Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 690 in total

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  1. A VBR, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Aris AB, Majid ZA, Umar K, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2016 Sep 05;128:141-148.
    PMID: 27262107 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.05.026
    In this study a sensitive and selective gradient reverse phase UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six process related impurities viz., Imp-I, Imp-II, Imp-III, Imp-IV, Imp-V and Imp-VI in darunavir. The chromatographic separation was performed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column using gradient elution of acetonitrile-methanol (80:20, v/v) and 5.0mM ammonium acetate containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Both negative and positive electrospray ionization (ESI) modes were operated simultaneously using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the quantification of all six impurities in darunavir. The developed method was fully validated following ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision, robustness and sample solution stability. The method was able to quantitate Imp-I, Imp-IV, Imp-V at 0.3ppm and Imp-II, Imp-III, and Imp-VI at 0.2ppm with respect to 5.0mg/mL of darunavir. The calibration curves showed good linearity over the concentration range of LOQ to 250% for all six impurities. The correlation coefficient obtained was >0.9989 in all the cases. The accuracy of the method lies between 89.90% and 104.60% for all six impurities. Finally, the method has been successfully applied for three formulation batches of darunavir to determine the above mentioned impurities, however no impurity was found beyond the LOQ. This method is a good quality control tool for the trace level quantification of six process related impurities in darunavir during its synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
  2. Aabideen ZU, Mumtaz MW, Akhtar MT, Mukhtar H, Raza SA, Touqeer T, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Oct 26;25(21).
    PMID: 33114490 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25214935
    The naturopathic treatment of obesity is a matter of keen interest to develop efficient natural pharmacological routes for disease management with low or negligible toxicity and side effects. For this purpose, optimized ultrasonicated hydroethanolic extracts of Taraxacum officinale were evaluated for antiobesity attributes. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method was adopted to evaluate antioxidant potential. Porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory assay was conducted to assess the in vitro antiobesity property. Ultra-high performance chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometer was utilized to profile the secondary metabolites in the most potent extract. The 60% ethanolic extract exhibited highest extract yield (25.05 ± 0.07%), total phenolic contents (123.42 ± 0.007 mg GAE/g DE), total flavonoid contents (55.81 ± 0.004 RE/g DE), DPPH-radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 81.05 ± 0.96 µg/mL) and pancreatic lipase inhibitory properties (IC50 = 146.49 ± 4.24 µg/mL). The targeted metabolite fingerprinting highlighted the presence of high-value secondary metabolites. Molecular-binding energies computed by docking tool revealed the possible contribution towards pancreatic lipase inhibitory properties of secondary metabolites including myricetin, isomangiferin, icariside B4, kaempferol and luteolin derivatives when compared to the standard drug orlistat. In vivo investigations revealed a positive impact on the lipid profile and obesity biomarkers of obese mice. The study presents Taraxacum officinale as a potent source of functional bioactive ingredients to impart new insights into the existing pool of knowledge of naturopathic approaches towards obesity management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  3. Abd Rani NZ, Lam KW, Jalil J, Mohamad HF, Mat Ali MS, Husain K
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 28;26(3).
    PMID: 33525733 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030695
    Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. (Phyllanthaceae) is a medicinal plant that is commonly used to treat diseases such as asthma, diabetes, and anemia. This study aimed to examine the antiallergic activity of P. amarus extract and its compounds. The antiallergic activity was determined by measuring the concentration of allergy markers release from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells with ketotifen fumarate as the positive control. As a result, P. amarus did not stabilize mast cell degranulation but exhibited antihistamine activity. The antihistamine activity was evaluated by conducting a competition radioligand binding assay on the histamine 1 receptor (H1R). Four compounds were identified from the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis which were phyllanthin (1), hypophyllanthin (2), niranthin (3), and corilagin (4). To gain insights into the binding interactions of the most active compound hypophyllanthin (2), molecular docking was conducted and found that hypophyllanthin (2) exhibited favorable binding in the H1R binding site. In conclusion, P. amarus and hypophyllanthin (2) could potentially exhibit antiallergic activity by preventing the activation of the H1 receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
  4. Abd Samat NMA, Ahmad S, Awang Y, Bakar RAH, Hakiman M
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 19;25(12).
