Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Ranak MSAN, Azad S, Nor NNHBM, Zamli KZ
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(10):e0186940.
    PMID: 29084262 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186940
    Due to recent advancements and appealing applications, the purchase rate of smart devices is increasing at a higher rate. Parallely, the security related threats and attacks are also increasing at a greater ratio on these devices. As a result, a considerable number of attacks have been noted in the recent past. To resist these attacks, many password-based authentication schemes are proposed. However, most of these schemes are not screen size independent; whereas, smart devices come in different sizes. Specifically, they are not suitable for miniature smart devices due to the small screen size and/or lack of full sized keyboards. In this paper, we propose a new screen size independent password-based authentication scheme, which also offers an affordable defense against shoulder surfing, brute force, and smudge attacks. In the proposed scheme, the Press Touch (PT)-a.k.a., Force Touch in Apple's MacBook, Apple Watch, ZTE's Axon 7 phone; 3D Touch in iPhone 6 and 7; and so on-is transformed into a new type of code, named Press Touch Code (PTC). We design and implement three variants of it, namely mono-PTC, multi-PTC, and multi-PTC with Grid, on the Android Operating System. An in-lab experiment and a comprehensive survey have been conducted on 105 participants to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  2. Kiah ML, Nabi MS, Zaidan BB, Zaidan AA
    J Med Syst, 2013 Oct;37(5):9971.
    PMID: 24037086 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-013-9971-2
    This study aims to provide security solutions for implementing electronic medical records (EMRs). E-Health organizations could utilize the proposed method and implement recommended solutions in medical/health systems. Majority of the required security features of EMRs were noted. The methods used were tested against each of these security features. In implementing the system, the combination that satisfied all of the security features of EMRs was selected. Secure implementation and management of EMRs facilitate the safeguarding of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of e-health organization systems. Health practitioners, patients, and visitors can use the information system facilities safely and with confidence anytime and anywhere. After critically reviewing security and data transmission methods, a new hybrid method was proposed to be implemented on EMR systems. This method will enhance the robustness, security, and integration of EMR systems. The hybrid of simple object access protocol/extensible markup language (XML) with advanced encryption standard and secure hash algorithm version 1 has achieved the security requirements of an EMR system with the capability of integrating with other systems through the design of XML messages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  3. Wolffers I
    Lancet, 1996 Mar 02;347(9001):620.
    PMID: 8596348
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality*
  4. Hilyatihanina Zazali, Wan Ainun Mior Othman
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:907-910.
    In this paper, we presented a new key exchange method based on decomposition problem for elliptic curve cryptography. We showed that our key exchange method was not only an alternative method for designing keys in cryptography, but it also has improved security condition from the previous key exchange based on decomposition problem over noncommutative groups. We proposed elliptic an curve cryptography to be the new platform for our key exchange protocol and showed how it was implemented. The security of our protocol was based on discrete logarithm problem, which was not infeasible and strictly difficult to retrieve in elliptic curve cryptography without any prior knowledge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  5. Omar H, Khan SA, Toh CG
    J Dent Educ, 2013 May;77(5):640-7.
    PMID: 23658411
    Student-generated videos provide an authentic learning experience for students, enhance motivation and engagement, improve communication skills, and improve collaborative learning skills. This article describes the development and implementation of a student-generated video activity as part of a knowledge, observation, simulation, and experience (KOSE) program at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It also reports the students' perceptions of an activity that introduced first-year dental students (n=44) to clinical scenarios involving patients and dental team aiming to improve professional behavior and communication skills. The learning activity was divided into three phases: preparatory phase, video production phase, and video-watching. Students were organized into five groups and were instructed to generate videos addressing given clinical scenarios. Following the activity, students' perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire. The results showed that 86 percent and 88 percent, respectively, of the students agreed that preparation of the activity enhanced their understanding of the role of dentists in provision of health care and the role of enhanced teamwork. In addition, 86 percent and 75 percent, respectively, agreed that the activity improved their communication and project management skills. Overall, the dental students perceived that the student-generated video activity was a positive experience and enabled them to play the major role in driving their learning process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  6. Safavi S, Shukur Z
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(12):e114306.
