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  1. Harnentis H, Nurmiati N, Marlida Y, Adzitey F, Huda N
    Vet World, 2019 Aug;12(8):1352-1357.
    PMID: 31641319 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.1352-1357
    Aim: This study aimed at optimizing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of an Indonesian indigenous fermented buffalo milk (dadih) origin. This study utilized LAB previously cultured from dadih that has the ability to produce GABA.

    Materials and Methods: The study started with the identification of selected LAB by 16S rRNA, followed by optimization of GABA production by culture conditions using different initial pH, temperature, glutamate concentration, incubation time, carbon, and nitrogen sources. 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction and analysis by phylogenetic were used to identify Lactobacillus plantarum (coded as N5) responsible for the production of GABA.

    Results: GABA production by high-performance liquid chromatography was highest at pH of 5.5, temperature of 36°C, glutamate concentration of 500 mM, and incubation time of 84 h. Peptone and glucose served as the nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, whereas GABA was produced at optimum fermentation condition of 211.169 mM.

    Conclusion: Production of GABA by L. plantarum N5 was influenced by initial pH of 5.5, glutamic acid concentration, nitrogen source, glucose as carbon source, and incubation temperature and time.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  2. Mohd Norhafsam Maghpor, Suhaily Amran, Ahmad Sayuti Zainal Abidin, Naemah Tajol Arus, Nurzuhairah Jamil, Nor Husna Mat Hussin
    MyJurnal
    A study has been conducted on trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) as the biomarker for benzene exposure among
    oil and gas petrol tanker drivers. The objectives of this study are to determine the significant difference and the
    correlation between Benzene personal exposure and urinary t,t-MA among exposed and non-exposed workers. A total
    of 92 questionnaires were distributed to obtain demographic and descriptive data. Benzene personal exposure was
    sampled using SKC passive samplers and the data was analyzed using GC-FID. Urinary t,t-MA was collected at end of
    work shift and analyzed using HPLC-UV detector. A total of 30 non-exposed workers were also sampled. The averages
    of urinary t,t-MA were 96.65 ug/g creatinine for exposed workers and 0.51 ug/g creatinine for non-exposed workers.
    Meanwhile, the averages of Benzene personal exposure were 0.37 mg/m3 and 0.01 mg/m3 for exposed workers and
    non-exposed workers respectively. No significant correlation was found between exposure to benzene with excreted
    urinary t,t-MA of workers occupationally exposed (p-value > 0.05) as well as to workers non-exposed to benzene
    (p-value > 0.05). In conclusion, there is no significant correlation found between Benzene personal exposure and
    urinary t,t-MA among exposed and non-exposed workers. Applicability of using t,t-MA as the biomarker of benzene
    exposure shall be further discussed with all the other confounding factors to be taken into account.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  3. Lee TP, Saad B, Ng EP, Salleh B
    J Chromatogr A, 2012 May 11;1237:46-54.
    PMID: 22444432 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.03.031
    Zeolite Linde Type L (LTL) crystals with different length, diameter and particle size (nanosized LTL, rod LTL, cylinder LTL and needle LTL) were synthesized, characterized and were used as sorbent in the micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A (OTA) before the high performance liquid chromatography detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee and cereal were 0.09 ng g(-1) and 0.03 ng g(-1), respectively, while the quantification limits were 0.28 ng g(-1) and 0.08 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA of coffee and cereal spiked at 0.5, 10 and 25 ng g(-1) ranged from 91.7 to 101.0%. The proposed method was applied to forty-five samples of coffee and cereal. The presence of OTA was found in twenty-five samples, ranging from 0.28 to 9.33 ng g(-1).
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  4. Paterson RRM, Buddie A
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 05;26(13):13676.
    PMID: 30357675 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3544-3
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  5. Shalash M, Makahleh A, Salhimi SM, Saad B
    Talanta, 2017 Nov 01;174:428-435.