    PMID: 32575450 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25122833
    Sabah snake grass or Clinacanthus nutans has drawn public interest having significant economic benefits attributable to the presence of phytochemicals and several interesting bioactive constituents that may differ according to harvesting age and harvesting frequency. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of harvesting age and harvesting frequency towards herbal yield, antioxidant activities, phytochemicals synthesis, and bioactive compounds of C. nutans. A factorial randomized completely block design with five replications was used to illustrate the relationship between herbal yield, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, total phenolic and flavonoid content affected by harvesting age (week 8, 12, and 16 after transplanting), and harvesting frequency (harvest 1, 2, and 3). The bioactive compounds by HPLC were also determined to describe the interaction effect between both harvesting age and harvesting frequency. The yield, antioxidant activities, and phytochemical contents were gradually increased as the plant grew, with the highest recorded during week 16. However, the synthesis and activities of phytochemicals were reduced in subsequent harvests despite the increment of the herbal yield. All bioactive compounds were found to be influenced insignificantly and significantly by harvesting age and harvesting frequency, respectively, specifically to shaftoside, iso-orientin, and orientin. Among all constituents, shaftoside was the main compound at various harvesting ages and harvesting frequencies. These results indicated that harvesting at week 16 with 1st harvest frequency might enhance the yield while sustaining the high synthesis of polyphenols and antioxidant activities of C. nutans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  5. Abd Wahib SM, Wan Ibrahim WA, Sanagi MM, Kamboh MA, Abdul Keyon AS
    J Chromatogr A, 2018 Jan 12;1532:50-57.
    PMID: 29241956 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2017.11.059
    A facile dispersive-micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method coupled with HPLC for the analysis of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in water samples was developed using a newly prepared magnetic sporopollenin-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (MS-CNPrTEOS) sorbent. Sporopollenin homogenous microparticles of Lycopodium clavatum spores possessed accessible functional groups that facilitated surface modification. Simple modification was performed by functionalization with 3-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (CNPrTEOS) and magnetite was introduced onto the biopolymer to simplify the extraction process. MS-CNPrTEOS was identified by infrared spectrometrywhile the morphology and the magnetic property were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. To maximize the extraction performance of ketoprofen, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid using the proposed MS-CNPrTEOS, important D-μ-SPE parameters were comprehensively optimized. The optimum extraction conditions were sorbent amount, 40 mg; extraction time, 5 min; desorption time; 5 min; sample volume, 15 mL; sample pH 2.0; and salt addition, 2.5% (w/v). The feasibility of the developed method was evaluated using spiked tap water, lake water, river water and waste water samples. Results showed that ketoprofen and ibuprofen were linear in the range of 1.0-1000 μg L-1whilst diclofenac and mefenamic acid were linear in the range 0.8-500 μg L-1. The results also showed good detection limits for the studied NSAIDs in the range of 0.21-0.51 μg L-1and good recoveries for spiked water samples in the range of 85.1-106.4%. The MS-CNPrTEOS proved a promising dispersive sorbent and applicable to facile and rapid assay of NSAIDs in water samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid*
  6. Abdollahi Y, Abdullah AH, Zainal Z, Yusof NA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(1):302-15.
    PMID: 22312253 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010302
    Photocatalytic degradation of p-cresol was carried out using ZnO under UV irradiation. The amount of photocatalyst, concentration of p-cresol and pH were studied as variables. The residual concentration and mineralization of p-cresol was monitored using a UV-visible spectrophotometer and total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer, respectively. The intermediates were detected by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC). The highest photodegradation of p-cresol was observed at 2.5 g/L of ZnO and 100 ppm of p-cresol. P-cresol photocatalytic degradation was favorable in the pH range of 6-9. The detected intermediates were 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde and 4-methyl-1,2-benzodiol. TOC studies show that 93% of total organic carbon was removed from solution during irradiation time. Reusability shows no significant reduction in photocatalytic performance in photodegrading p-cresol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  7. Abdul Keyon AS, Guijt RM, Bolch CJ, Breadmore MC
    J Chromatogr A, 2014 Oct 17;1364:295-302.
