MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 150 subjects aged 30 years and above who attended a health screening in a Malaysian tertiary institution. Sociodemographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters (lipids, glucose, and sdLDL) were obtained. Lipoprotein subfraction was analysed using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.
RESULTS: Malays and females made up the majority of subjects and the median age was 37 years. Normolipidaemic Pattern B was signiﬁcantly higher in women (p=0.008). Signiﬁcant independent predictors of Pattern B were gender (p=0.02), race (p=0.01), body mass index (BMI) [p=0.02] and lipid status (p=0.01). Triglyceride was the only independent predictor of sdLDL (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Pattern B of 33% in this study was comparatively high, of which 6.7% were normolipidaemic. Chinese males with dyslipidaemia and increased BMI independently predicted Pattern B. Differences in triglyceride levels alone among these ethnic groups do not fully explain the differences in the prevalence of Pattern B although it was the only lipid parameter to independently predict sdLDL. Individuals with atherogenic normolipidaemia are at greater risk for a CVD event as they are not included in the protective measures of primary CVD prevention.
METHODS: A total of 200 participants (n = 100 kratom users and n = 100 healthy subjects who do not use kratom) were recruited for this analytical cross-sectional study. Data on sociodemographic status, kratom use characteristics, cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), fasting serum lipid profile, and liver function were collected from all participants.
RESULTS: The liver parameters of the study participants were within normal range. The serum total cholesterol and LDL of kratom users were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects who do not use kratom. There were no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and HDL levels. However, higher average daily frequency of kratom use and increasing age were associated with increased serum total cholesterol among kratom users. Other kratom use characteristics such as age of first kratom intake, duration of kratom use, and quantity of daily kratom intake were not associated with increased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest regular kratom consumption was not linked to elevated serum lipids, except when there is a higher frequency of daily kratom intake. However, the study was limited by the small sample size, and hence a more comprehensive study with larger sample size is warranted to confirm the findings.
METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centers with men ages 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.
RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (P < 0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: (i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); (ii) fatty acids and ratios; (iii) amino acids; (iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.
IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.
Objective: We aimed to identify a posteriori dietary patterns for Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in an urban Asian setting, compare these with a priori dietary patterns, and ascertain associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension, obesity, and abnormal blood lipid concentrations.
Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 8433 Singapore residents (aged 21-94 y) from the Multi-Ethnic Cohort study of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 169-item food-frequency questionnaire. With the use of 28 food groups, dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis, and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors was assessed using multiple linear regression. Associations between derived patterns and a priori patterns (aHEI-2010-Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, aMED-alternate Mediterranean Diet, and DASH-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) were assessed, and the magnitude of associations with risk factors compared.
Results: We identified a "healthy" dietary pattern, similar across ethnic groups, and characterized by high intakes of whole grains, fruit, dairy, vegetables, and unsaturated cooking oil and low intakes of Western fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, poultry, processed meat, and flavored rice. This "healthy" pattern was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (-0.26 per 1 SD of the pattern score; 95% CI: -0.36, -0.16), waist circumference (-0.57 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.32), total cholesterol (-0.070 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.091, -0.048), LDL cholesterol (-0.054 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.074, -0.035), and fasting triglycerides (-0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004) and directly associated with HDL cholesterol (0.013 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.021). Generally, "healthy" pattern associations were at least as strong as a priori pattern associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Conclusion: A healthful dietary pattern that correlated well with a priori patterns and was associated with lower BMI, serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride concentrations was identified across 3 major Asian ethnic groups.
DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology.
SETTING: Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded.
RESULTS: Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women.
CONCLUSION: The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar. Preventive measures to reduce cholesterol levels in the population are therefore needed.
METHODS: We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets.
RESULTS: No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P
RESULTS: Supplementation of 1% IMO (PRE), 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO) and 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN) improved (P cholesterol at 36 weeks of age, and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at 36 and 52 weeks of age. At 36 and 52 weeks of age, supplementation of PRE, PRO or SYN increased (P cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ALT, ALP and H/L ratio of hens from 20 to 52 weeks of age. These results demonstrated the use of PRE, PRO and SYN as alternative feed additives to AGPs for improving the health and productivity of hens, while PRO is the best for commercial layer production to yield maximum profit.
DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers.
SETTING: All fourteen states in Malaysia.
SUBJECTS: Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey.
RESULTS: Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, while obesity (BMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2).
CONCLUSIONS: Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.
METHODS: Forty healthy male SD rats were induced to diabetes with a single dose intra-peritoneal administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w.) - NAD (120 mg/kg b.w.). Diabetic rats were orally administered with 1 mL of pomegranate fresh juice (PJ) or 100 mg pomegranate seed powder in 1 mL distilled water (PS), or 5 mg/kg b.w. of glibenclamide every day for 21 days. Rats in all groups were sacrificed on day 22. The obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software (v: 22) using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
RESULTS: The results showed that PJ and PS treatment had slight but non-significant reduction of plasma glucose concentration, and no impact on plasma insulin compared to diabetic control (DC) group. PJ lowered the plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) significantly, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) non-significantly compared to DC group. In contrast, PS treatment significantly raised plasma TC, LDL, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels compared to the DC rats. Moreover, the administration of PJ and PS significantly reduced the levels of plasma inflammatory biomarkers, which were actively raised in diabetic rats. Only PJ treated group showed significant repairment and restoration signs in islets of Langerhans. Besides, PJ possessed preventative impact against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals almost 2.5 folds more than PS.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that active constituents with high antioxidant properties present in PJ are responsible for its anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects, likewise the restoration effect on the damaged islets of Langerhans in experimental rats. Hence, the pharmacological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles of PJ treated rats obviously indicated its helpful effects in amelioration of diabetes-associated complications.