Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 690 in total

  1. Abdulhussein AQ, Jamil AKM, Bakar NKA
    Food Chem, 2021 Oct 15;359:129936.
    PMID: 33957328 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129936
    In this work, new selective and sensitive dual-template molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPs) were synthesized and characterized. Sorbent MIPs were investigated for simultaneous extraction and clean-up of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid from light and dark honey samples. In this study, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry triple-quadrupole (UHPLC-MS/MS) (QQQ) was used to detect and quantify the pesticides. The kinetic model with adsorption kinetics of sorbent was investigated. The optimal adsorption conditions were 80 mg of polymer MIPs, a 30-min extraction time, and a pH of 7. The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) varied from 0.045 to 0.070 µg kg-1 and from 0.07 to 0.10 µg kg-1, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD, %) ranged from 1.3 to 2.0% and from 8.2 to 12.0%, respectively. The recovery of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid ranged from 96.8 to 106.5% and 95.3 to 104.4%, respectively, in light and dark honey samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
  2. Suleiman JB, Mohamed M, Abu Bakar AB, Nna VU, Zakaria Z, Othman ZA, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 15;26(16).
    PMID: 34443531 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164943
    The aim of the study was to determine the chemical profile, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activities of Heterotrigona itama bee bread from Malaysia. The pH, presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant properties, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), as well as antimicrobial activities, were assessed. Results revealed a decrease in the pH of bee bread water extract (BBW) relative to bee bread ethanolic extract (BBE) and bee bread hot water extract (BBH). Further, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, resins, glycosides and xanthoproteins were detected in BBW, BBH and BBE. Also, significant decreases in TPC, TFC, DPPH activity and FRAP were detected in BBW relative to BBH and BBE. We detected phenolic acids such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, trans-ferulic acid, trans 3-hydroxycinnamic acid and 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, and flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin and mangiferin in BBE using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The strongest antimicrobial activity was observed in Klebsilla pneumonia (MIC50 1.914 µg/mL), followed by E. coli (MIC50 1.923 µg/mL), Shigella (MIC50 1.813 µg/mL) and Salmonella typhi (MIC50 1.617 µg/mL). Bee bread samples possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Bee bread contains phenolic acids and flavonoids, and could be beneficial in the management and treatment of metabolic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  3. Rubnawaz S, Akhtar N, Mahmood R, Khan A, Okla MK, Alamri SA, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 11;26(16).
    PMID: 34443462 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164874
    Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. is an endangered medicinal herb traditionally used against different ailments. The present study aimed to create new insight into the fundamental mechanisms of genetic transformation and the biological activities of this plant. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. These transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antioxidant activities, a range of in vivo assays, elemental analysis, polyphenol content, and different phytochemicals found through HPLC. Among 18 polyphenolic standards, kaempferol was most abundant in all transgenic lines. Furthermore, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed maximum phenolics and flavonoids content among all tested plant extracts. ABRL3 also demonstrated the highest total antioxidant capacity (8.16 ± 1 μg AAE/mg), total reducing power, (6.60 ± 1.17 μg AAE/mg), DPPH activity (IC50 = 59.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL), hydroxyl ion scavenging (IC50 = 122.5 ± 0.90 μg/mL), and iron-chelating power (IC50 = 154.8 ± 2 μg/mL). Moreover, transformed plant extracts produced significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antidepressant activities in BALB/c mice models. In conclusion, transgenic regenerants of A. bracteosa pose better antioxidant and pharmacological properties under the effect of rol genes as compared to wild-type plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  4. Waqas M, Iqbal SZ, Abdull Razis AF, Pervaiz W, Ahmad T, Usman S, et al.