    PMID: 25223612 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.08.074
    The accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in contaminated shellfish is a serious health risk making early detection important to improve shellfish safety and biotoxin management. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been proven as a high resolution separation technique compatible with miniaturization, making it an attractive choice in the development of portable instrumentation for early, on-site detection of PSTs. In this work, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) and UV detection were examined with counter-flow transient isotachophoresis (tITP) to improve the sensitivity and deal with the high conductivity sample matrix. The high sodium concentration in the sample was used as the leading ion while l-alanine was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE) and background electrolyte (BGE) in which the toxins were separated. Careful optimization of the injected sample volume and duration of the counter-flow resulted in limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 74.2 to 1020 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-C(4)D and 141 to 461 ng/mL for tITP-CZE-UV, an 8-97 fold reduction compared to conventional CZE. The LODs were adequate for the analysis of PSTs in shellfish samples close to the regulatory limit. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values (percentage relative standard deviation, n=3) of tITP-CZE-C(4)D and tITP-CZE-UV methods for both migration time and peak height were in the range of 0.82-11% and 0.76-10%, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of a contaminated mussel sample and validated against an Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)-approved method for PSTs analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) after pre-column oxidation of the sample. The method presented has potential for incorporation in to field-deployable devices for the early detection of PSTs on-site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  8. Abdul Manas NH, Pachelles S, Mahadi NM, Illias RM
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e106481.
    PMID: 25221964 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106481
    A maltogenic amylase (MAG1) from alkaliphilic Bacillus lehensis G1 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterised for its hydrolysis and transglycosylation properties. The enzyme exhibited high stability at pH values from 7.0 to 10.0. The hydrolysis of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) produced malto-oligosaccharides of various lengths. In addition to hydrolysis, MAG1 also demonstrated transglycosylation activity for the synthesis of longer malto-oligosaccharides. The thermodynamic equilibrium of the multiple reactions was shifted towards synthesis when the reaction conditions were optimised and the water activity was suppressed, which resulted in a yield of 38% transglycosylation products consisting of malto-oligosaccharides of various lengths. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed the presence of malto-oligosaccharides with a higher degree of polymerisation than maltoheptaose, which has never been reported for other maltogenic amylases. The addition of organic solvents into the reaction further suppressed the water activity. The increase in the transglycosylation-to-hydrolysis ratio from 1.29 to 2.15 and the increased specificity toward maltopentaose production demonstrated the enhanced synthetic property of the enzyme. The high transglycosylation activity of maltogenic amylase offers a great advantage for synthesising malto-oligosaccharides and rare carbohydrates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  9. Abdul Murad NA, Othman Z, Khalid M, Abdul Razak Z, Hussain R, Nadesan S, et al.
    Dig Dis Sci, 2012 Nov;57(11):2863-72.
    PMID: 22669205 DOI: 10.1007/s10620-012-2240-2
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide with approximately 1 million cases diagnosed annually. In Malaysia, CRC is the second most common cancer in women and ranked first in men. The underlying cause of CRC remains unknown.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze the mutations in genes involved in CRC including MLH1, MSH2, KRAS, and APC genes.

    METHODS: A total of 76 patients were recruited. We used the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for the detection of mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) and APC genes and the PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism for screening of the KRAS gene mutations.

    RESULTS: We identified 17 types of missense mutations in 38 out of 76 patients in our patients. Nine mutations were identified in the APC gene, five mutations were detected in the KRAS gene, and two mutations were identified in the MSH2 gene. Only one mutation was identified in MLH1. Out of these 17 mutations, eight mutations (47 %) were predicted to be pathogenic. Seven patients were identified with multiple mutations (3: MSH2 and KRAS, 1: KRAS and APC, 1: MLH1 and APC, 2: APC and APC).

    CONCLUSIONS: We have established the PCR-DHPLC and PCR-SSCP for screening of mutations in CRC patients. This study has given a snapshot of the spectrum of mutations in the four genes that were analyzed. Mutation screening in patients and their family members will help in the early detection of CRC and hence will reduce mortality due to CRC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  10. Abdul Rahim MH, Zakaria ZA, Mohd Sani MH, Omar MH, Yakob Y, Cheema MS, et al.
