Urbanization and frequent storms play important roles in increasing faecal bacteria pollution, especially for tropical urban catchments. However, only little information on the faecal bacteria levels from different land use types and the factors that influence bacteria concentrations is available. Thus, the objectives of this study were to quantify the levels and transport mechanism of faecal coliforms (FCs) from residential and commercial catchments. Stormwaters were sampled and the runoff flow rates were measured from both catchments during four storm events in Skudai, Malaysia. The samples were then analysed for FC, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. Intra-storm and inter-storm characteristics of FC bacteria were investigated in order to identify the level and transport pattern of FC. The commercial catchment showed significantly higher event mean concentration (EMC) of FC than the residential catchment. For the residential catchment, the highest bacterial concentrations occurred during the early part of stormwater runoff with peak concentrations usually preceding the peak flow. First flush effect was more prevalent at the residential catchment.
Runoff quality draining from 17.14 km2 urban catchment in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, was analysed. The land-use consists of residential (30.3%), agricultural (27.3%), open space (27.9%), industrial (8.1%) and commercial (6.4%) areas. Three storm events were sampled in detail. These storms produced stormflow between 0.84 mm and 27.82 mm, and peakflow from 2.19 m3/s to 42.36 m3/s. Water quality showed marked variation during storms especially for TSS, BOD and COD with maximum concentrations of 778 mg/l, 135 mg/l and 358 mg/l, respectively. Concentrations of TOC, DOC, NH3-N, Fe and level of colour were also high. In general, the river quality is badly polluted and falls in Class V based on the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standards. Event Mean Concentrations (EMC) for various parameters varied considerably between storms. The largest storm produced higher EMC for TSS, NO3-N and SS whereas the smaller storms tend to register higher EMC for BOD, COD, NH3-N, TOC, Ca, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Such variations could be explained in terms of pollutant availability and the effects of flushing and dilution. Based on a three-month average recurrence interval (ARI) of rainfall, the estimated event loadings (ton/ha) of TSS, BOD, COD, TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N were 0.055, 0.016, 0.012, 0.039, 0.010, 0.0007 and 0.0002, respectively. Heavy metals present in trace quantities. Storms with 3 months ARI could capture about 70% of the total annual loads of major pollutants.
Land application of sludge as fertilizers is a way of disposal and recycling of sludge. However, public concern has arisen due to the fact that organic contaminants in sludge may ultimately enter the food chain. Hence the need arises to analyse the organic contaminants such as PAHs and OCPs in sludge. In this study, Soxhlet was utilised as the extraction method and the extracts subjected to extensive cleanup via either silica columns or solid phase extraction cartridges prior to analysis using gas chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography. Sludge samples were collected from the drying beds of oxidation ponds in three locations in South Johore. OCPs such as heptachlor, dieldrin and pp-DDT were detected in low amounts (52-159 mg/kg) whereas PAHs such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene were detected in the range of 0.2-5.5 mg/kg dry mass. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) recovery studies of PAHs were also performed from spiked sludge samples. Although a recovery range of 41-68% was obtained using the SWE method, the results indicated the usefulness of the technique as an alternative to Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of PAHs in sludge samples.
Water pollution during festival periods is a major problem in all festival cities across the world. Reliable prediction of water pollution is essential in festival cities for sewer and wastewater management in order to ensure public health and a clean environment. This article aims to model the biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), and total suspended solids (TSS) parameters in wastewater in the sewer networks of Karbala city center during festival and rainy days using structural equation modeling and multiple linear regression analysis methods. For this purpose, 34 years (1980-2014) of rainfall, temperature and sewer flow data during festival periods in the study area were collected, processed, and employed. The results show that the TSS concentration increases by 26-46 mg/l while BOD(5) concentration rises by 9-19 mg/l for an increase of rainfall by 1 mm during festival periods. It was also found that BOD(5) concentration rises by 4-17 mg/l for each increase of 10,000 population.