    PMID: 25478915 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114306
    Wearable health tech provides doctors with the ability to remotely supervise their patients' wellness. It also makes it much easier to authorize someone else to take appropriate actions to ensure the person's wellness than ever before. Information Technology may soon change the way medicine is practiced, improving the performance, while reducing the price of healthcare. We analyzed the secrecy demands of wearable devices, including Smartphone, smart watch and their computing techniques, that can soon change the way healthcare is provided. However, before this is adopted in practice, all devices must be equipped with sufficient privacy capabilities related to healthcare service. In this paper, we formulated a new improved conceptual framework for wearable healthcare systems. This framework consists of ten principles and nine checklists, capable of providing complete privacy protection package to wearable device owners. We constructed this framework based on the analysis of existing mobile technology, the results of which are combined with the existing security standards. The approach also incorporates the market share percentage level of every app and its respective OS. This framework is evaluated based on the stringent CIA and HIPAA principles for information security. This evaluation is followed by testing the capability to revoke rights of subjects to access objects and ability to determine the set of available permissions for a particular subject for all models Finally, as the last step, we examine the complexity of the required initial setup.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality*
  7. Yousuf RM, Fauzi AR, How SH, Akter SF, Shah A
    Singapore Med J, 2009 May;50(5):494-9.
    PMID: 19495519
    Optimal patient care varies considerably from place to place and is influenced by scientific as well as social developments. The purpose of this study was to investigate awareness and pertinent issues regarding informed consent among hospitalised patients and to determine lapses, in order to improve the standard of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality/legislation & jurisprudence*
  8. Zakaria N, Ramli R
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2018;14:117-128.
    PMID: 29343963 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S115261
    Background: Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients' perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients' privacy.

    Methods: We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients' perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months.

    Results: Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system.

    Conclusion: Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  9. Yau WC, Phan RC
    J Med Syst, 2013 Dec;37(6):9993.
    PMID: 24194093 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-013-9993-9
    Many authentication schemes have been proposed for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) to ensure the privacy, integrity, and availability of patient records. These schemes are crucial for TMIS systems because otherwise patients' medical records become susceptible to tampering thus hampering diagnosis or private medical conditions of patients could be disclosed to parties who do not have a right to access such information. Very recently, Hao et al. proposed a chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems in a recent issue of Journal of Medical Systems. They claimed that the authentication scheme can withstand various attacks and it is secure to be used in TMIS. In this paper, we show that this authentication scheme is vulnerable to key-compromise impersonation attacks, off-line password guessing attacks upon compromising of a smart card, and parallel session attacks. We also exploit weaknesses in the password change phase of the scheme to mount a denial-of-service attack. Our results show that this scheme cannot be used to provide security in a telecare medicine information system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality/standards*
  10. Jayabalan M, O'Daniel T
    J Med Syst, 2016 Dec;40(12):261.
    PMID: 27722981
    This study presents a systematic literature review of access control for electronic health record systems to protect patient's privacy. Articles from 2006 to 2016 were extracted from the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and MetaPress using broad eligibility criteria, and chosen for inclusion based on analysis of ISO22600. Cryptographic standards and methods were left outside the scope of this review. Three broad classes of models are being actively investigated and developed: access control for electronic health records, access control for interoperability, and access control for risk analysis. Traditional role-based access control models are extended with spatial, temporal, probabilistic, dynamic, and semantic aspects to capture contextual information and provide granular access control. Maintenance of audit trails and facilities for overriding normal roles to allow full access in emergency cases are common features. Access privilege frameworks utilizing ontology-based knowledge representation for defining the rules have attracted considerable interest, due to the higher level of abstraction that makes it possible to model domain knowledge and validate access requests efficiently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  11. Vijayananthan A, Nawawi O
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2008 Jan;4(1):e5.
    PMID: 21614316 MyJurnal DOI: 10.2349/biij.4.1.e5
    Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses and reporting of clinical trials. It also serves to protect the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial subjects. It is very important to understand the background of the formation of the ICH-GCP guidelines as this, in itself, explains the reasons and the need for doing so. In this paper, we address the historical background and the events that led up to the formation of these guidelines. Today, the ICH-GCP guidelines are used in clinical trials throughout the globe with the main aim of protecting and preserving human rights.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  12. Thuraisingham C, Nalliah S
    Aust Fam Physician, 2013 Apr;42(4):249-51.