    PMID: 28738603 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2017.06.039
    A vortex-assisted liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction method followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection for the determination of fourteen phenolic acids (cinnamic, m-coumaric, chlorogenic, syringic, ferulic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, 2, 4-dihydroxybenzoic, sinapic, gentisic and gallic acids) in honey, iced tea and canned coffee drink samples has been developed. The separation was achieved using a Poroshell 120-EC-C18 column under a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.6mLmin-1 and mobile phase composed of methanol and acetic acid (1%, v/v). Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, the fourteen phenolic acids were separated in less than 32min. The extraction was performed using a small volume (400µL) of ternary organic solvents (1-pentanol, propyl acetate and 1-hexanol) dispersed into the aqueous sample (10mL) and assisted by vortex agitation (2500rpm for 45s), the analytes were next back-extracted from the organic solvent using 0.02M KOH (40µL) with vortex speed and time of 2500rpm and 60s, respectively. Under these conditions, enrichment factors of 30-193-fold were achieved. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.05-0.68µgL-1. Recoveries in honey, iced tea and canned coffee drinks were in the range 72.2-112%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of the phenolic acids in honey, iced tea and canned coffee drinks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  6. Makahleh A, Yap HF, Saad B
    Talanta, 2015 Oct 01;143:394-401.
    PMID: 26078176 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.05.011
    A new, rapid and sensitive microextraction technique named vortex-assisted liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLLME) is proposed. The complete extraction process involves two steps. First, a vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) procedure was used to extract the analytes from a relatively large volume of sample (donor phase) to a small volume of organic solvent (intermediate phase). Next, a micro-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (µ-VALLE) was used to extract the target analytes from the intermediate phase to a smaller volume of aqueous solution (acceptor phase). The final extract (acceptor phase) can be directly injected into the high performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis units without any further treatments. The selection of the intermediate phase and the manipulation of pH are key parameters that ensure good extraction efficiency of the technique. The proposed technique has been successfully applied for the determination of carvedilol (used as model analyte) in biological fluid samples. The optimum extraction conditions were: toluene as intermediate phase (150 μL); pH of the donor phase, 9.5; vortex time of the VALLME, 45 s (maximum speed, 2500 rpm); 0.1M HCl (15 μL) as acceptor phase; vortexing time of the µ-VALLME, 75 s (maximum stirring speed, 2500 rpm) and salt concentration in the donor phase, 5% (w/v). Under these conditions, enrichment factors of 51- and 418-fold for VALLME step and VALLLME procedure, respectively, were achieved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  7. Abu-Bakar NB, Makahleh A, Saad B
    Talanta, 2014 Mar;120:47-54.
    PMID: 24468341 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.11.081
    A fast and simple solvent microextraction technique using salting out-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (salting out-VALLME) was developed for the extraction of furfurals (2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)) and patulin (PAT) in fruit juice samples. The optimum extraction conditions for 5 mL sample were: extraction solvent, 1-hexanol; volume of extractant, 200 µL; vortex time, 45 s; salt addition, 20%. The simultaneous determination of the furfurals and PAT were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed using ODS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d × 250 mm, 5 μm) under gradient elution. The detection wavelengths used for all compounds were 280 nm except for 3-F (210 nm). The furfurals and PAT were successfully separated in less than 9 min. Good linearities (r(2)>0.99) were obtained within the range 1-5000 μg L(-1) for all compounds except for 3-F (10-5000 µg L(-1)) and PAT (0.5-100 μg L(-1)). The limits of detection (0.28-3.2 µg L(-1)) were estimated at S/N ratio of 3. The validated salting out-VALLME-HPLC method was applied for the analysis of furfurals and PAT in fruit juice samples (apple, mango and grape).
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
  8. Chua GHI, Phang SCW, Wong YO, Ho LS, Palanisamy UD, Abdul Kadir K
    Nutrients, 2020 Nov 27;12(12).
