Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Salama SM, Abdulla MA, AlRashdi AS, Ismail S, Alkiyumi SS, Golbabapour S
    PMID: 23496995 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-56
    Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma*
  2. Jantan I, Pisar M, Sirat HM, Basar N, Jamil S, Ali RM, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2004 Dec;18(12):1005-7.
    PMID: 15742349
    Ten compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and Kaempferia rotunda Linn. (Family: Zingiberaceae) were investigated for their platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonistic activities on rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, four compounds showed significant inhibitory effects. Alpinetin and 5,6-dehydrokawain isolated from A. mutica exhibited IC50 values of 41.6 and 59.3 microM, respectively. The IC50 values of 3-deacetylcrotepoxide and 2-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from K. rotunda were 45.6 and 57.4 microM, respectively. 1-Methoxy-2-methyl-5-(1',5'-dimethylhex-4'-enyl)-benzene, synthesized by methylation of xanthorrhizol which was obtained from C. xanthorrhiza, showed an IC50 value of 40.9 microM. The results indicated that these compounds were relatively strong PAF receptor binding inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma
  3. Ng TP
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1351-1355.
    Dementia poses a major global burden of care to society and health systems in ageing populations. The majority (over 60%) of persons with dementia in the world are found in Asia and developing countries with rapid rates of population ageing. Improving and maintaining the cognitive health of older persons is vital to national strategies for dementia prevention. Increasing numbers of population-based ageing cohort studies in the past decade have provided a better understanding of the factors that contribute to cognitive function and decline in old age. The roles of major demographic, psychosocial, lifestyle, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors contributing to cognitive health were discussed using examples from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. They include socio-demographic factors, particularly education and marital status, leisure time activity such as physical activity, social engagement and mental activities, psychological factors such as depression, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors: obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome, under-nutrition, low albumin, low hemoglobin, nutritional factors such as blood folate, B12 and homocysteine, omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, tea drinking and curcumin-rich turmeric in curry meals. These factors are found to be associated variously with cognitive functions (memory and learning, language, visuospatial, attention and information processing speed), rates of cognitive impairment and cognitive decline, or increased risk of developing MCI and progression to dementia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma
  4. Rouhollahi E, Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Paydar M, Fadaeinasab M, Zahedifard M, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    PMID: 25652758 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0534-6
    BACKGROUND: Curcuma purpurascens BI. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as 'Koneng Tinggang' and 'Temu Tis' is a Javanese medicinal plant which has been used for numerous ailments and diseases in rural Javanese communities. In the present study, the apoptogenic activity of dichloromethane extract of Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) was investigated against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
    METHODS: Acute toxicity study of DECPR was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds of DECPR were analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-time of flight (GC-MS-TOF) analysis. Cytotoxic effect of DECPR on HT-29 cells was analyzed by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Effects of DECPR on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial-initiated events were investigated using a high content screening system. The activities of the caspases were also measured using a fluorometric assay. The quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to examine the gene expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl proteins.
    RESULTS: The in vivo acute toxicity study of DECPR on rats showed the safety of this extract at the highest dose of 5 g/kg. The GC-MS-TOF analysis of DECPR detected turmerone as the major compound in dichloromethane extract. IC50 value of DECPR towards HT-29 cells after 24 h treatment was found to be 7.79 ± 0.54 μg/mL. In addition, DECPR induced LDH release and ROS generation in HT-29 cells through a mechanism involving nuclear fragmentation and cytoskeletal rearrangement. The mitochondrial-initiated events, including collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c leakage was also triggered by DECPR treatment. Initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3 was dose-dependently activated by DECPR. The quantitative PCR analysis on the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 family of proteins showed a significant up-regulation of Bax associated with down-regulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNA expression.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in the current study showed that DECP suppressed the proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and triggered the induction of apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry*
  5. Lee HM, Patel V, Shyur LF, Lee WL
    Phytomedicine, 2016 Nov 15;23(12):1535-1544.
    PMID: 27765374 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.09.005
    BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and 90% of oral malignancies are caused by oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Curcumin, a phytocompound derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) was observed to have anti-cancer activity which can be developed as an alternative treatment option for OSCC. However, OSCC cells with various clinical-pathological features respond differentially to curcumin treatment.