    PMID: 27190528 DOI: 10.1155/2016/1494981
    The objectives of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) leaves (MECN) using various animal nociceptive models. The antinociceptive activity of orally administered 10% DMSO, 100 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 5 mg/kg morphine, or MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction (ACT), formalin-induced paw licking (FT), and hot plate tests (HPT). The role of opioid and nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) systems was also investigated. The results showed that MECN produced a significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all nociceptive models with the recorded ED50 value of 279.3 mg/kg for the ACT, while, for the early and late phases of the FT, the value was >500 mg/kg or 227.7 mg/kg, respectively. This antinociceptive activity was fully antagonized by naloxone (a nonselective opioid antagonist) but was partially reversed by l-arginine (l-arg; a nitric oxide [NO] precursor), Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME; an NO synthase inhibitor), or their combinations thereof. In contrast, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) enhanced the extract's antinociception. UHPLC analysis revealed the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds with antinociceptive action. In conclusion, MECN exerted the peripherally and centrally mediated antinociceptive activity via the modulation of the opioid/NO-mediated, but cGMP-independent, systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  11. Abdul Rahman M, Anuar Karsani S, Othman I, Shafinaz Abdul Rahman P, Haji Hashim O
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2002 Jul 26;295(4):1007-13.
    PMID: 12127996
    Our group has previously reported the isolation, partial characterisation, and application of a Galbeta1-3GalNAc- and IgA1-reactive lectin from the seeds of champedak (Artocarpus integer). In the present study, we have subjected the purified lectin to reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and sequenced its subunits. Determination of the N-terminal sequence of the first 47 residues of the large subunit demonstrated at least 95% homology to the N-terminal sequence of the alpha chains of a few other galactose-binding Artocarpus lectins. The two smaller subunits of the lectin, each comprised of 21 amino acid residues, demonstrated minor sequence variability. Their sequences were generally comparable to the beta chains of the other galactose-binding Artocarpus lectins. When used to probe human serum glycopeptides that were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the lectin demonstrated strong apparent interactions with glycopeptides of IgA1, hemopexin, alpha2-HS glycoprotein, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, and a few unknown glycoproteins. Immobilisation of the lectin to Sepharose generated an affinity column that may be used to isolate the O-glycosylated serum glycoproteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  12. Abdulhussein AQ, Jamil AKM, Bakar NKA
    Food Chem, 2021 Oct 15;359:129936.
    PMID: 33957328 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129936
    In this work, new selective and sensitive dual-template molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPs) were synthesized and characterized. Sorbent MIPs were investigated for simultaneous extraction and clean-up of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid from light and dark honey samples. In this study, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry triple-quadrupole (UHPLC-MS/MS) (QQQ) was used to detect and quantify the pesticides. The kinetic model with adsorption kinetics of sorbent was investigated. The optimal adsorption conditions were 80 mg of polymer MIPs, a 30-min extraction time, and a pH of 7. The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) varied from 0.045 to 0.070 µg kg-1 and from 0.07 to 0.10 µg kg-1, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD, %) ranged from 1.3 to 2.0% and from 8.2 to 12.0%, respectively. The recovery of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid ranged from 96.8 to 106.5% and 95.3 to 104.4%, respectively, in light and dark honey samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
  13. Abdullah N, Nawawi A, Othman I
    Mycopathologia, 1998;143(1):53-8.
