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  1. Irmi Elfina, R., Ezalia, E., Elizabeth, G., Wan Hayati, M.Y, Norhanim, A., Wahidah, A., et al.
    Medicine & Health, 2014;9(1):44-52.
    MyJurnal
    Thalassaemia screening programme has been conducted in Malaysia since 2004. The aim of the programme was to reduce the burden of the disease by identifying thalassaemia carriers. However, the response towards the screening activities was unsatisfactory as there was lack of public awareness against the importance of thalassaemia screening. An alternative approach is to screen blood donors. The purpose of this study was to observe the prevalence of thalassaemia carriers among healthy blood donors. Seven hundred and thirty eight healthy blood donors were screened in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang from July to September 2010 using cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cases with haemoglobin variants were further analyzed by gel electrophoresis at alkaline pH. Result shows that the blood donors consisted of 413 Malays (56%), 162 Indians (22%), 148 Chinese (20%) and 15 others (2%). There were 19 (2.6%) individuals with haemoglobin E trait, six (0.8%) with co-inheritance of haemoglobin E and αα- thalassaemia and five (0.7%) with β-thalassaemia trait. Haemoglobin Constant Spring and haemoglobin A2 prime were observed in two (0.3%); and Haemoglobin Lepore and alpha chain variant in one (0.2%). αα-thalassaemia and normal haemoglobin A2 β-thalassaemia could not be excluded in 190 cases (26%), as they required deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) studies for identification. Thalassaemia screening in blood donors is more feasible and effective. Therefore, a wider scale population screening including blood donors could benefit the existing thalassaemia screening programme in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  2. George E, Jama T, Azian AS, Rahimah A, Zubaidah Z
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Dec;64(4):321-2.
    PMID: 20954559
    A rare case of thalassaemia-intermedia involving a non-deletion alpha thalassemia point mutation in the alpha1-globin gene CD59 (GGC --> GAC) and a deletion alpha+ (-alpha(3.7)) thalassaemia in which use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) C-gram Hb subtype profile and DNA molecular analysis helped establish the diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  3. Al-Khateeb A, Zahri MK, Mohamed MS, Sasongko TH, Ibrahim S, Yusof Z, et al.
    BMC Med. Genet., 2011;12:40.
    PMID: 21418584 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-40
    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder mainly caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. Few and limited analyses of familial hypercholesterolemia have been performed in Malaysia, and the underlying mutations therefore remain largely unknown.We studied a group of 154 unrelated FH patients from a northern area of Malaysia (Kelantan). The promoter region and exons 2-15 of the LDLR gene were screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect short deletions and nucleotide substitutions, and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect large rearrangements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  4. Aishah ZS, Khairi MD, Normastura AR, Zafarina Z, Zilfalil BA
    J Laryngol Otol, 2008 Dec;122(12):1284-8.
    PMID: 18353197 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215108002041
    To determine the frequency and type of gap junction protein beta-2 gene mutations in Malay patients with autosomal recessive, non-syndromic hearing loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  5. Akowuah GA, Zhari I
    Pharmazie, 2008 Nov;63(11):788-90.
    PMID: 19069237
    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine the content of betulinic acid (BA) in rat plasma collected at different times (0-8 h) after oral administration of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extract was developed. The features of the assay include protein precipitation using acetonitrile and isocratic elution using reverse phase C-18 column with ultraviolet (UV) detection. The recovery of BA from plasma varied from 98.4 to 102.5%. The R.S.D of intra- and inter-day precision from rat plasma ranged from 4.2 to 9.8%. The maximum concentration of BA in the plasma was 1.2 +/- 0.3 microg/ml at 1 h after oral administration of the extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  6. Wang Z, Tu Z, Xie X, Cui H, Kong KW, Zhang L
    Foods, 2021 Feb 03;10(2).