    PMID: 34360308 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18158015
    Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites toxic to humans as well as animals. The environmental conditions, conventional agricultural practices, and illiteracy are the main factors which favor the production of AFs in food and feed. In the current study 744 samples of vegetable seeds and oils (soybean, sunflower, canola, olive, corn, and mustard) were collected and tested for the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total AFs. Liquid-liquid extraction was employed for the extraction of AFs from seeds and oil samples. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used for the analysis. The results have shown that 92 (56.7%) samples of imported and 108 (57.0%) samples of local edible seeds were observed to be contaminated with AFs. All samples of edible seeds have AFB1 levels greater than the proposed limit set by the European Union (EU, 2 µg/kg) and 12 (7.40%) samples of imported seeds and 14 (7.40%) samples of local seeds were found in the range ≥ 50 µg/kg. About 78 (43.3%) samples of imported edible oil and 103 (48.3%) sample of local edible oil were observed to be positive for AFs. Furthermore, 16 (8.88%) and six (3.33%) samples of imported vegetable oil have levels of total AFs in a range (21-50 µg/kg) and greater than 50 µg/kg, respectively. The findings indicate significant differences in AFs levels between imported and local vegetable oil samples (t = 22.27 and p = 0.009) at α = 0.05 and a significant difference in AFs levels were found between vegetable seeds and oil samples (t = -17.75, p = 0.009) at α = 0.05. The highest dietary intake was found for a local sunflower oil sample (0.90 µg/kg/day) in female individuals (16-22 age group). The results have shown considerably high levels of AFB1 and total AFs in seeds and oil samples and emphasise the need to monitor carefully the levels of these toxic substances in food and feed on regular basis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  5. Amiri A, Ghaemi F
    J Chromatogr A, 2021 Jul 05;1648:462168.
    PMID: 33984648 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462168
    In this research, the Cu-based metal-organic framework (MOF-199) was fabricated and coated on the stainless steel mesh as substrates through sol-gel procedure. Then the coated substrates were placed in a small column known as solid-phase extraction cartridge. The SPE based coated stainless steel mesh coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detector (HPLC-UV) was used for the fast extraction, and quantification of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) from human plasma and water samples. To find optimum extraction conditions, the impacts of effective parameters on analytical performance like sample pH, sample volume, type, and volume of desorption solvent were optimized. At the optimized conditions, calibration graphs of analytes were linear in the concentration range of 0.03-300 ng mL-1 for water samples, and 0.1-200 ng mL-1 for plasma samples. The correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.9938 to 0.9989. Also, the limits of detection (LODs) were from 0.01 to 0.02 ng mL-1 for water samples and 0.03 to 0.1 ng mL-1 for plasma samples. The cartridge repeatability was studied at different values, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs%) were achieved between 3.5 and 5.1%. Consequently, this procedure was successfully used in the extraction and detection of NSAIDs in real water and plasma samples with relative recoveries ranged from 93.6 to 99.6%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
  6. Chua LS, Segaran A, Wong HJ
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2021 Jun 21;59(7):659-669.
    PMID: 33876232 DOI: 10.1093/chromsci/bmab041
    The objective of the study was to fractionate the crude extract of Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) roots and identify the intense peaks using HPLC-PDA-MS/MS, UPLC-MS/MS and H-NMR. Column chromatography was used to fractionate the crude extract into individual fractions using six solvent systems ranged from ethyl acetate, methanol and water in increasing polarity. Two fractions with nearly pure and intense peaks were selected for compound identification. Chromenone (coumarin) and chromone derivatives were putatively identified, besides several previously reported quassinoid glycosides (eurycomanone derived glycoside, 2,3-dehydro-4α-hydroxylongilactone glucoside, eurycomanol glycoside and eurycomanol trimer) in the fraction 11 of 100% methanol. A newly reported compound, namely hydroxyl glyyunanprosapogenin D (838 g/mol) was proposed to be the compound detected in the fraction 11 of 50% ethyl acetate and 50% methanol. This is also the first study to report the identification of chromenones and chromones in E. longifolia extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  7. Muchtaridi M, Lestari D, Khairul Ikram NK, Gazzali AM, Hariono M, Wahab HA
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 04;26(11).