    PMID: 10205885
    In a survey of starch-based foods sampled from retail outlets in Malaysia, fungal colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (100%), followed by rice flour (74%), glutinous rice grains (72%), ordinary rice grains (60%), glutinous rice flour (48%) and corn flour (26%). All positive samples of ordinary rice and glutinous rice grains had total fungal counts below 10(3) cfu/g sample, while among the positive rice flour, glutinous rice flour and corn flour samples, the highest total fungal count was more than 10(3) but less than 10(4) cfu/g sample respectively. However, in wheat flour samples total fungal count ranged from 10(2) cfu/g sample to slightly more than 10(4) cfu/g sample. Aflatoxigenic colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (20%), followed by ordinary rice grains (4%), glutinous rice grains (4%) and glutinous rice flour (2%). No aflatoxigenic colonies were isolated from rice flour and corn flour samples. Screening of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 using reversed-phase HPLC were carried out on 84 samples of ordinary rice grains and 83 samples of wheat flour. Two point four percent (2.4%) of ordinary rice grains were positive for aflatoxin G1 and 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G2. All the positive samples were collected from private homes at concentrations ranging from 3.69-77.50 micrograms/kg. One point two percent (1.2%) of wheat flour samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 at a concentration of 25.62 micrograms/kg, 4.8% were positive for aflatoxin B2 at concentrations ranging from 11.25-252.50 micrograms/kg, 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G1 at concentrations ranging from 25.00-289.38 micrograms/kg and 13.25% were positive for aflatoxin G2 at concentrations ranging from 16.25-436.25 micrograms/kg. Similarly, positive wheat flour samples were mostly collected from private homes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  14. Abdullah NH, Salim F, Ahmad R
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 27;21(5).
    PMID: 27128898 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050525
    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and the first report of the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  15. Abdullah R, Diaz LN, Wesseling S, Rietjens IM
    PMID: 27892830 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2016.1266098
    After the incidences of induction of aristolochic acid nephropathy after consumption of herbal weight loss preparations that accidentally contained aristolochic acids (AAs), several countries defined national restrictions on the presence of AAs in food, including plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal products. This study investigates whether the risks associated with exposure to AAs via PFS and herbal products are at present indeed negligible. Data reported in literature on AA levels in PFS and other herbal products and also obtained from a new series of PFS in the present study were used to calculate the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and corresponding margins of exposure (MOEs). Available literature data revealed that 206 out of 573 samples were found to contain aristolochic acid I (AAI) and/or aristolochic acid II (AAII). The results obtained from recently collected PFS revealed that both AAI and AAII were detected in three out of 18 analysed PFS at levels up to 594.8 and 235.3 µg g(-1), respectively, being in line with the levels reported in literature. The EDIs resulting from intake of these PFS resulted in MOEs that were generally below 10,000, corroborating the priority for risk management. Although these results refer to PFS collected by targeted sampling strategies, the data reveal that AA-containing PFS are still freely available. When considering that the use of these samples may be limited to shorter periods of time, the EDIs might be lower, but MOE values would still be lower than 10,000 for more than 50% of the AA-containing PFS and herbal products. In conclusion, the presence of AAs in PFS and herbal products even several years after instalment of the legal restrictions still raises concern, especially for people who frequently use the respective PFS and herbal products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  16. Abdullah UYH, Ibrahim HM, Mahmud NB, Salleh MZ, Kek TL, Noorizhab MNFB, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 2019 May;43(3):182-187.
    PMID: 31298599 DOI: 10.1080/03630269.2019.1632893
    This is the first report of quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometric identification of the hemoglobin (Hb) subunits, α, β, δ and γ peptides, derived from enzymatic-digestion of proteins in the early unknown peaks of the cation exchange chromatography of Hb. The objectives were to identify the unknown high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks in healthy subjects and in patients with β-thalassemia (β-thal). The results demonstrate the existence of pools of free globin chains in red blood cells (RBCs). The α-, β-, δ- and γ-globin peptides were identified in the unknown HPLC peaks. The quantification and role of the free globin pool in patients with β-thal requires further investigation. Identification of all types of Hb subunits in the retention time (RT) before 1 min. suggests that altered Hbs is the nature of these fast-eluting peaks. Relevancy of thalassemias to the protein-aggregation disorders will require review of the role of free globin in the pathology of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  17. Abdullah UYH, Ibrahim HM, Mahmud NB, Salleh MZ, Teh LK, Noorizhab MNFB, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 2020 May;44(3):184-189.