    PMID: 33546380 DOI: 10.3390/foods10020315
    This study aims to evaluate the bioactive components, in vitro bioactivities, and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of P. frutescens leaf, which is a traditional medicine-food homology plant. P. frutescens methanol crude extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, and aqueous phase residue) were prepared by ultrasound-enzyme assisted extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Among the samples, the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the high total phenolic (440.48 μg GAE/mg DE) and flavonoid content (455.22 μg RE/mg DE), the best antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 1.71, 1.14, 2.40, 1.29, and 2.4 times higher than that of control Vc, respectively), the most powerful α-glucosidase inhibitory ability with the IC50 value of 190.03 μg/mL which was 2.2-folds higher than control acarbose, the strongest proliferative inhibitory ability against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell with the IC50 values of 37.92 and 13.43 μg/mL, which were considerable with control cisplatin, as well as certain inhibition abilities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase. HPLC analysis showed that the luteolin, rosmarinic acid, rutin, and catechin were the dominant components of the ethyl acetate fraction. Animal experiments further demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction could significantly decrease the serum glucose level, food, and water intake of streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats, increase the body weight, modulate their serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C, improve the histopathology and glycogen accumulation in liver and intestinal tissue. Taken together, P. frutescens leaf exhibits excellent hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo, and could be exploited as a source of natural antidiabetic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  7. Fletcher MT, Hungerford NL, Webber D, Carpinelli de Jesus M, Zhang J, Stone ISJ, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 07 22;10(1):12128.
    PMID: 32699353 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-68940-0
    Stingless bee (Meliponini) honey has long been considered a high-value functional food, but the perceived therapeutic value has lacked attribution to specific bioactive components. Examination of honey from five different stingless bee species across Neotropical and Indo-Australian regions has enabled for the first time the identification of the unusual disaccharide trehalulose as a major component representing between 13 and 44 g per 100 g of each of these honeys. Trehalulose is an isomer of sucrose with an unusual α-(1 → 1) glucose-fructose glycosidic linkage and known acariogenic and low glycemic index properties. NMR and UPLC-MS/MS analysis unambiguously confirmed the identity of trehalulose isolated from stingless bee honeys sourced across three continents, from Tetragonula carbonaria and Tetragonula hockingsi species in Australia, from Geniotrigona thoracica and Heterotrigona itama in Malaysia and from Tetragonisca angustula in Brazil. The previously unrecognised abundance of trehalulose in stingless bee honeys is concrete evidence that supports some of the reported health attributes of this product. This is the first identification of trehalulose as a major component within a food commodity. This study allows the exploration of the expanded use of stingless bee honey in foods and identifies a bioactive marker for authentication of this honey in associated food standards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  8. Loh KS, Lee YH, Musa A, Salmah AA, Zamri I
    Sensors (Basel), 2008 Sep 18;8(9):5775-5791.
    PMID: 27873839
    Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe₃O₄ were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  9. Hidayah, N., Abu Bakar, F., Mahyudin, N.A., Faridah, S., Nur-Azura, M.S., Zaman, M.Z.
    MyJurnal
    This article summarises the current methods for total malachite green (MG) detection which is known as a sum of MG and leuco-malachite green (LMG) that has been used extensively in aquaculture as fungicide, dye color in textile and other purposes in food industries. LMG is a reducing form of MG, where the MG is easily reduced due to the photo-oxidative de-methylation process. Nevertheless, the use of MG had become an issue due to its toxicity effects. Many analytical instruments such as HPLC, LC—MS/MS, GC—MS, and spectrometry have been widely used for detection of MG. However, these methods require long time sample preparation and analysis, expensive, use hazardous reagents and indirect measurements. Hence, other analytical methods which are more sensitive, safe, rapid, inexpensive and portable are required. Alternatively, biosensors promise a more sensitive and rapid detection method for MG and LMG.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  10. Malahubban M, Alimon AR, Sazili AQ, Fakurazi S, Zakry FA
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Sep;30(3):467-80.
    PMID: 24189677 MyJurnal
    Leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol and chloroform to assess their potential as antibacterial and antioxidant agents. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the methanolic extracts of A. paniculata and O. stamineus leaves gave the highest amounts of andrographolide and rosmarinic acid, respectively. These leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and, at the highest concentration tested (200 mg/mL), showed greater inhibitory effects against the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus than 10% acetic acid. Andrographis paniculata and O. stamineus methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts also showed the strongest antioxidant activity as compared with the other extracts tested. The bioactive compounds present in these leaf extracts have the potential to be developed into natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents that may have applications in animal and human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  11. Kamisan FH, Yahya F, Mamat SS, Kamarolzaman MF, Mohtarrudin N, Kek TL, et al.
    PMID: 24708543 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-123
    Dicranopteris linearis (family Gleicheniaceae) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities but no attempt has been made to study its hepatoprotective potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the hepatoprotective effect of methanol extracts of D. linearis (MEDL) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  12. Mamat SS, Kamarolzaman MF, Yahya F, Mahmood ND, Shahril MS, Jakius KF, et al.
