Methods: The venoms of DrSL and DrI were decomplexed with C18 high-performance liquid chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The proteins fractionated were identified through nano-ESI-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). The immunological studies were conducted with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The neutralization of the venom procoagulant effect was evaluated in citrated human plasma. The neutralization of the venom lethality was assessed in vivo in mice adopting the WHO protocol.
Results: DrSL and DrI venom proteomes showed comparable major protein families, with phospholipases A2 (PLA2) being the most abundant (> 60% of total venom proteins) and diverse (six protein forms identified). Both venoms were highly procoagulant and lethal (intravenous median lethal dose in mice, LD50 = 0.24 and 0.32 µg/g, for DrSL and DrI, respectively), while lacking hemorrhagic and anticoagulant activities. VPAV was immunoreactive toward DrSL and DrI venoms, indicating conserved protein antigenicity in the venoms. The high molecular weight venom proteins were, however, more effectively immunorecognized than small ones. VPAV was able to neutralize the coagulopathic and lethal effects of the venoms moderately.
Conclusion: Considering that a large amount of venom can be injected by Russell's viper during envenomation, the potency of antivenom can be further improved for optimal neutralization and effective treatment. Region-specific venoms and key toxins may be incorporated into the immunization procedure during antivenom production.
OBJECTIVES: In this study, Chromolaena odorata gel and quercetin gel (bioactive flavonoid compound) were successfully formulated and compared with placebo and conventional wound aid gel. The chromatographic profilling was conducted to screen the presence of phytoconstituents. Subsequently, all formulated gels were subjected to physical characteristic and stability study.
METHODS: Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) of C.odorata methanolic leaves extract shows a distinct compound separation at retention time 8.4min to 34.8 min at 254nm. All gels were characterised by evaluating their rheological properties including storage modulus, loss modulus and plastic viscosity. Besides, texture analysis was performed to measure the gels' firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index.
RESULTS: From the observation, C. odorata gel demonstrated better spreadability as compared to the other gels, which acquired less work and favourable to be applied onto the skin. Moreover, C. odorata gel showed no changes in organoleptic properties and proven to be stable after 30 days of accelerated stability study at 40°C ± 2°C with relative humidity (RH) of 75%± 5%.
CONCLUSION: C. odorata gel has shown to be stable, reflecting the combination of materials used in the formulation, which did not degrade throughout the study. This work suggests the potential of this gel as a vehicle to deliver the active ingredients of C. odorata to the skin, which can be further explored as a topical application in antimicrobial wound management or other skin diseases study.
METHODS: CYP2D6 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. CYP2D6-antiarthritic compound interactions were studied using in vitro enzyme kinetics assay and molecular docking.
RESULTS: The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based dextromethorphan O-demethylase assay was established as CYP2D6 marker. All glucosamines and chondroitins weakly inhibited CYP2D6 (IC50 values >300 µM). Diacerein exhibited moderate inhibition with IC50 and K
values of 34.99 and 38.27 µM, respectively. Its major metabolite, rhein displayed stronger inhibition potencies (IC50=26.22 μM and K
=32.27 μM). Both compounds exhibited mixed-mode of inhibition. In silico molecular dockings further supported data from the in vitro study. From in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, rhein presented an area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of 1.5, indicating low potential to cause in vivo inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: Glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein unlikely cause clinical interaction with the drug substrates of CYP2D6. Rhein, exhibits only low potential to cause in vivo inhibition.
RESULTS: Samples collected from sampling point 1 (company A) and sampling point 9 (company B) yielded the highest total fungal load (>log 4 CFU g-1 ). The prevalent fungal genera isolated were Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 8.3% of corn samples, and 7.4% of corn-based poultry feed samples along the feed supply chain, whereas AFs B2 , G1 , and G2 were not detected.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of mycotoxigenic fungi along the integrated poultry feed supply chain warrant continuous monitoring of mycotoxin contamination to reduce the exposure risk of mycotoxin intake in poultry. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.