    PMID: 33261162 DOI: 10.3390/nu12123659
    Malaysian national morbidity surveys on diabetic prevalence have shown ethnical variation among prediabetic and diabetic populations. In our attempt to understand this variation, we studied the α-tocopherol, insulin resistance, β-cell function and receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) levels, as risk factors of type 2 diabetes, among the different ethnicities. In total, 299 subjects of Malay, Chinese, Indian and aboriginal Orang Asli (OA) heritage were recruited from urban and rural areas of Malaysia by stratified random sampling. Serum α-tocopherol concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and insulin concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In subjects with pre-diabetes, OAs had the highest α-tocopherol level, followed by Chinese and Malays (0.8938, 0.8564 and 0.6948 respectively; p < 0.05). In diabetic subjects, Malays had significantly higher RAGE levels compared to Chinese and Indians (5579.31, 3473.40 and 3279.52 pg/mL respectively, p = 0.001). Low α-tocopherol level (OR = 3.021, p < 0.05) and high insulin resistance (OR = 2.423, p < 0.05) were linked strongly to the development of pre-diabetes. Low β-cell function (OR = 5.657, p < 0.001) and high RAGE level (OR = 3.244, p < 0.05) were linked strongly to the development of diabetes from pre-diabetes. These factors might be involved in the development of diabetes, along with genetic and environmental factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  9. Ewe JA, Wan-Abdullah WN, Liong MT
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2010 Feb;61(1):87-107.
    PMID: 19961357 DOI: 10.3109/09637480903334163
    Ten strains of Lactobacillus were evaluated for their viability in soymilk. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTDC 8833, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633 and L. gasseri FTDC 8131 displayed higher viability in soymilk and were thus selected to be evaluated for viability and growth characteristics in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins. Pour plate analyses showed that the supplementation of all B-vitamins studied promoted the growth of lactobacilli to a viable count exceeding 7 log CFU/ml. alpha-Galactosidase specific activity of lactobacilli as determined spectrophotometrically showed an increase upon supplementation of B-vitamins. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that this led to increased hydrolysis of soy oligosaccharides and subsequently higher utilization of simple sugars. Production of organic acids as determined via high-performance liquid chromatography also showed an increase, accompanied by a decrease in pH of soymilk. Additionally, the supplementation of B-vitamins also promoted the synthesis of riboflavin and folic acid by lactobacilli in soymilk. Our results indicated that B-vitamin-supplemented soymilk is a good proliferation medium for strains of lactobacilli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  10. Tan CH, Tan KY, Yap MK, Tan NH
    Sci Rep, 2017 02 27;7:43237.
    PMID: 28240232 DOI: 10.1038/srep43237
    Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0.56-0.63 μg/g) and cause neurotoxic envenomation in mice. LCMS/MS identified six waglerin forms as the predominant lethal principles, comprising 38.2% of total venom proteins. Fourteen other toxin-protein families identified include phospholipase A2, serine proteinase, snaclec and metalloproteinase. In mice, HPLC fractions containing these proteins showed insignificant contribution to the overall venom lethality. Besides, the unique elution pattern of approximately 34.5% of non-lethal, low molecular mass proteins (3-5 kDa) on HPLC could be potential biomarker for this primitive crotalid species. Together, the study unveiled the venom proteome of T. wagleri that is atypical among many pit vipers as it comprises abundant neurotoxic peptides (waglerins) but little hemotoxic proteinases. The findings also revealed that the venom is relatively well conserved intraspecifically despite the drastic morphological differences between sexes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  11. Rahmani A, Jinap S, Soleimany F
    PMID: 20960359 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2010.514951
    Method validation for quantitative analysis of aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) in cereals using HPLC with fluorescence detector (FLD) is described. Mycotoxins were extracted with methanol : water (80 : 20) and purified with a multifunctional AOZ immunoaffinity column before HPLC analysis. The validation of the analytical method was performed to establish the following parameters: specificity, selectivity, linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision (within- and between-day variability), stability, robustness, measurement of performance, and measurement of uncertainty. Calibration curves were linear (r > 0.999) over the concentration range, from the LOQ to 26, 40 and 400 ng/g for AFs, OTA and ZEA, respectively. LOD and LOQ were 0.0125 and 0.05 ng/g for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and G1 (AFG1), 0.0037 and 0.015 ng/g for aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and G2 (AFG2), as well as 0.05 and 0.2 ng/g for OTA and 0.5 and 2 ng/g for ZEA, respectively. The mean recovery values were 77-104% for different concentrations of AFs, OTA and ZEA in spiked cereal samples. Both intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were within acceptable limits. This method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins for 60 cereal samples collected from Malaysian markets. Fifty per cent of the cereal samples were contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, at a level greater than the LOD. Only one wheat sample and two rice samples were contaminated with levels greater than the European Union regulatory limits for AFs and OTA (4 and 5 ng/g). The means and ranges of mycotoxins obtained for the cereal samples were 0.4 ng/g and 0.01-5.9 ng/g for total AFs; 0.18 ng/g and 0.03-5.3 ng/g for OTA; and 2.8 ng/g and 2.4-73.1 ng/g for ZEA, respectively. The results indicate that the method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of AFs, OTA and ZEA in cereals and is suitable for routine analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  12. Lai CS, Nair NK, Muniandy A, Mansor SM, Olliaro PL, Navaratnam V
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2009 Feb 15;877(5-6):558-62.