    PMID: 34199752 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113402
    Coffee has been studied for its health benefits, including prevention of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, Parkinson's, and liver diseases. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important component in coffee beans, was shown to possess antiviral activity against viruses. However, the presence of caffeine in coffee beans may also cause insomnia and stomach irritation, and increase heart rate and respiration rate. These unwanted effects may be reduced by decaffeination of green bean Arabica coffee (GBAC) by treatment with dichloromethane, followed by solid-phase extraction using methanol. In this study, the caffeine and chlorogenic acid (CGA) level in the coffee bean from three different areas in West Java, before and after decaffeination, was determined and validated using HPLC. The results showed that the levels of caffeine were reduced significantly, with an order as follows: Tasikmalaya (2.28% to 0.097% (97 ppm), Pangalengan (1.57% to 0.049% (495 ppm), and Garut (1.45% to 0.00002% (0.2 ppm). The CGA levels in the GBAC were also reduced as follows: Tasikmalaya (0.54% to 0.001% (118 ppm), Pangalengan (0.97% to 0.0047% (388 ppm)), and Garut (0.81% to 0.029% (282 ppm). The decaffeinated samples were then subjected to the H5N1 neuraminidase (NA) binding assay to determine its bioactivity as an anti-influenza agent. The results show that samples from Tasikmalaya, Pangalengan, and Garut possess NA inhibitory activity with IC50 of 69.70, 75.23, and 55.74 μg/mL, respectively. The low level of caffeine with a higher level of CGA correlates with their higher levels of NA inhibitory, as shown in the Garut samples. Therefore, the level of caffeine and CGA influenced the level of NA inhibitory activity. This is supported by the validation of CGA-NA binding interaction via molecular docking and pharmacophore modeling; hence, CGA could potentially serve as a bioactive compound for neuraminidase activity in GBAC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  8. Zainol SN, Fadhlina A, Rentala SV, Pillai R, Yalaka M, Bansal I, et al.
    Data Brief, 2021 Jun;36:107001.
    PMID: 33997190 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107001
    A HPLC method has been validated for identifying five markers (gallic acid, rosmarinic acid, catechin, andrographolide and curcumin) and quantifying curcumin in SynacinnTM formulation. The validation (bracketed strengths of 10 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) involved assessment of selectivity, precision, Limit of Detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ), linearity, accuracy, stability in diluent and formulation stability. Meanwhile, in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test data was presented to evaluate the toxicity potential of Synacinn™ to cause clastogenicity and/or disruption of the mitotic apparatus, as measured by its ability to induce micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN PCE) in Sprague Dawley rat bone marrow. The test was conducted in two phases viz., Phase I (Dose Range Finding experiment) and Phase II (Definitive experiment). Phase I was conducted to assess general toxicity and bone marrow cytotoxicity of Synacinn™, and to select the doses for the definitive experiment. In-life observations included mortality, clinical signs of toxicity and body weight. Bone marrow samples were collected and extracted from the femur bone using fetal bovine serum. The pellet obtained after the centrifugation was used for preparing bone marrow smears to evaluate the number of immature and mature erythrocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  9. Naheed N, Maher S, Saleem F, Khan A, Wadood A, Rasheed S, et al.
    Drug Dev Res, 2021 May 13.
    PMID: 33983647 DOI: 10.1002/ddr.21831
    Urease plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis pyelonephritis, urinary catheter encrustation, hepatic coma, hepatic encephalopathy, and peptic acid duodenal ulcers. Salvinia molesta was explored to identify new bioactive compounds with particular emphasis on urease inhibitors. The aqueous methanol extract was fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity. A series of column chromatography and later HPLC were performed on butanol extract. The structures of the resulting pure compounds were resolved using NMR (1D and 2D), infrared, and mass spectroscopy. The novel isolate was evaluated for antioxidant activity (using DPPH, superoxide anion radical scavenging, oxidative burst, and Fe+2 chelation assays), anti-glycation behavior, anticancer activity, carbonic anhydrase inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition, and urease inhibition. One new glucopyranose derivative 6'-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4'-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and four known glycosides were identified. Glycoside 1 demonstrated promising antioxidant potential with IC50 values of 48.2 ± 0.3, 60.3 ± 0.6, and 42.1 ± 1.8 μM against DPPH, superoxide radical, and oxidative burst, respectively. Its IC50 in the Jack bean urease inhibition assay was 99.1 ± 0.8 μM. The mechanism-based kinetic studies presented that compound 1 is a mixed-type inhibitor of urease with a Ki value of 91.8 ± 0.1 μM. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations exploring the binding mode of compound 1 with urease provided quantitative agreement between estimated binding free energies and the experimental results. The studies corroborate the use of compound 1 as a lead for QSAR studies as an antioxidant and urease inhibitor. Moreover, it needs to be further evaluated through the animal model, that is, in vivo or tissue culture-based ex-vivo studies, to establish their therapeutic potential against oxidative stress phosphodiesterase-II and urease-induced pathologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  10. Moslehi Z, Mohammadi Nafchi A, Moslehi M, Jafarzadeh S
    Food Sci Nutr, 2021 May;9(5):2576-2584.