    PMID: 23550254
    In many workplaces, employment is conditional on a successful pre-employment medical examination. This examination is usually conducted by a general practitioner on the employers' panel of approved clinics or by an in-house company doctor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality/ethics
  13. Zaidan BB, Haiqi A, Zaidan AA, Abdulnabi M, Kiah ML, Muzamel H
    J Med Syst, 2015 May;39(5):51.
    PMID: 25732083 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-015-0235-1
    This study focuses on the situation of health information exchange (HIE) in the context of a nationwide network. It aims to create a security framework that can be implemented to ensure the safe transmission of health information across the boundaries of care providers in Malaysia and other countries. First, a critique of the major elements of nationwide health information networks is presented from the perspective of security, along with such topics as the importance of HIE, issues, and main approaches. Second, a systematic evaluation is conducted on the security solutions that can be utilized in the proposed nationwide network. Finally, a secure framework for health information transmission is proposed within a central cloud-based model, which is compatible with the Malaysian telehealth strategy. The outcome of this analysis indicates that a complete security framework for a global structure of HIE is yet to be defined and implemented. Our proposed framework represents such an endeavor and suggests specific techniques to achieve this goal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  14. Shahri AB, Ismail Z, Mohanna S
    J Med Syst, 2016 Nov;40(11):241.
    PMID: 27681101
    The security effectiveness based on users' behaviors is becoming a top priority of Health Information System (HIS). In the first step of this study, through the review of previous studies 'Self-efficacy in Information Security' (SEIS) and 'Security Competency' (SCMP) were identified as the important factors to transforming HIS users to the first line of defense in the security. Subsequently, a conceptual model was proposed taking into mentioned factors for HIS security effectiveness. Then, this quantitative study used the structural equation modeling to examine the proposed model based on survey data collected from a sample of 263 HIS users from eight hospitals in Iran. The result shows that SEIS is one of the important factors to cultivate of good end users' behaviors toward HIS security effectiveness. However SCMP appears a feasible alternative to providing SEIS. This study also confirms the mediation effects of SEIS on the relationship between SCMP and HIS security effectiveness. The results of this research paper can be used by HIS and IT managers to implement their information security process more effectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  15. Mohsin AH, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri OS, Albahri AS, Alsalem MA, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2019 May 22;43(7):192.
    PMID: 31115768 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1264-y
    In medical systems for patient's authentication, keeping biometric data secure is a general problem. Many studies have presented various ways of protecting biometric data especially finger vein biometric data. Thus, It is needs to find better ways of securing this data by applying the three principles of information security aforementioned, and creating a robust verification system with high levels of reliability, privacy and security. Moreover, it is very difficult to replace biometric information and any leakage of biometrics information leads to earnest risks for example replay attacks using the robbed biometric data. In this paper presented criticism and analysis to all attempts as revealed in the literature review and discussion the proposes a novel verification secure framework based confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) standard in triplex blockchain-particle swarm optimization (PSO)-advanced encryption standard (AES) techniques for medical systems patient's authentication. Three stages are performed on discussion. Firstly, proposes a new hybrid model pattern in order to increase the randomization based on radio frequency identification (RFID) and finger vein biometrics. To achieve this, proposed a new merge algorithm to combine the RFID features and finger vein features in one hybrid and random pattern. Secondly, how the propose verification secure framework are followed the CIA standard for telemedicine authentication by combination of AES encryption technique, blockchain and PSO in steganography technique based on proposed pattern model. Finally, discussed the validation and evaluation of the proposed verification secure framework.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  16. Mohsin AH, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri AS, Albahri OS, Alsalem MA, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2018 Oct 16;42(12):238.