This paper summarises the paper presentation sessions at the Conference, as well giving insights on the issues related to developing countries. It also discusses the present status of practice and research on water and wastewater management, and projected future scenario based not only on the papers presented in the Conference, but also on other sources. The strategy is presented to overcome many problems in developing countries such as rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, financial and institutional problems and, depleting water resources. The strategy consists of Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM), cleaner industrial production, waste minimisation and financial arrangements.
This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.
Inflow and infiltration are important aspects of sewerage systems that need to be considered during the design stage and constantly monitored once the sewerage system is in operation. The aim of this research is to analyse the relationship of rainfall as well as inflow infiltration with sewage flow patterns through data collected from fieldwork. Three sewer pipelines were selected at the residential areas of Taman Lepar Hilir Saujana, Bandar Putra and Kota Sas for data collection. Sewage flow data were collected in terms of flowrate, velocity and depth of flow using flowmeters with ultrasonic sensors that utilize the continuous Doppler effect in the sewer pipelines, while rainfall intensity data were collected using rain gauges installed at the study locations. Based on the result, the average infiltration rates of Qpeak and Qave for the locations were 17% and 21%, which exceeded the respective values of 5% and 10% stated in Hammer and Hammer. The flowrate of wastewater in the sewer pipelines was found to be directly proportional to rainfall. These findings indicate that the sewer pipelines in the study areas may have been affected by capacity reduction, whereas the sewerage treatment plants receiving the wastewater influent may have been overloaded.
This paper reports the result of sewage pollution monitoring conducted in South and Southeast Asia during 1998-2003 using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) as molecular tracers of sewage contamination. Eighty-nine water samples collected from Malaysia, Vietnam, and Japan (Tokyo), and 161 surface sediment samples collected from Tokyo, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, and India were analyzed for alkylbenzenes. The concentration range of SigmaLABs in river water particles in Southeast Asia (<0.005-0.913 microg/L) was comparable to or higher than those found in Tokyo (<0.005-0.638 microg/L). I/E ratios (a ratio of internal to external isomers of LABs) in tropical Asian waters were close to the value of LABs in raw sewage ( approximately 1) and much lower than those in secondary effluents (3-5). This suggests that untreated or inadequately treated sewage is discharged into the water. SigmaLABs concentrations in sediments from South and Southeast Asia ranged from <0.002-42.6 microg/g-dry with the highest concentration occurring at several populous cities. Low I/E ratios of the sediments with high SigmaLABs concentrations suggest a heavy load of untreated sewage. Clearly in view of the current data and evidence of the implications of sewage pollution, this paper highlights the necessity of the continuation of water treatment system improvement in tropical Asia.
In 1877, the major towns of the Straits Settlements-Singapore, George Town, Penang Island and Malacca-suffered a drought of exceptional magnitude. The drought's natural instigator was the El Niño phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation, a climatic phenomenon then not understood by contemporary observers. The 1877 event has been explored in some depth for countries including India, China and Australia. Its impact on Southeast Asia however is less well-known and the story of how the event unfolded in Singapore and Malaysia has not been told. This paper explores how the contemporary British government responded to the drought, arguing that its impact on hydraulic management was at best minimal yet, it did have impact on other areas, such as forest reservation with the hope of preserving future rainfall. It also highlights how, in contrast to studies on urban water plans in other British Asian colonies, the colonial authorities in the Straits Settlements had a far less coherent and meaningful relationship with water in their town planning schemes. As this paper is part of a special issue, Water History in the time of COVID-19, it has undergone modified peer review.
This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.
Solid waste collection and disposal are among the most vital services provided to about 700 770 residents of the city of Erbil in northern Iraq. As such, proper waste management systems that consider both the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste are strongly required to address the increasing amount of solid waste. Unfortunately, these essential data are not easily available. The present study sought to gather data on the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste collected from different quarters in Erbil, and the feasibility of recycling these wastes. The solid waste generation rate (GR), uncompacted density, and weight percentages of combustible and incombustible materials were determined based on the collected materials (i.e., food, plastic, paper, metal, glass and cloth). The results show that the average GR and uncompacted density were 0.654 kg capita(-1) day(-1) and 175.72 kg m(-3), respectively. The weight percentages of food, plastic, paper, metal, glass, and cloth as components of domestic solid waste were 79.34, 6.28, 5.9, 3.6, 3.42 and 1.45%, respectively.