    PMID: 34026073 DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.2212
    Pistachio is a nut with high consumption that could be affected by aflatoxin contamination, which affects the consumption market; therefore, broad studies seem to be necessary for this area. In the current study, pistachio nuts (Abbasali variety) were coated with different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) of methylcellulose (MC) by immersion method and then stored in the incubator (25°C) for four months. The inhibitory effect of hydrocolloid coating on microbial (mold, yeast, and total count) and aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1, G2, and total aflatoxin) contamination, as well as sensory attributes (flavor, color, crispiness, aroma, and total acceptability), was investigated during storage periods. Results showed that the storage period had a significant effect on yeast, mold, and total count. HPLC analysis results showed that coating with MC had a significant inhibitory effect on aflatoxin contamination, and the highest amount of aflatoxin contamination was related to the control sample (3.5%). All samples except sample coated with MC 0.5% had appropriate total acceptability. Regarding the inhibitory effect of MC edible coating on aflatoxin contamination, its application on pistachio nut could be a promising approach to control the fungus infection and reduce aflatoxin production in coated pistachio.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  11. Mohd Yusop AY, Xiao L, Fu S
    Forensic Sci Int, 2021 May;322:110748.
    PMID: 33711768 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2021.110748
    The presence of erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs in adulterated dietary supplements, mainly in pharmaceutical dosage forms, is frequently addressed in the literature. Little attention is given to food products despite their increasing adulteration trend. To address this knowledge gap targeted, suspected-target, and non-targeted strategies were utilised to analyse ED drugs and their analogues in powdered drink mix (PDM), honey, jelly, hard candy, and sugar-coated chewing gum using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The method was optimised and validated using 23 target analytes, representing different ED drugs with structural similarities. The modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction exhibited insignificant matrix effect (ME) within - 9.2-8.8% and provided complete coverage of target analytes with acceptable extraction recovery (RE) within 75.5-123.9%, except for carbodenafil in the PDM matrix. Based on the ME and RE performance, the analytical method was validated to analyse 25 food samples that claimed to enhance male sexual performance. The method exhibited good specificity and linearity with a limit of detection within 10-70 ng/mL and limit of quantification of 80 ng/mL. Similarly, the accuracy and precision were satisfactory within 77.4-122.0% and
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  12. Faisal T, Tan KY, Tan NH, Sim SM, Gnanathasan CA, Tan CH
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis, 2021 Apr 30;27:e20200177.
    PMID: 33995514 DOI: 10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2020-0177
    Background: The western Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is widely distributed in South Asia, and geographical venom variation is anticipated among distant populations. Antivenoms used for Russell's viper envenomation are, however, raised typically against snakes from Southern India. The present study investigated and compared the venom proteomes of D. russelii from Sri Lanka (DrSL) and India (DrI), the immunorecognition of Indian VINS Polyvalent Antivenom (VPAV) and its efficacy in neutralizing the venom toxicity.

    Methods: The venoms of DrSL and DrI were decomplexed with C18 high-performance liquid chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The proteins fractionated were identified through nano-ESI-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). The immunological studies were conducted with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The neutralization of the venom procoagulant effect was evaluated in citrated human plasma. The neutralization of the venom lethality was assessed in vivo in mice adopting the WHO protocol.