    PMID: 32586164 DOI: 10.1080/03630269.2020.1781652
    Effective prevention of β-thalassemia (β-thal) requires strategies to detect at-risk couples. This is the first study attempting to assess the prevalence of silent β-thal carriers in the Malaysian population. Hematological and clinical parameters were evaluated in healthy blood donors and patients with β-thal trait, Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A)/β-thal and β-thal major (β-TM). β-Globin gene sequencing was carried out for 52 healthy blood donors, 48 patients with Hb E/β-thal, 34 patients with β-TM and 38 patients with β-thal trait. The prevalence of silent β-thal carrier phenotypes found in 25.0% of healthy Malaysian blood donors indicates the need for clinician's awareness of this type in evaluating β-thal in Malaysia. Patients with β-TM present at a significantly younger age at initial diagnosis and require more blood transfusions compared to those with Hb E/β-thal. The time at which genomic DNA was extracted after blood collection, particularly from patients with β-TM and Hb E/β-thal, was found to be an important determinant of the quality of the results of the β-globin sequencing. Public education and communication campaigns are recommended as apparently healthy individuals have few or no symptoms and normal or borderline hematological parameters. β-Globin gene mutation characterization and screening for silent β-thal carriers in regions prevalent with β-thal are recommended to develop more effective genetic counseling and management of β-thal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  18. Abdullahi A, Ahmad K, Ismail IS, Asib N, Ahmed OH, Abubakar AI, et al.
    Plant Pathol J, 2020 Dec 01;36(6):515-535.
    PMID: 33312089 DOI: 10.5423/PPJ.RW.05.2020.0077
    Essential oils (EOs) have gained a renewed interest in many disciplines such as plant disease control and medicine. This review discusses the components of ginger EOs, their mode of action, and their potential nanotechnology applications in controlling tropical plant diseases. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography, and headspace procedures are commonly used to detect and profile their chemical compositions EOs in ginger. The ginger EOs are composed of monoterpenes (transcaryophyllene, camphene, geranial, eucalyptol, and neral) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene, and β-sesquiphellandrene). GC-MS analysis of the EOs revealed many compounds but few compounds were revealed using the headspace approach. The EOs have a wide range of activities against many phytopathogens. EOs mode of action affects both the pathogen cell's external envelope and internal structures. The problems associated with solubility and stability of EOs had prompted the use nanotechnology such as nanoemulsions. The use of nanoemulsion to increase efficiency and supply of EOs to control plant diseases control was discussed in this present paper. The findings of this review paper may accelerate the effective use of ginger EOs in controlling tropical plant diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  19. Abrahim NN, Abdul-Rahman PS, Aminudin N
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e5694.
    PMID: 30324012 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5694
    Leaves from three varieties of Ficus deltoidea, colloquially termed small- (FDS), medium- (FDM), and big-type leaf (FDB), were subjected to water extraction. The crude extracts were fractionated using water (WF) and ethyl acetate (EAF). The phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity of the fractions were investigated. The EAF had the highest phenolic and flavonoid content compared to the other FDS fractions. Conversely, the FDM crude extract had the highest phenolic and flavonoid content compared to the other FDM samples. Antioxidant activity was highest in the FDB crude extract. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography showed that two compounds, vitexin and coumaric acid, were present in the FDB crude extract. Additionally, the F. deltoidea leaves caused no signs of toxicity in a normal liver cell line. Our findings show that F. deltoidea varieties have excellent antioxidant activity with no cytotoxic effects on normal liver cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  20. Abu-Bakar NB, Makahleh A, Saad B
    Talanta, 2014 Mar;120:47-54.
    PMID: 24468341 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.11.081
    A fast and simple solvent microextraction technique using salting out-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (salting out-VALLME) was developed for the extraction of furfurals (2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)) and patulin (PAT) in fruit juice samples. The optimum extraction conditions for 5 mL sample were: extraction solvent, 1-hexanol; volume of extractant, 200 µL; vortex time, 45 s; salt addition, 20%. The simultaneous determination of the furfurals and PAT were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed using ODS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d × 250 mm, 5 μm) under gradient elution. The detection wavelengths used for all compounds were 280 nm except for 3-F (210 nm). The furfurals and PAT were successfully separated in less than 9 min. Good linearities (r(2)>0.99) were obtained within the range 1-5000 μg L(-1) for all compounds except for 3-F (10-5000 µg L(-1)) and PAT (0.5-100 μg L(-1)). The limits of detection (0.28-3.2 µg L(-1)) were estimated at S/N ratio of 3. The validated salting out-VALLME-HPLC method was applied for the analysis of furfurals and PAT in fruit juice samples (apple, mango and grape).
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
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