This study assesses waste management and recycling practices of the urban poor households residing as squatters and in low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. To attain the objective, the study employed some statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way analysis of variance, chi-squared 'likelihood ratio' tests, and simple descriptive statistics. The statistical techniques were used to determine and analyse the factors that significantly influence the environmental behaviour of the urban poor concerning solid waste management, particularly their recycling practices. The findings of the study show that the urban poor and low-income communities have been proved to behave in ways that are consistent with and conducive to environmentally friendly solid waste management. This study provides evidence that the urban poor and low-income communities are the main recyclers, re-users, and source-reducers of their household solid waste. The study, however, suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, and the skills of the urban poor and, in addition, to empower them as a means of improving their quality of life.
The implementation of a suitable solid waste management programme with appropriate methods of recycling as an inherent element is vital to the alleviation of the problems associated with solid waste generation, handling and disposal, environmental conservation, public hygiene, etc. The present work is a case study on solid waste collection and recycling practices in Nibong Tebal town, Penang, Malaysia. The amount and types of domestic waste generated, household participation in recycling, identification of existing problems related to the implementation of the recycling programme, etc. formed the basis of this study. Surveys (interviews/questionnaires) and on-site observations were conducted to gather information on the solid waste collection and recycling practice of the residents. A focus group of 60 individuals was selected and their response to a questionnaire, prepared according to a Likert scale, was obtained and analysed. The majority of the respondents expressed concerns about recycling and wanted more to be done in this regard. Illegal collection, aesthetically displeasing sites and a lack of public awareness were problems of major concern. Issues related to inadequate funding and manpower as well as end market are also addressed and suggestions made.
Management of waste is one of the major challenges faced by many developing countries. This study therefore attempts to develop a circular economy (CE) model to manage wastes and closing the loop and reducing the generation of residual wastes in Indian municipalities. Through extant literature review, the researchers found 30 success factors of CE implementation. Using the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) SIMOS approach, the rating and weight of decision makers (DMs) for each factor were collected. A structured questionnaire has been developed incorporating all these 30 factors, to extract the most important factors. The data was collected from top 10 officials (DMs) from the Chennai municipality, who handle three regions (metropolitan, suburbia and industrial). Based on the TOPSIS SIMOS analysis, nine CE implementing factors (critical success factors (CSFs)) among the 30 variables that were significant based on the cut-off value was identified. A CE model has been proposed based on these nine CSFs for waste management in India.
The occurrence of macroparasites was studied from 543 stray cats in four urban cities from the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) of Peninsular Malaysia from May 2007 to August 2010. Five ectoparasites species were recovered namely, Ctenocephalides felis, Felicola subrostratus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Heterodoxus spiniger and Lynxacarus radovskyi. Two cats from Georgetown were infested with the dog louse, H. spiniger and this represented the first host record for this species in Malaysia. Up to nine species of helminths were recovered with overall high prevalences of infection of 83% in Kuantan, followed by 75.1% in Kuala Lumpur, 71.6% in Georgetown and 68% in Malacca. The helminth species comprised five nematodes, Toxocara malaysiensis, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliensis, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Physaloptera praeputialis, two cestodes Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and one trematode, Playtnosomum fastosum. The majority of helminths were present in the four study sites except for the absence of P. praeputialis in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence and abundance of infections were analysed taking intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (season) factors into consideration. Levels of infection and infestation were mainly influenced by host age and to a lesser extent sex and season, whereas four nematode species exhibited significant interactions within the intestine of the cat host. The potential for transmission of some macroparasite species from stray cats to the human population in urban areas is discussed.