    PMID: 19147417 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.12.037
    With the expanded use of the combination of artesunate (AS) and amodiaquine (AQ) for the treatment of falciparum malaria and the abundance of products on the market, comes the need for rapid and reliable bioanalytical methods for the determination of the parent compounds and their metabolites. While the existing methods were developed for the determination of either AS or AQ in biological fluids, the current validated method allows simultaneous extraction and determination of AS and AQ in human plasma. Extraction is carried out on Supelclean LC-18 extraction cartridges where AS, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and the internal standard artemisinin (QHS) are separated from AQ, its metabolite desethylamodiaquine (DeAQ) and the internal standard, an isobutyl analogue of desethylamodiaquine (IB-DeAQ). AS, DHA and QHS are then analysed using Hypersil C4 column with acetonitrile-acetic acid (0.05M adjusted to pH 5.2 with 1.00M NaOH) (42:58, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate 1.50ml/min. The analytes are detected with an electrochemical detector operating in the reductive mode. Chromatography of AQ, DeAQ and IB-DeAQ is carried out on an Inertsil C4 column with acetonitrile-KH(2)PO(4) (pH 4.0, 0.05M) (11:89, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate 1.00ml/min. The analytes are detected by an electrochemical detector operating in the oxidative mode. The recoveries of AS, DHA, AQ and DeAQ vary between 79.1% and 104.0% over the concentration range of 50-1400ng/ml plasma. The accuracies of the determination of all the analytes are 96.8-103.9%, while the variation for within-day and day-to-day analysis are <15%. The lower limit of quantification for all the analytes is 20ng/ml and limit of detection is 8ng/ml. The method is sensitive, selective, accurate, reproducible and suited particularly for pharmacokinetic study of AS-AQ drug combination and can also be used to compare the bioavailability of different formulations, including a fixed-dose AS-AQ co-formulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  13. Harun N, Anderson RA, Miller EI
    J Anal Toxicol, 2009 8 6;33(6):310-21.
    PMID: 19653934
    An ELISA and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) confirmation method were developed and validated for the identification and quantitation of ketamine and its major metabolite norketamine in urine samples. The Neogen ketamine microplate ELISA was optimized with respect to sample and enzyme conjugate volumes and the sample preincubation time before addition of the enzyme conjugate. The ELISA kit was validated to include an assessment of the dose-response curve, intra- and interday precision, limit of detection (LOD), and cross-reactivity. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated by comparison to the results from the validated LC-MS-MS confirmation method. An LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated with respect to LOD, lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), linearity, recovery, intra- and interday precision, and matrix effects. The ELISA dose-response curve was a typical S-shaped binding curve, with a linear portion of the graph observed between 25 and 500 ng/mL for ketamine. The cross-reactivity of 200 ng/mL norketamine to ketamine was 2.1%, and no cross-reactivity was detected with 13 common drugs tested at 10,000 ng/mL. The ELISA LOD was calculated to be 5 ng/mL. Both intra- (n = 10) and interday (n = 50) precisions were below 5.0% at 25 ng/mL. The LOD for ketamine and norketamine was calculated statistically to be 0.6 ng/mL. The LLOQ values were also calculated statistically and were 1.9 ng/mL and 2.1 ng/mL for ketamine and norketamine, respectively. The test linearity was 0-1200 ng/mL with correlation coefficient (R(2)) > 0.99 for both analytes. Recoveries at 50, 500, and 1000 ng/mL range from 97.9% to 113.3%. Intra- (n = 5) and interday (n = 25) precisions between extracts for ketamine and norketamine were excellent (< 10%). Matrix effects analysis showed an average ion suppression of 5.7% for ketamine and an average ion enhancement of 13.0% for norketamine for urine samples collected from six individuals. A comparison of ELISA and LC-MS-MS results demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of 100%. These results indicated that a cutoff value of 25 ng/mL ketamine in the ELISA screen is particularly suitable and reliable for urine testing in a forensic toxicology setting. Furthermore, both ketamine and norketamine were detected in all 34 urine samples collected from individuals socializing in pubs by the Royal Malaysian Police. Ketamine concentrations detected by LC-MS-MS ranged from 22 to 31,670 ng/mL, and norketamine concentrations ranged from 25 to 10,990 ng/mL. The concentrations of ketamine and norketamine detected in the samples are most ikely indicative of ketamine abuse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  14. Azilawati MI, Hashim DM, Jamilah B, Amin I
    J Chromatogr A, 2014 Aug 1;1353:49-56.