    HYPOTHESIS: Intracellular copper levels have been reported to correlate with tumor pathogenesis and affect the sensitivity of cancer cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy. We hypothesized that intracellular copper levels may affect the sensitivity of oral cancer cells to curcumin.

    METHODS: We analysed the correlation between intracellular copper levels and response to curcumin treatment in a panel of OSCC cell lines derived from oral cancer patients. Exogenous copper was supplemented in curcumin insensitive cell lines to observe the effect of copper on curcumin-mediated inhibition of cell viability and migration, as well as induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. Protein markers of cell migration and oxidative stress were also analysed using Western blotting.

    RESULTS: Concentrations of curcumin which inhibited 50% OSCC cell viability (IC50) was reduced up to 5 times in the presence of 250 µM copper. Increased copper level in curcumin-treated OSCC cells was accompanied by the induction of intracellular ROS and increased level of Nrf2 which regulates oxidative stress responses in cells. Supplemental copper also inhibited migration of curcumin-treated cells with enhanced level of E-cadherin and decreased vimentin, indications of suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Early apoptosis was observed in combined treatment but not in treatment with curcumin or copper alone.

    CONCLUSION: Supplement of copper significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of curcumin treatment on migration and viability of oral cancer cells. Together, these findings provide molecular insight into the role of copper in overcoming insensitivity of oral cancer cells to curcumin treatment, suggesting a new strategy for cancer therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry
  6. Ali AH, Sudi S, Basir R, Embi N, Sidek HM
    J Med Food, 2017 Feb;20(2):152-161.
    PMID: 28146408 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2016.3813
    Curcumin, a bioactive compound in Curcuma longa, exhibits various pharmacological activities, including antimalarial effects. In silico docking simulation studies suggest that curcumin possesses glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)-inhibitory properties. The involvement of GSK3 in the antimalarial effects in vivo is yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the antimalarial effects of curcumin involve phosphorylation of host GSK3β. Intraperitoneal administration of curcumin into Plasmodium berghei NK65-infected mice resulted in dose-dependent chemosuppression of parasitemia development. At the highest dose tested (30 mg/kg body weight), both therapeutic and prophylactic administrations of curcumin resulted in suppression exceeding 50% and improved median survival time of infected mice compared to control. Western analysis revealed a 5.5-fold (therapeutic group) and 1.8-fold (prophylactic group) increase in phosphorylation of Ser 9 GSK3β and 1.6-fold (therapeutic group) and 1.7-fold (prophylactic group) increase in Ser 473 Akt in liver of curcumin-treated infected animals. Following P. berghei infection, levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-4 were elevated by 7.5-, 35.0-, 33.0-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Curcumin treatment (therapeutic) caused a significant decrease (by 6.0- and 2.0-fold, respectively) in serum TNF-α and IFN-γ level, while IL-10 and IL-4 were elevated (by 1.4- and 1.8-fold). Findings from the present study demonstrate for the first time that the antimalarial action of curcumin involved inhibition of GSK3β.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry*
  7. Bukhari SNA, Hussain F, Thu HE, Hussain Z
    J Integr Med, 2019 Jan;17(1):38-45.
    PMID: 30139656 DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.08.003
    OBJECTIVE: The present study explored the effects of the combined herbal therapy consisting of curcumin (CUR) and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) on aspects of bone regeneration.

    METHODS: Prior to analyzing the ability of this novel combined herbal therapy to promote aspects of bone regeneration, its cytotoxicity was determined using MC3T3-E1 cells (pre-osteoblast model). Cell proliferation was evaluated using phase-contrast microscopy and cell differentiation was estimated using alkaline phosphatase activity. The effect of the combined herbal therapy (CUR + FLL) was also assessed in terms of mineralization in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cultured cells. Further, to explore the molecular mechanisms of bone formation, time-dependent expression of bone-regulating protein biomarkers was also evaluated.

    RESULTS: Combined herbal therapy (CUR + FLL) significantly upregulated the viability, proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells compared to the monotherapy of CUR or FLL. The magnitude of ECM mineralization (calcium deposition) was also higher in MC3T3-E1 cells treated with combined therapy. The time-dependent expression of bone-forming protein biomarkers revealed that the tendency of expression of these bone-regulating proteins was remarkably higher in cells treated with combined therapy.