    PMID: 30327939 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-018-1104-5
    The development of wireless body area sensor networks is imperative for modern telemedicine. However, attackers and cybercriminals are gradually becoming aware in attacking telemedicine systems, and the black market value of protected health information has the highest price nowadays. Security remains a formidable challenge to be resolved. Intelligent home environments make up one of the major application areas of pervasive computing. Security and privacy are the two most important issues in the remote monitoring and control of intelligent home environments for clients and servers in telemedicine architecture. The personal authentication approach that uses the finger vein pattern is a newly investigated biometric technique. This type of biometric has many advantages over other types (explained in detail later on) and is suitable for different human categories and ages. This study aims to establish a secure verification method for real-time monitoring systems to be used for the authentication of patients and other members who are working in telemedicine systems. The process begins with the sensor based on Tiers 1 and 2 (client side) in the telemedicine architecture and ends with patient verification in Tier 3 (server side) via finger vein biometric technology to ensure patient security on both sides. Multilayer taxonomy is conducted in this research to attain the study's goal. In the first layer, real-time remote monitoring studies based on the sensor technology used in telemedicine applications are reviewed and analysed to provide researchers a clear vision of security and privacy based on sensors in telemedicine. An extensive search is conducted to identify articles that deal with security and privacy issues, related applications are reviewed comprehensively and a coherent taxonomy of these articles is established. ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases are checked for articles on mHealth in telemedicine based on sensors. A total of 3064 papers are collected from 2007 to 2017. The retrieved articles are filtered according to the security and privacy of telemedicine applications based on sensors. Nineteen articles are selected and classified into two categories. The first category, which accounts for 57.89% (n = 11/19), includes surveys on telemedicine articles and their applications. The second category, accounting for 42.1% (n = 8/19), includes articles on the three-tiered architecture of telemedicine. The collected studies reveal the essential need to construct another taxonomy layer and review studies on finger vein biometric verification systems. This map-matching for both taxonomies is developed for this study to go deeply into the sensor field and determine novel risks and benefits for patient security and privacy on client and server sides in telemedicine applications. In the second layer of our taxonomy, the literature on finger vein biometric verification systems is analysed and reviewed. In this layer, we obtain a final set of 65 articles classified into four categories. In the first category, 80% (n = 52/65) of the articles focus on development and design. In the second category, 12.30% (n = 8/65) includes evaluation and comparative articles. These articles are not intensively included in our literature analysis. In the third category, 4.61% (n = 3/65) includes articles about analytical studies. In the fourth category, 3.07% (n = 2/65) comprises reviews and surveys. This study aims to provide researchers with an up-to-date overview of studies that have been conducted on (user/patient) authentication to enhance the security level in telemedicine or any information system. In the current study, taxonomy is presented by explaining previous studies. Moreover, this review highlights the motivations, challenges and recommendations related to finger vein biometric verification systems and determines the gaps in this research direction (protection of finger vein templates in real time), which represent a new research direction in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  17. Talal M, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri AS, Alamoodi AH, Albahri OS, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2019 Jan 15;43(3):42.
    PMID: 30648217 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1158-z
    The Internet of Things (IoT) has been identified in various applications across different domains, such as in the healthcare sector. IoT has also been recognised for its revolution in reshaping modern healthcare with aspiring wide range prospects, including economical, technological and social. This study aims to establish IoT-based smart home security solutions for real-time health monitoring technologies in telemedicine architecture. A multilayer taxonomy is driven and conducted in this study. In the first layer, a comprehensive analysis on telemedicine, which focuses on the client and server sides, shows that other studies associated with IoT-based smart home applications have several limitations that remain unaddressed. Particularly, remote patient monitoring in healthcare applications presents various facilities and benefits by adopting IoT-based smart home technologies without compromising the security requirements and potentially large number of risks. An extensive search is conducted to identify articles that handle these issues, related applications are comprehensively reviewed and a coherent taxonomy for these articles is established. A total number of (n = 3064) are gathered between 2007 and 2017 for most reliable databases, such as ScienceDirect, Web of Science and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineer Xplore databases. Then, the articles based on IoT studies that are associated with telemedicine applications are filtered. Nine articles are selected and classified into two categories. The first category, which accounts for 22.22% (n = 2/9), includes surveys on telemedicine articles and their