    PMID: 24797394 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.04.050
    In-house method validation was conducted to determine amino acid composition in gelatin by a pre-column derivatization procedure with the 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate reagent. The analytical parameters revealed that the validated method was capable of selectively performing a good chromatographic separation for 18 amino acids in less than 40 min; the overall detection and quantitation limit for amino acids fell into ranges of 5.68-12.48 and 36.0-39.0 pmol/μl, respectively; the matrix effect was not observed, and the linearity range was 37.5-1000 pmol/μl. The accuracy (precision and recovery) analyses of the method were conducted under repeatable conditions on different days in random order. Method precision revealed by HorRat values was significantly less than 2, except for histidine with a precision of 2.19, and the method recoveries had a range of 80-115% except for alanine which was recovered at 79.4%. The findings were reproducible and accurately defined, and the method was found to be suited to routine analysis of amino acid composition in gelatin-based ingredients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  15. Gan SH, Ismail R
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl, 2001 Aug 15;759(2):325-35.
    PMID: 11499486
    An HPLC system using solid-phase extraction and HPLC with UV detection has been validated in order to determine tramadol and o-desmethyltramadol (M1) concentrations in human plasma. The method developed was selective and linear for concentrations ranging from 50 to 3,500 ng/ml (tramadol) and 50 to 500 ng/ml (M1) with mean recoveries of 94.36 +/- 12.53% and 93.52 +/- 7.88%, respectively. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 50 ng/ml. For tramadol, the intra-day accuracy ranged from 95.48 to 114.64% and the inter-day accuracy, 97.21 to 103.24%. Good precision (0.51 and 18.32% for intra- and inter-day, respectively) was obtained at LOQ. The system has been applied to determine tramadol concentrations in human plasma samples for a pharmacokinetic study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  16. Che HL, Tan DM, Meganathan P, Gan YL, Abdul Razak G, Fu JY
    Int J Anal Chem, 2015;2015:357609.
    PMID: 26604927 DOI: 10.1155/2015/357609
    Quantification of tocotrienols in human plasma is critical when the attention towards tocotrienols on its distinctive properties is arising. We aim to develop a simple and practical normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify the amount of four tocotrienol homologues in human plasma. Using both the external and internal standards, tocotrienol homologues were quantified via a normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector maintained at the excitation wavelength of 295 nm and the emission wavelength of 325 nm. The four tocotrienol homologues were well separated within 30 minutes. A large interindividual variation between subjects was observed as the absorption of tocotrienols is dependent on food matrix and gut lipolysis. The accuracies of lower and upper limit of quantification ranged between 92% and 109% for intraday assays and 90% and 112% for interday assays. This method was successfully applied to quantify the total amount of four tocotrienol homologues in human plasma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  17. Ariffin AA, Ghazali HM, Kavousi P
    Food Chem, 2014 Jul 1;154:102-7.