    Results: DrSL and DrI venom proteomes showed comparable major protein families, with phospholipases A2 (PLA2) being the most abundant (> 60% of total venom proteins) and diverse (six protein forms identified). Both venoms were highly procoagulant and lethal (intravenous median lethal dose in mice, LD50 = 0.24 and 0.32 µg/g, for DrSL and DrI, respectively), while lacking hemorrhagic and anticoagulant activities. VPAV was immunoreactive toward DrSL and DrI venoms, indicating conserved protein antigenicity in the venoms. The high molecular weight venom proteins were, however, more effectively immunorecognized than small ones. VPAV was able to neutralize the coagulopathic and lethal effects of the venoms moderately.

    Conclusion: Considering that a large amount of venom can be injected by Russell's viper during envenomation, the potency of antivenom can be further improved for optimal neutralization and effective treatment. Region-specific venoms and key toxins may be incorporated into the immunization procedure during antivenom production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  13. Chear NJ, León F, Sharma A, Kanumuri SRR, Zwolinski G, Abboud KA, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2021 Apr 23;84(4):1034-1043.
    PMID: 33635670 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c01055
    Ten indole and oxindole alkaloids (1-10) were isolated from the freshly collected leaves of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom). The chemical structures of these compounds were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS data analysis. The spectroscopic data of mitragynine oxindole B (4) are reported herein for the first time. The spatial configuration of mitragynine oxindole B (4) was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Simultaneous quantification of the isolated alkaloids in the M. speciosa leaf specimens collected from different locations in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia was also performed using UPLC-MS/MS. The oxindole alkaloids (1-4) and the indole alkaloid (10) were assessed for binding affinity at opioid receptors. Corynoxine (1) showed high binding affinity to μ-opioid receptors with a K
    value of 16.4 nM. Further, corynoxine (1) was 1.8-fold more potent than morphine in rats subjected to a nociceptive hot plate assay. These findings have important implications for evaluating the combined effects of the minor oxindole alkaloids in the overall therapeutic activity of M. speciosa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  14. Zamram QAZM, Mohsin HF, Mohamad MM, Nor Hazalin NAM, Hamid KA
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2021 Apr 18.
    PMID: 33874872 DOI: 10.2174/1567201818666210419114809
    AIM: Formulating topical products for skin delivery has always been a challenge for pharmaceutical scientists to fulfil good formulation criteria. Despite the challenges, gel-based drug delivery offers some advantages such that it is non-invasive, painless, avoidance of the first-pass metabolism and has satisfactory patient compliance.

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, Chromolaena odorata gel and quercetin gel (bioactive flavonoid compound) were successfully formulated and compared with placebo and conventional wound aid gel. The chromatographic profilling was conducted to screen the presence of phytoconstituents. Subsequently, all formulated gels were subjected to physical characteristic and stability study.

    METHODS: Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) of C.odorata methanolic leaves extract shows a distinct compound separation at retention time 8.4min to 34.8 min at 254nm. All gels were characterised by evaluating their rheological properties including storage modulus, loss modulus and plastic viscosity. Besides, texture analysis was performed to measure the gels' firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index.

    RESULTS: From the observation, C. odorata gel demonstrated better spreadability as compared to the other gels, which acquired less work and favourable to be applied onto the skin. Moreover, C. odorata gel showed no changes in organoleptic properties and proven to be stable after 30 days of accelerated stability study at 40°C ± 2°C with relative humidity (RH) of 75%± 5%.

    CONCLUSION: C. odorata gel has shown to be stable, reflecting the combination of materials used in the formulation, which did not degrade throughout the study. This work suggests the potential of this gel as a vehicle to deliver the active ingredients of C. odorata to the skin, which can be further explored as a topical application in antimicrobial wound management or other skin diseases study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  15. Salim SA, Sukor R, Ismail MN, Selamat J
    Toxins (Basel), 2021 04 15;13(4).