    CONCLUSION: The co-administration of CUR and FLL had superior promotion of elements of bone regeneration in cultured cells, thus could be a promising alternative herbal therapy for the management of bone erosive disorders such as osteoporosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry*
  8. Taty Anna K, Elvy Suhana MR, Das S, Faizah O, Hamzaini AH
    Clin Ter, 2011;162(3):201-7.
    PMID: 21717043
    Curcuma longa (CL) or turmeric is an Ayurvedic herb that has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a well established experimental auto-immune mediated polyarthritis in susceptible strains of rodents. The main aim of the study was to observe the inflammatory, macroscopic and radiological changes in the arthritic ankle joints of experimentally collagen-induced arthritis animals treated with or without CL extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma
  9. Sylvester, W. S., Son, R., Lew, K. F., Rukayadi, Y.
    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a foodborne pathogen associated with pneumoniae. Multiresistance to antibiotics of K. pneumoniae is a significant public health treat. Recently, the use of natural products such as herbs to inhibit the growth of pathogens is increasing. Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) has been reported to possess antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens. Unfortunately, the antibacterial activity of java turmeric extract against the resistance to multiantibiotics of K. pneumoniae has not been investigated. In this study, the antibacterial activity of Java turmeric extract was tested against 24 isolates of resistant K. pneumoniae that was isolated from several vegetables; lettuce, cucumber, tomato and carrot, using the methods recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CSLI), including disc diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and killing time at concentration 0× MIC, ½× MIC, 1× MIC, 2× MIC and 4× MIC with predetermined time of 0, 0.25 , 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. The results showed that Java turmeric extract is susceptible to all resistant K. pneumoniae with inhibition zones ranging from 8.67 ± 0.58 to 10.00 ± 0.00 mm. The MIC and MBC values for the K. pneumoniae isolates against all bacterial isolates was 1.25 and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The killing time curve shows the reduction of resistant K. pneumoniae cells is fast acting; > 3 log10 within less than 15 min at 4× MIC (5.0 mg/ml). Finally, the isolates were completely killed at 4× MIC for 15 min. In conclusion, the Java turmeric extracts can be developed as natural antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of K. pneumoniae in food system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma
  10. MyJurnal
    This study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Nephelium lappaceum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomun cassia, Durio zibethinus, Vitex trifolia, Amaranthus tricolor, Syzygium samarangense and Manihot esculenta. Antibacterial properties of the extracts were studied against fifteen strains of different gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio para, and Escherichia coli using the agar disk diffusion method. Among the tested extracts, only Amaranthus tricolor exhibited specific inhibition of one of the tested bacteria; Bacillus cereus. Using the microdilution method, its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined to be 20 mg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma
  11. Foong SC, Tan ML, Foong WC, Marasco LA, Ho JJ, Ong JH
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2020 05 18;5:CD011505.
    PMID: 32421208 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011505.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Many women express concern about their ability to produce enough milk, and insufficient milk is frequently cited as the reason for supplementation and early termination of breastfeeding. When addressing this concern, it is important first to consider the influence of maternal and neonatal health, infant suck, proper latch, and feeding frequency on milk production, and that steps be taken to correct or compensate for any contributing issues. Oral galactagogues are substances that stimulate milk production. They may be pharmacological or non-pharmacological (natural). Natural galactagogues are usually botanical or other food agents. The choice between pharmacological or natural galactagogues is often influenced by familiarity and local customs. Evidence for the possible benefits and harms of galactagogues is important for making an informed decision on their use.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of oral galactagogues for increasing milk production in non-hospitalised breastfeeding mother-term infant pairs.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), Health Research and Development Network - Phillippines (HERDIN), Natural Products Alert (Napralert), the personal reference collection of author LM, and reference lists of retrieved studies (4 November 2019).

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (including published abstracts) comparing oral galactagogues with placebo, no treatment, or another oral galactagogue in mothers breastfeeding healthy term infants. We also included cluster-randomised trials but excluded cross-over trials.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth methods for data collection and analysis. Two to four review authors independently selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias, extracted data for analysis and checked accuracy. Where necessary, we contacted the study authors for clarification.