    PMID: 24267313 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-326
    Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) against the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  13. Al-Qaim FF, Abdullah MP, Othman MR, Latip J, Zakaria Z
    J Chromatogr A, 2014 Jun 6;1345:139-53.
    PMID: 24768127 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.04.025
    An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11 ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75% were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099 ng/L in STP influent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  14. Erman Shah Jaios, Suzanah Abdul Rahman, Mooi, Ching Siew, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa, Zainul Amirudin Zakaria
    MyJurnal
    Objectives/Research Problem:Melastoma malabathricum L., (Melastomaceae) is a medicinally important plant known as “Senduduk”. Traditionally, the leaves are used to relieve diverse pain-related ailments. Present study aims to examine the antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of M. malabathricum (MEMM) leaves and its fractions via in vivo models of nociception.

    Materials and Method: Extracts (100, 250, 500 mg/kg) were administered orally 60 minutes prior to subjection to the respective test, n=6/group. Evaluation of MEMM antinociceptive activity; chemically (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction; ACT, formalin-induced paw licking test; FT) and thermally (hot plate test; HT) models of nociception and elucidation of mechanisms of action involved; role of opioid, vanilloid receptors, glutamatergic system and NO/cGMP pathway were determined. Continuously, MEMM, partitioned into three fractions: petroleum ether (PEMM), ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous (AQMM) extracts and determine the most potent fraction. Therefore, experiment ED50 and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) values were conducted, and ACT was used to screen. Calculation, obtained, PEMM, the most effective was further used to assess the antinociceptive properties. Phytochemical screening, HPLC and GC-MS analysis were performed.

    Results and Discussion: First stage, MEMM exhibited significant (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  15. Athirajan V, Razak IA, Thurairajah N, Ghani WM, Ching HN, Yang YH, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(19):8183-9.
    PMID: 25339003
    BACKGROUND: A comparative cross-sectional study involving oral cancer patients and healthy individuals was designed to investigate associations between retinol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene with the risk of oral cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included a total of 240 matched cases and controls where subjects were selected from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). Retinol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene levels and intake were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) respectively.

    RESULTS: It was found that results from the two methods applied did not correlate, so that further analysis was done using the HPLC method utilising blood serum. Serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol among cases (0.177±0.081, 1.649±1.670μg/ml) were significantly lower than in controls (0.264±0.137, 3.225±2.054μg/ml) (p<0.005). Although serum level of β-carotene among cases (0.106±0.159 μg/ml) were lower compared to controls (0.134±0.131μg/ml), statistical significance was not observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that high serum level of retinol (OR=0.501, 95% CI=0.254-0.992, p<0.05) and α-tocopherol (OR=0.184, 95% CI=0.091-0.370, p<0.05) was significantly related to lower risk of oral cancer, whereas no relationship was observed between β-carotene and oral cancer risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: High serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol confer protection against oral cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  16. Hazrina HZ, Noorashikin MS, Beh SY, Loh SH, Zain NNM
    R Soc Open Sci, 2018 Jul;5(7):180070.
    PMID: 30109066 DOI: 10.1098/rsos.180070
    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is a separation and preconcentration of non-ionic surfactant from one liquid phase to another. In this study, Sylgard 309 and three different types of additives for CPE, namely CPE-Sylgard, CPE-Sylgard-BMIMBr and CPE-Sylgard-GLDA, are investigated to extract methylphenol from water samples. The methylphenols are well separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile : water; 60 : 40 (v/v) and detection at 260 nm. The optimized parameters for the effect of salt, surfactant, temperature, time of extraction, pH, interference study and the performance of different additives on methylphenol extraction are investigated. CPE-Sylgard-GLDA is chosen because it gives us a high peak and good peak area compared with CPE-Sylgard and CPE-Sylgard-BMIMBr. The recovery extractions of CPE-Sylgard-GLDA are obtained in the range of 80-99% as the percentage of relative standard deviation (RSD) is less than 10. The LOD and LOQ are 0.05 ppm and 0.18 ppm, respectively. The method developed for CPE-Sylgard-GLDA coupled with HPLC is feasible for the determination of methylphenol because it is simple, effective, cheap, and produces a high percentage of recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  17. Norhidayah, S., Baharin, B.S., Hamed, M., Zaidul, I.S.M.