    PMID: 33920815 DOI: 10.3390/toxins13040280
    Rice bran, a by-product of the rice milling process, has emerged as a functional food and being used in formulation of healthy food and drinks. However, rice bran is often contaminated with numerous mycotoxins. In this study, a method to simultaneous detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), sterigmatocystin (STG), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and zearalenone (ZEA) in rice bran was developed, optimized and validated using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In DLLME, using a solvent mixture of methanol/water (80:20, v/v) as the dispersive solvent and chloroform as the extraction solvent with the addition of 5% salt improved the extraction recoveries (63-120%). The developed method was further optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under the optimized experimental conditions, good linearity was obtained with a correlation coefficient (r2) ≥ 0.990 and a limit of detection (LOD) between 0.5 to 50 ng g-1. The recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 99.4% with an RSD below 1.28%. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze multi-mycotoxin in 24 rice bran samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid*
  16. Tan BH, Ahemad N, Pan Y, Palanisamy UD, Othman I, Ong CE
    Drug Metab Pers Ther, 2021 Apr 08.
    PMID: 33831979 DOI: 10.1515/dmdi-2020-0182
    OBJECTIVES: Glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein are natural compounds commonly used in treating osteoarthritis. Their concomitant intake may trigger drug-natural product interactions. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) has been implicated in such interactions. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a major hepatic CYP involved in metabolism of 25% of the clinical drugs. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of these antiarthritic compounds on CYP2D6.

    METHODS: CYP2D6 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. CYP2D6-antiarthritic compound interactions were studied using in vitro enzyme kinetics assay and molecular docking.

    RESULTS: The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based dextromethorphan O-demethylase assay was established as CYP2D6 marker. All glucosamines and chondroitins weakly inhibited CYP2D6 (IC50 values >300 µM). Diacerein exhibited moderate inhibition with IC50 and K
    values of 34.99 and 38.27 µM, respectively. Its major metabolite, rhein displayed stronger inhibition potencies (IC50=26.22 μM and K
    =32.27 μM). Both compounds exhibited mixed-mode of inhibition. In silico molecular dockings further supported data from the in vitro study. From in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, rhein presented an area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of 1.5, indicating low potential to cause in vivo inhibition.

    CONCLUSIONS: Glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein unlikely cause clinical interaction with the drug substrates of CYP2D6. Rhein, exhibits only low potential to cause in vivo inhibition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  17. Al-Jaal B, Latiff A, Salama S, Hussain HM, Al-Thani NA, Al-Naimi N, et al.
    Toxins (Basel), 2021 04 08;13(4).
    PMID: 33917988 DOI: 10.3390/toxins13040267
    Mycotoxins are naturally occurring food toxins worldwide that can cause serious health effects. The measurement of mycotoxin biomarkers in biological fluids is needed to assess individuals' exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in the Qatari population. Serum samples from 412 adults and urinary samples from 559 adults were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxin biomarkers. Multimycotoxin approaches have been applied, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods. Samples were further analyzed for the oxidative stress markers and compared with regard to the incidence of mycotoxins. The presence of mycotoxins was identified in 37% of serum samples and in less than 20% of urine samples. It was found that 88% of positive of the samples were positive for only one mycotoxin, while 12% of positive samples had two or more mycotoxins. Trichothecenes and zearalenone metabolites were most commonly detected mycotoxins, followed by aflatoxins, roquefortine C and mycophenolic acid. The presence of mycotoxins was found to positively correlate with oxidative stress markers. The obtained results illustrate the importance of mycotoxin biomonitoring studies in humans and the need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of mycotoxin-induced toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  18. Tarmizi AAA, Wagiran A, Mohd Salleh F, Chua LS, Abdullah FI, Hasham R, et al.
    Plants (Basel), 2021 Apr 07;10(4).