    MAIN RESULTS: Forty-one RCTs involving 3005 mothers and 3006 infants from at least 17 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies were conducted either in hospitals immediately postpartum or in the community. There was considerable variation in mothers, particularly in parity and whether or not they had lactation insufficiency. Infants' ages at commencement of the studies ranged from newborn to 6 months. The overall certainty of evidence was low to very low because of high risk of biases (mainly due to lack of blinding), substantial clinical and statistical heterogeneity, and imprecision of measurements. Pharmacological galactagogues Nine studies compared a pharmacological galactagogue (domperidone, metoclopramide, sulpiride, thyrotropin-releasing hormone) with placebo or no treatment. The primary outcome of proportion of mothers who continued breastfeeding at 3, 4 and 6 months was not reported. Only one study (metoclopramide) reported on the outcome of infant weight, finding little or no difference (mean difference (MD) 23.0 grams, 95% confidence interval (CI) -47.71 to 93.71; 1 study, 20 participants; low-certainty evidence). Three studies (metoclopramide, domperidone, sulpiride) reported on milk volume, finding pharmacological galactagogues may increase milk volume (MD 63.82 mL, 95% CI 25.91 to 101.72; I² = 34%; 3 studies, 151 participants; low-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis indicates there may be increased milk volume with each drug, but with varying CIs. There was limited reporting of adverse effects, none of which could be meta-analysed. Where reported, they were limited to minor complaints, such as tiredness, nausea, headache and dry mouth (very low-certainty evidence). No adverse effects were reported for infants. Natural galactagogues Twenty-seven studies compared natural oral galactagogues (banana flower, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, ixbut, levant cotton, moringa, palm dates, pork knuckle, shatavari, silymarin, torbangun leaves or other natural mixtures) with placebo or no treatment. One study (Mother's Milk Tea) reported breastfeeding rates at six months with a concluding statement of "no significant difference" (no data and no measure of significance provided, 60 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Three studies (fennel, fenugreek, moringa, mixed botanical tea) reported infant weight but could not be meta-analysed due to substantial clinical and statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 60%, 275 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis shows we are very uncertain whether fennel or fenugreek improves infant weight, whereas moringa and mixed botanical tea may increase infant weight compared to placebo. Thirteen studies (Bu Xue Sheng Ru, Chanbao, Cui Ru, banana flower, fenugreek, ginger, moringa, fenugreek, ginger and turmeric mix, ixbut, mixed botanical tea, Sheng Ru He Ji, silymarin, Xian Tong Ru, palm dates; 962 participants) reported on milk volume, but meta-analysis was not possible due to substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 99%). The subgroup analysis for each intervention suggested either benefit or little or no difference (very low-certainty evidence). There was limited reporting of adverse effects, none of which could be meta-analysed. Where reported, they were limited to minor complaints such as mothers with urine that smelled like maple syrup and urticaria in infants (very low-certainty evidence). Galactagogue versus galactagogue Eight studies (Chanbao; Bue Xue Sheng Ru, domperidone, moringa, fenugreek, palm dates, torbangun, moloco, Mu Er Wu You, Kun Yuan Tong Ru) compared one oral galactagogue with another. We were unable to perform meta-analysis because there was only one small study for each match-up, so we do not know if one galactagogue is better than another for any outcome.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to extremely limited, very low certainty evidence, we do not know whether galactagogues have any effect on proportion of mothers who continued breastfeeding at 3, 4 and 6 months. There is low-certainty evidence that pharmacological galactagogues may increase milk volume. There is some evidence from subgroup analyses that natural galactagogues may benefit infant weight and milk volume in mothers with healthy, term infants, but due to substantial heterogeneity of the studies, imprecision of measurements and incomplete reporting, we are very uncertain about the magnitude of the effect. We are also uncertain if one galactagogue performs better than another. With limited data on adverse effects, we are uncertain if there are any concerning adverse effects with any particular galactagogue; those reported were minor complaints. High-quality RCTs on the efficacy and safety of galactagogues are urgently needed. A set of core outcomes to standardise infant weight and milk volume measurement is also needed, as well as a strong basis for the dose and dosage form used.