    MyJurnal
    The objective of this research is recovery of squalene from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The extraction process was performed by using the SFE and recovered squalene was analyzed from total lipid extracts using HPLC. A central composite design was used to study the effect of SFE variables namely pressure (X₁) from 200 to 400 bar and temperature (X₂) from 40 to 60⁰C on the total lipid extracts (Y₁) and squalene concentration (Y₂) and optimize the SFE conditions. The nonlinear regression equations were significantly (p < 0.05) fitted for both responses with high R₂ (> 0.965), which had no indication of lack of fit. The results indicated that a combined pressure (200 bar) and temperature (50⁰C) was predicted to provide the optimum region in terms of total lipid extracts (13.84 ± 0.52%) and squalene concentration (418.31 ± 18.40 ppm) studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  18. Kamari A, Aljafree NF, Yusoff SN
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Jul;88:263-72.
    PMID: 27041651 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.03.071
    In this study, an amphiphilic chitosan derivative namely N,N-dimethylhexadecyl carboxymethyl chitosan (DCMC) was synthesised and applied for the first time as a carrier agent for rotenone. The physical and chemical properties of DCMC were characterised by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer ((1)H NMR), CHN-O Elemental Analyser, Thermogravimetric Analyser (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). DCMC was soluble in acidic (except pH 4), neutral and basic media with percent of transmittance (%T) values ranged from 67.2 to 99.4%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined as 0.095mg/mL. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed that DCMC has formed self-aggregates and exhibited spherical shape with the size of 65.5-137.0nm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of DCMC micelles with different weight ratios (DCMC:rotenone; 5:1, 50:1 and 100:1) were determined by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The weight ratio of 100:1 gave the best EE with the value of more than 95.0%. DCMC micelles performed an excellent ability to control the release of rotenone, of which 99.0% of rotenone was released within 48h. Overall, DCMC has several key features to be an effective carrier agent for pesticide formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  19. Al-Salahi OS, Kit-Lam C, Majid AM, Al-Suede FS, Mohammed Saghir SA, Abdullah WZ, et al.
    Microvasc Res, 2013 Nov;90:30-9.
    PMID: 23899415 DOI: 10.1016/j.mvr.2013.07.007
    Targeting angiogenesis could be an excellent strategy to combat angiogenesis-dependent pathophysiological conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, proliferative retinopathy and atherosclerosis. Recently a number of clinical investigations are being undertaken to assess the potential therapeutic application of various anti-angiogenic agents. Many of these angiogenesis inhibitors are directed against the functions of endothelial cells, which are considered as the building blocks of blood vessels. Similarly, roots of a traditional medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat the angiogenesis-related diseases. In the present study, antiangiogenic potential of partially purified quassinoid-rich fraction (TAF273) of E. longifolia root extract was evaluated using ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis models and the anti-angiogenic efficacy of TAF273 was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). TAF273 caused significant suppression in sprouting of microvessels in rat aorta with IC50 11.5μg/ml. TAF273 (50μg/ml) showed remarkable inhibition (63.13%) of neovascularization in chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo. Tumor histology also revealed marked reduction in extent of vascularization. In vitro, TAF273 significantly inhibited the major angiogenesis steps such as proliferation, migration and differentiation of HUVECs. Phytochemical analysis revealed high content of quassinoids in TAF273. Specially, HPLC characterization showed that TAF273 is enriched with eurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone and eurycomanol. These results demonstrated that the antiangiogenic activity of TAF273 may be due to its inhibitory effect on endothelial cell proliferation, differentiation and migration which could be attributed to the high content of quassinoids in E. longifolia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  20. Yassin AA, Mohamed IO, Ibrahim MN, Yusoff MS
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2003 Jul;110(1):45-52.
    PMID: 12909731
    Immobilized PS-C 'Amano' II lipase was used to catalyze the interesterification of palm olein (POo) with 30, 50, and 70% stearic acid in n-hexane at 60 degrees C. The catalytic performance of the immobilized lipase was evaluated by determining the composition change of fatty acyl groups and triacylglycerol (TAG) by gas liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The interesterification process resulted in the formation of new TAGs, mainly tripalmitin and dipalmitostearin, both of which were absent in the original oil. These changes in TAG composition resulted in an increase in slip melting point, from the original 25.5 degrees C to 36.3, 37.0, and 40.0 degrees C in the modified POo with 30, 50, and 70% stearic acid, respectively. All the reactions attained steady state in about 6 h. This type of work will find great applications in food industries, such as confectionery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
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