applications. The second category, which accounts for 77.78% (n = 7/9), includes articles on the client and server sides of telemedicine architecture. The collected studies reveal the essential requirement in constructing another taxonomy layer and review IoT-based smart home security studies. Therefore, IoT-based smart home security features are introduced and analysed in the second layer. The security of smart home design based on IoT applications is an aspect that represents a crucial matter for general occupants of smart homes, in which studies are required to provide a better solution with patient security, privacy protection and security of users' entities from being stolen or compromised. Innovative technologies have dispersed limitations related to this matter. The existing gaps and trends in this area should be investigated to provide valuable visions for technical environments and researchers. Thus, 67 articles are obtained in the second layer of our taxonomy and are classified into six categories. In the first category, 25.37% (n = 17/67) of the articles focus on architecture design. In the second category, 17.91% (n = 12/67) includes security analysis articles that investigate the research status in the security area of IoT-based smart home applications. In the third category, 10.44% (n = 7/67) includes articles about security schemes. In the fourth category, 17.91% (n = 12/67) comprises security examination. In the fifth category, 13.43% (n = 9/67) analyses security protocols. In the final category, 14.92% (n = 10/67) analyses the security framework. Then, the identified basic characteristics of this emerging field are presented and provided in the following aspects. Open challenges experienced on the development of IoT-based smart home security are addressed to be adopted fully in telemedicine applications. Then, the requirements are provided to increase researcher's interest in this study area. On this basis, a number of recommendations for different parties are described to provide insights on the next steps that should be considered to enhance the security of smart homes based on IoT. A map matching for both taxonomies is developed in this study to determine the novel risks and benefits of IoT-based smart home security for real-time remote health monitoring within client and server sides in telemedicine applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  18. Adenuga KI, Iahad NA, Miskon S
    Int J Med Inform, 2017 08;104:84-96.
    PMID: 28599820 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2017.05.008
    Telemedicine systems have been considered as a necessary measure to alleviate the shortfall in skilled medical specialists in developing countries. However, the obvious challenge is whether clinicians are willing to use this technological innovation, which has aided medical practice globally. One factor which has received little academic attention is the provision of suitable encouragement for clinicians to adopt telemedicine, in the form of rewards, motivation or incentives. A further consideration for telemedicine usage in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular, are to the severe shortage of available practising clinicians. The researchers therefore explore the need to positively reinforce the adoption of telemedicine amongst clinicians in Nigeria, and also offer a rationale for this using the UTAUT model. Data were collected using a structured paper-based questionnaire, with 252 physicians and nurses from six government hospitals in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study applied SmartPLS 2.0 for analysis to determine the relationship between six variables. Demographic moderating variables, age, gender and profession, were included. The results indicate that performance expectancy (p<0.05), effort expectancy (p<0.05), facilitating condition (p<0.01) and reinforcement factor (p<0.001) have significant effects on clinicians' behavioural intention to use telemedicine systems, as predicted using the extended UTAUT model. Our results showed that the use of telemedicine by clinicians in the Nigerian context is perceived as a dual responsibility which requires suitable reinforcement. In addition, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating condition and reinforcement determinants are influential factors in the use of telemedicine services for remote-patient clinical diagnosis and management by the Nigerian clinicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
  19. Mathiharan K
    Natl Med J India, 2014 Jan-Feb;27(1):39-42.
    PMID: 25403126
    The concept of informed consent specific to medical research and treatment is still alien to many medical researchers and practitioners and to millions of Indians. The doctor-patient relationship in India is governed more by trust where the doctor is the authoritative person. Therefore, the benefit of informed consent does not reach all patients in day-to-day medical practice. To complicate the issue, the Indian law is not specific about the age at which a person can give valid consent. The Indian Penal Code is silent about the legal validity of consent given by persons between 12 and 18 years of age. Similarly, the age at which the 'Right to Confidentiality' begins is yet to be defined either by the statute or by the courts. Hence, there is a need for a clear statutory provision to remove the anomalies and ambiguities regarding the age of consent to undergo invasive therapeutic or investigative procedures, participate in clinical trials, as well as define the age at which a person's right to medical confidentiality begins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality/legislation & jurisprudence*
  20. Syed-Mohamad SM, Ali SH, Mat-Husin MN
    Health Inf Manag, 2010 Mar;39(1):30-35.
    PMID: 28683624 DOI: 10.1177/183335831003900105
    This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open-source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confidentiality
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