Objective: We aimed to identify a posteriori dietary patterns for Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in an urban Asian setting, compare these with a priori dietary patterns, and ascertain associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension, obesity, and abnormal blood lipid concentrations.
Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 8433 Singapore residents (aged 21-94 y) from the Multi-Ethnic Cohort study of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 169-item food-frequency questionnaire. With the use of 28 food groups, dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis, and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors was assessed using multiple linear regression. Associations between derived patterns and a priori patterns (aHEI-2010-Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, aMED-alternate Mediterranean Diet, and DASH-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) were assessed, and the magnitude of associations with risk factors compared.
Results: We identified a "healthy" dietary pattern, similar across ethnic groups, and characterized by high intakes of whole grains, fruit, dairy, vegetables, and unsaturated cooking oil and low intakes of Western fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, poultry, processed meat, and flavored rice. This "healthy" pattern was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (-0.26 per 1 SD of the pattern score; 95% CI: -0.36, -0.16), waist circumference (-0.57 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.32), total cholesterol (-0.070 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.091, -0.048), LDL cholesterol (-0.054 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.074, -0.035), and fasting triglycerides (-0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004) and directly associated with HDL cholesterol (0.013 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.021). Generally, "healthy" pattern associations were at least as strong as a priori pattern associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Conclusion: A healthful dietary pattern that correlated well with a priori patterns and was associated with lower BMI, serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride concentrations was identified across 3 major Asian ethnic groups.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 150 subjects aged 30 years and above who attended a health screening in a Malaysian tertiary institution. Sociodemographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters (lipids, glucose, and sdLDL) were obtained. Lipoprotein subfraction was analysed using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.
RESULTS: Malays and females made up the majority of subjects and the median age was 37 years. Normolipidaemic Pattern B was signiﬁcantly higher in women (p=0.008). Signiﬁcant independent predictors of Pattern B were gender (p=0.02), race (p=0.01), body mass index (BMI) [p=0.02] and lipid status (p=0.01). Triglyceride was the only independent predictor of sdLDL (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Pattern B of 33% in this study was comparatively high, of which 6.7% were normolipidaemic. Chinese males with dyslipidaemia and increased BMI independently predicted Pattern B. Differences in triglyceride levels alone among these ethnic groups do not fully explain the differences in the prevalence of Pattern B although it was the only lipid parameter to independently predict sdLDL. Individuals with atherogenic normolipidaemia are at greater risk for a CVD event as they are not included in the protective measures of primary CVD prevention.
OBJECTIVES: The DIrect Statin COmparison of LDL-C Values: an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin therapY (DISCOVERY)-Asia study is one of nine independently powered studies assessing the efficacy of starting doses of statins in achieving target lipid levels in different countries worldwide. DISCOVERY-Asia was a 12-week, randomised, open-label, parallel-group study conducted in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand.
RESULTS: A total of 1482 adults with primary hypercholesterolaemia and high cardiovascular risk (> 20%/10 years, type 2 diabetes, or a history of coronary heart disease) were randomised in a 2 : 1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg once daily (o.d.) or atorvastatin 10 mg o.d. The percentage of patients achieving the 1998 European Joint Task Force low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of < 3.0 mmol/L at 12 weeks was significantly higher in the rosuvastatin group (n = 950) compared with the atorvastatin group (n = 471) (79.5 vs. 69.4%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Similar results were observed for 1998 European goals for total cholesterol (TC), and the 2003 European goals for LDL-C and TC. LDL-C and TC levels were reduced significantly more with rosuvastatin compared with atorvastatin. Both drugs were well-tolerated and the incidence and type of adverse events were similar in each group.
TRIALS REGISTRATION: The trial registry summary is available at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241488
CONCLUSIONS: This 12-week study showed that the starting dose of rosuvastatin 10 mg o.d. was significantly more effective than the starting dose of natorvastatin 10 mg o.d. at enabling patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia to achieve European goals for LDL-C and TC in a largely Asian population in real-life clinical practice. The safety profile of rosuvastatin 10 mg is similar to that of atorvastatin 10 mg in the Asian population studied here, and is consistent with the known safety profile of rosuvastatin in the white population.
DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers.
SETTING: All fourteen states in Malaysia.
SUBJECTS: Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey.
RESULTS: Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, while obesity (BMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2).
CONCLUSIONS: Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.
METHODS: Thirty-six male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to six groups. Rabbits were fed either a standard pellet (group NC) or a high-cholesterol diet (groups HC, PC, WF, SK and PL). Groups WF, SK and PL were also given 1 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF, SK and PL juices, respectively.
RESULTS: Baccaurea angulata had high antioxidant activities. The administration of the various juices significantly reduced (p cholesterol feeding was also ameliorated with B. angulata.
CONCLUSION: Our results show that B. angulata fruit is beneficial in positively influencing and managing oxidative damage.