    PMID: 24518321 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.12.082
    For the first time 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) was separated from crude palm oil (CPO), and its authenticity was determined using an RP-HPLC method. Separation was accomplished with isocratic elution of a mobile phase comprising water and methanol (92:8 v/v) on a Purospher Star RP-18e column (250mm×4.6mm, 5.0μm). The flow rate was adjusted to 1ml/min and detection was performed at 284nm. The method was validated, and results obtained exhibit a good recovery (95.58% to 98.39%). Assessment of precision showed that the relative standard deviations (RSD%) of retention times and peak areas of spiked samples were less than 0.59% and 2.66%, respectively. Further, the limit of detection (LOD) and LOQ were 0.02, 0.05mg/kg, respectively, and the response was linear across the applied ranges. The crude palm oil samples analysed exhibited HMF content less than 2.27mg/kg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  18. Yodhnu S, Sirikatitham A, Wattanapiromsakul C
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2009 Mar;47(3):185-9.
    PMID: 19298703
    Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., is known as the "Queen of fruits" and can be cultivated in the tropical rainforest such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. Compounds isolated from the fruit peel of mangosteen contain abundant xanthones (especially alpha-mangostin). It has been used as traditional medicine such as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial and is popularly applied to cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. However, there is little information for quality and quantity determination of alpha-mangostin in mangosteen. Thus, the aim of this study was to set up a validated and stability-indicated isocratic reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for quality control and quantity determination of a-mangostin from mangosteen peel extract. The assay was fully validated and shown to be linear (r(2) > 0.999), sensitive (LOD = 0.02 microg/mL and LOQ = 0.08 microg/mL), accurate (intra-day was between 98.1-100.8%, inter-day was between 90.0-101.3%), precise (intra-day variation < or = 1.8%, inter-day variation < or = 4.3%), specific, and with good recovery. Total analysis was approximately 8 min. The finalized method is also a stability-indicating assay. The present method should be useful for analytical research and for routine quality control analysis of alpha-mangostin in mangosteen peel extract and products of mangosteen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods*
  19. Loh KS, Lee YH, Musa A, Salmah AA, Zamri I
    Sensors (Basel), 2008 Sep 18;8(9):5775-5791.
    PMID: 27873839
    Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe₃O₄ were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  20. Chia, Yoke Yin, Ton, So Ha
    Malays J Nutr, 2006;12(1):67-78.
    MyJurnal
    The objective of the study was to quantify and to profile the amino acids content in urine samples. The amino acids content in urine was determined in 162 individuals (62 young non-vegetarians aged 15-45 years, 24 elderly non-vegetarians aged 46-70 years, 40 young vegetarians and 36 elderly vegetarians) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The most common amino acids detected in the young and elderly individuals on vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets were phenylalanine, threonine, arginine and asparagine, while leucine, aspartic acid and alanine were not found in any urine samples in both groups. Isoleucine was not detected in the urine of vegetarians. The concentrations of the majority of essential amino acids were between 0.10 - 2.00 mgl24hrs except for histidine which had a range of 4.1 - 5.0 mgl24hrs. The concentrations of non-essential amino acids varied. Proline, glycine and tyrosine concentrations were between 0.10 - 1.00 mg/24hrs, while cysteine, glutamine, glutamic acid and cystine concentrations were between 11.0 - 21.0 mg124hrs. Asparagine and hydroxy-proline had a range of 0.10 - 5.00 mg/24hrs, while serine and arginine ranged between 31.0 - 50.0 mg124hrs. Isoleucine and serine were not detected in elderly vegetarians while histidine, glycine, glutamic acid and hydroxy-proline were not detected in elderly non-vegetarians. Isoleucine, glycine and hydroxy proline were detected in young non-vegetarians but not in young vegetarians. The levels of amino acids showed no significant statistical differences between young vegetarians and non-vegetarians as well as between elderly vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Phenylalanine, threonine and trypthophan were commonly detected in the lacto-ovo and lacto vegetarians, while valine, cysteine, arginine and asparagine were commonly detected in vegans. In conclusion, except for isoleucine, general differences were seen in urinary amino acid excretions between vegetarians and non-vegetarians even though the differences were statistically not significant. Therefore lacto-ovo diets could be nutritionally adequate as the nutrients were substituted by dairy or plant products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
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