    PMID: 33917172 DOI: 10.3390/plants10040717
    Labisia pumila is a precious herb in Southeast Asia that is traditionally used as a health supplement and has been extensively commercialized due to its claimed therapeutic properties in boosting a healthy female reproductive system. Indigenous people used these plants by boiling the leaves; however, in recent years it has been marketed as powdered or capsuled products. Accordingly, accuracy in determination of the authenticity of these modern herbal products has faced great challenges. Lack of authenticity is a public health risk because incorrectly used herbal species can cause adverse effects. Hence, any measures that may aid product authentication would be beneficial. Given the widespread use of Labisia herbal products, the current study focuses on authenticity testing via an integral approach of DNA barcoding and qualitative analysis using HPLC. This study successfully generated DNA reference barcodes (ITS2 and rbcL) for L. pumila var. alata and pumila. The DNA barcode that was generated was then used to identify species of Labisia pumila in herbal medicinal products, while HPLC was utilized to determine their quality. The findings through the synergistic approach (DNA barcode and HPLC) implemented in this study indicate the importance of both methods in providing the strong evidence required for the identification of true species and to examine the authenticity of such herbal medicinal products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  19. Rajamma DB, Anandan S, Yusof NSM, Pollet BG, Ashokkumar M
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2021 Apr;72:105413.
    PMID: 33338865 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105413
    Acoustic cavitation and sonochemical reactions play a significant role in various applications of ultrasound. A number of dosimetry methods are in practice to quantify the amount of radicals generated by acoustic cavitation. In this study, hydroxyl radical (OH) yields measured by Weissler, Fricke and terephthalic acid dosimetry methods have been compared to evaluate the validities of these methods using a 490 kHz high frequency sonochemical reactor. The OH yields obtained after 5 min sonication at 490 kHz from Weissler and Fricke dosimetries were 200 µM and 289 µM, respectively. Whereas, the OH yield was found to be very low (8 µM) when terephthalic acid dosimetry was used under similar experimental conditions. While the results agree with those reported by Iida et al. (Microchem. J., 80 (2005) 159), further mechanistic details and interfering reactions have been discussed in this study. For example, the amount of OH determined by the Weissler and Fricke methods may have some uncertainty due to the formation of HO2 in the presence of oxygen. In order to account for the major discrepancy observed with the terephthalic acid dosimetry method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed, where two additional products other than 2-hydroxy terephthalic acid were observed. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis showed the formation of 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid as one of the by-products along with other unidentified by-products. Despite the formation of additional products consuming OH, the reason for a very low OH yield obtained by this dosimetry could not be justified, questioning the applicability of this method, which has been used to quantify OH yields generated not only by acoustic cavitation, but also by other processes such as γ-radiolysis. The authors are hoping that this Opinion Paper may initiate further discussion among researchers working in sonochemistry area that could help resolve the uncertainties around using these dosimetry methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  20. Nasaruddin N, Jinap S, Samsudin NI, Kamarulzaman NH, Sanny M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Mar 30;101(5):1812-1821.
    PMID: 32893877 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10795
    BACKGROUND: Corn, a main feed ingredient in the livestock industry, is one of the most susceptible crops to fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination. Livestock feeding on aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated feed have been shown to experience feed refusal, and decreased growth rate, milk production, and feed efficiency. In poultry, AF poisoning causes weight loss, poor feed efficiency, and reduced egg production and egg weight. The present work therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of mycotoxigenic fungi and the occurrence of AF contamination along the integrated corn-based poultry feed supply chain in Malaysia. A total of 51 samples were collected from different points along the feed supply chain from integrated poultry feed companies. The samples were subjected to mycological analyses (fungal isolation, enumeration, identification), and AFs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD).

    RESULTS: Samples collected from sampling point 1 (company A) and sampling point 9 (company B) yielded the highest total fungal load (>log 4 CFU g-1 ). The prevalent fungal genera isolated were Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 8.3% of corn samples, and 7.4% of corn-based poultry feed samples along the feed supply chain, whereas AFs B2 , G1 , and G2 were not detected.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of mycotoxigenic fungi along the integrated poultry feed supply chain warrant continuous monitoring of mycotoxin contamination to reduce the exposure risk of mycotoxin intake in poultry. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
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