of PRE, PRO and SYN as alternative feed additives to AGPs for improving the health and productivity of hens, while PRO is the best for commercial layer production to yield maximum profit.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  16. Beh BK, Mohamad NE, Yeap SK, Ky H, Boo SY, Chua JYH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 27;7(1):6664.
    PMID: 28751642 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-06235-7
    Recently, food-based bioactive ingredients, such as vinegar, have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the global obesity epidemic. Although acetic acid has been identified as the main component in vinegar that contributes to its anti-obesity effect, reports have shown that vinegar produced from different starting materials possess different degrees of bioactivity. This study was performed to compare the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet. In this work, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 33 weeks. At the start of week 24, obese mice were orally fed synthetic acetic acid vinegar or Nipa vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg BW) until the end of week 33. Mice fed a standard pellet diet served as a control. Although both synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar effectively reduced food intake and body weight, a high dose of Nipa vinegar more effectively reduced lipid deposition, improved the serum lipid profile, increased adipokine expression and suppressed inflammation in the obese mice. Thus, a high dose of Nipa vinegar may potentially alleviate obesity by altering the lipid metabolism, inflammation and gut microbe composition in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  17. Al Zarzour RH, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ, Kaur G, Saeed MAA, Al-Mansoub MA, et al.
    Nutrients, 2017 Jul 18;9(7).
    PMID: 28718838 DOI: 10.3390/nu9070766
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC-HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group. In vitro, 50% ME of P. niruri inhibited α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase enzymes and cholesterol micellization. It also had higher total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared to other extracts. Ellagic acid and phyllanthin were identified as major compounds. These results suggest that P. niruri could be further developed as a novel natural hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD and atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  18. Ahmed IA, Mikail MA, Ibrahim M
    Nutr Res, 2017 Jun;42:31-42.
    PMID: 28633869 DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2017.04.012
    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor linked to the alteration of blood hematology and clinical chemistry associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit. We hypothesized that the oral administration of BA fruit juice could ameliorate the alteration in the hematological and biochemical biomarkers of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of BA juice on the hematological and biochemical biomarkers in normo- and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups for 90days of diet intervention. Four atherogenic groups were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. The other three normal groups were fed a commercial rabbit pellet diet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. Baseline and final blood samples after 90days of repeated administration BA juice were analyzed for hematological parameters while serum, aortic and hepatic lysates were analyzed for lipid profiles and other biochemical biomarkers. The alteration of the hemopoietic system, physiological changes in serum and tissues lipid profiles and other biochemicals resulting from the consumption of a high-cholesterol diet were significantly (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  19. Kee CC, Sumarni MG, Lim KH, Selvarajah S, Haniff J, Tee GHH, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2017 May;20(7):1226-1234.
    PMID: 28077198 DOI: 10.1017/S136898001600344X
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults.

    DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers.

    SETTING: All fourteen states in Malaysia.

    SUBJECTS: Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey.

    RESULTS: Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, while obesity (BMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2).

    CONCLUSIONS: Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  20. Taheri Rouhi SZ, Sarker MM, Rahmat A, Alkahtani SA, Othman F
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Mar 14;17(1):156.
    PMID: 28288617 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1667-6
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with hyperglycemia, inflammatory disorders and abnormal lipid profiles. Several functional foods have therapeutic potential to treat chronic diseases including diabetes. The therapeutic potential of pomegranate has been stated by multitudinous scientists. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate juice and seed powder on the levels of plasma glucose and insulin, inflammatory biomarkers, lipid profiles, and health of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NAD) induced T2DM Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.

    METHODS: Forty healthy male SD rats were induced to diabetes with a single dose intra-peritoneal administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w.) - NAD (120 mg/kg b.w.). Diabetic rats were orally administered with 1 mL of pomegranate fresh juice (PJ) or 100 mg pomegranate seed powder in 1 mL distilled water (PS), or 5 mg/kg b.w. of glibenclamide every day for 21 days. Rats in all groups were sacrificed on day 22. The obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software (v: 22) using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

    RESULTS: The results showed that PJ and PS treatment had slight but non-significant reduction of plasma glucose concentration, and no impact on plasma insulin compared to diabetic control (DC) group. PJ lowered the plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) significantly, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) non-significantly compared to DC group. In contrast, PS treatment significantly raised plasma TC, LDL, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels compared to the DC rats. Moreover, the administration of PJ and PS significantly reduced the levels of plasma inflammatory biomarkers, which were actively raised in diabetic rats. Only PJ treated group showed significant repairment and restoration signs in islets of Langerhans. Besides, PJ possessed preventative impact against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals almost 2.5 folds more than PS.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that active constituents with high antioxidant properties present in PJ are responsible for its anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects, likewise the restoration effect on the damaged islets of Langerhans in experimental rats. Hence, the pharmacological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles of PJ treated rats obviously indicated its helpful effects in amelioration of diabetes-associated complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
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