This research explores the issue of local management system governing the heritage preservation in UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) Stadthuys, Melaka. Thus far, there is no clearly defined value of cultural heritage that justifies the benefits of preserving cultural heritage as a tourism product and as a sustainable heritage site. Most studies have proven that visitors in general are less interested in visiting cultural heritage sites due to the lack of information available there. Another issue identified in the recent research on cultural heritage assessment is the lack of empirical references on the economic valuation of cultural heritage preservation. This study used contingent valuation method (CVM) and questionnaire for data collection. Four sets of questionnaires were designed and distributed to a total of 100 respondents consisting of local community and domestic tourists. On average, respondents are willing to pay RM8.82, in which this value is higher than the current fee, RM5.00, showing that visitors have the awareness to value cultural heritage through preservation in Stadthuys, Melaka, WHS. Finally, this research has established a framework to be considered by the management regarding the WTP value of the cultural heritage in order to create a more sustainable Melaka Historical City.
A total of 719 wild rats were captured from four localities representing the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) to determine the diversity of blood protozoan from the urban wild rat population in peninsular Malaysia. Five rat species were recovered with Rattus rattus diardii being the most dominant species, followed by Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans, Rattus annandalei and Rattus argentiventer. Two blood protozoan species were found infecting the rodent population namely, Plasmodium sp. (42.1%) and Trypanosoma lewisi (25.0%). This study reports the presence of Plasmodium sp. for the first time in the rodent population in Malaysia. Two main intrinsic factors were identified affecting the parasitic infections. Trypanosoma lewisi infections were influenced by host age and sex with infections observed higher in male and juvenile rats meanwhile Plasmodium sp. infections were observed almost similar in both sexes. However, infections were higher in sub-adult rats.
This study assessed the effectiveness of a biorational control approach using 2% hydramethylnon gel bait on German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) in some residential and hospital buildings in South Western Iran. In total, three buildings consisting of 150 apartment units and 101 hospital units were monitored weekly via sticky trap for German cockroach infestations over a period of eight months. These infested units were randomly subjected to intervention and control treatments. Pamphlets and posters were provided and lectures were given to support the educational programmes as a tactic of the biorational system. Survey on cockroach index for intervention units showed 67-94% recovery to achieve clean level of infestation for intervention units of the residential buildings and 83% for the hospital. Mean percentage reductions for treatment groups throughout the 15-week treatment period were 76.8% for the residential buildings and 88.1% for the hospital, showing significant differences compared to the control groups. Linear regression of infestation rates were recorded weekly after treatment and their negative slope for treatment groups substantiated significant reductions for interventions. The results of this study showed that biorational control method, using gel bait, educational programmes and sanitation, is an effective way to manage German cockroach infestation.
A total of 204 rodents comprising 14 host species from four different habitats were examined. Nine rodent species were trapped from the forest and another five species were trapped from the coastal, rice field and urban habitats. Rattus rattus diardii (67%) was the predominant rodent species examined. Fifty six (47.3%) rodents and shrews were found to be infested with at least one of the 20 species of ectoparasite recovered. Mites belonging to the family Trombiculidae were the predominant ectoparasite species recovered. Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae were recovered mainly from the forest dwelling rodents. Polyplax spinulosa and Hoplopleura pacifica were the common lice species found infesting the urban rodents. Xenopsylla cheopis was the only flea species recovered. The following ecto-parasites have been incriminated as important vectors or as mechanical carriers for the transmission of zoonotic diseases: Ixodes granulatus, Dermacentor sp. Haemaphysalis sp., Amblyomma sp. Ascoschoengastia indica, Leptotrombidium deliense, Ornithonyssus bacoti, Laelaps nuttalli, H. pacifica, P. spinulosa and Xenopsylla cheopis. Urban and forest rodents were significantly higher in ecto-parasitic infestation, compared to rats from the other two habitats. However, there was no significant statistical association between male and female rodents infested with ectoparasites.
Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).