    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma
  12. Soliman A, Teoh SL, Ghafar N, Das S
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018 Oct 25.
    PMID: 30360709 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666181025155204
    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide. One of the main complications in DM is delayed wound healing which often requires amputation. Various drugs have been used to treat DM but they present with various complications and patients often do not comply with such treatment. This opens the door for complementary and alternative medicine. In the present review, we explore the molecular concept of wound healing occurring in different stages with special emphasis to DM. We also highlight potential herbal products such as NF3 (Chinese 2-Herb Formula), Zicao, Jing Wan Hong ointment, mixture of Adiantum capillus-veneris, Commiphora molmol, Aloe Vera, and henna, Aleo vera, Phenol-rich compound sweet gel, Jinchuang ointment, San-huang-sheng-fu (S) oil, Yi Bu A Jie extract, Astragali Radix (AR) and Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Yiqi Huayu, Tangzu yuyang ointment, Shengji Huayu recipe, Angelica sinensis, Lithospermun erythrorhison, Hippophae rhamnoides L., Curcuma longa, and Momordica charantia that could be effectively used to treat DM wounds. Future clinical trials are needed for designing potential drugs which may be effective in treating DM wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma
  13. Karami M, Alimon AR, Sazili AQ, Goh YM, Ivan M
    Meat Sci., 2011 May;88(1):102-8.
    PMID: 21194849 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.12.009
    Thirty-two male goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments namely, basal diet 70% concentrate and 30% oil palm fronds (control, CN), CN + 400 mg/kg vitamin E (VE), 0.5% turmeric (TU) or 0.5% Anderographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days of feeding, the goats were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and conditioned for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller (4 °C). The drip loss of the LD muscle increased (P < 0.05) with aging time. Meat tenderness was improved (p < 0.05) at 14 days aging. All antioxidant supplements improved (P < 0.05) colour of the meat. The TBARS value increased (P < 0.05) at 7 days of aging while the fatty acid composition was not affected by the dietary supplements. It is concluded that TU and AP are potential dietary antioxidant supplements, for the purpose of improving the quality of chevon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry
  14. Abas F, Lajis NH, Shaari K, Israf DA, Stanslas J, Yusuf UK, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2005 Jul;68(7):1090-3.
    PMID: 16038556
    A new labdane diterpene glucoside, curcumanggoside (1), together with nine known compounds, including labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial (2), calcaratarin A (3), zerumin B (4), scopoletin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, curcumin, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid, have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. Their structures were determined using a combination of 1D (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR techniques. All diarylheptanoids and scopoletin showed significant antioxidant activity. Zerumin B, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and curcumin also exhibited cytotoxic activity against a panel of five human tumor cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry*
  15. Ahmed Hamdi OA, Syed Abdul Rahman SN, Awang K, Abdul Wahab N, Looi CY, Thomas NF, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:321943.
    PMID: 25126594 DOI: 10.1155/2014/321943
    Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7) and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC) using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17),12 diene-15,16 dial (1), dehydrocurdione (2), curcumenone (3), comosone II (4), curcumenol (5), procurcumenol (6), germacrone (7), zerumbone epoxide (8), zederone (9), 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[,5)]undec-6-en-8-ol (10), furanodiene (11), germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12), calcaratarin A (13), isoprocurcumenol (14), germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15), zerumin A (16), curcumanolide A (17), curcuzedoalide (18), and gweicurculactone (19). Compounds (1-19) were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29). Curcumenone (3) and curcumenol (5) displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50 = 8.3 ± 1.0 and 9.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.) and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry*
  16. Rahim NA, Hassandarvish P, Golbabapour S, Ismail S, Tayyab S, Abdulla MA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:416409.
    PMID: 24783203 DOI: 10.1155/2014/416409
    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg).
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry*
  17. Rouhollahi E, Moghadamtousi SZ, Al-Henhena N, Kunasegaran T, Hasanpourghadi M, Looi CY, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:3911-22.
    PMID: 26251570 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S84560
    Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, is a popular spice in Indonesia that is traditionally used in assorted remedies. Dichloromethane extract of C. purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) has previously been shown to have an apoptosis-inducing effect on colon cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the potential of DECPR to prevent colon cancer development in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) (15 mg/kg) by determining the percentage inhibition in incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Starting from the day immediately after AOM treatment, three groups of rats were orally administered once a day for 2 months either 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg, cancer control), DECPR (250 mg/kg, low dose), or DECPR (500 mg/kg, high dose). Meanwhile, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with 5-fluorouracil (35 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After euthanizing the rats, the number of ACF was enumerated in colon tissues. Bax, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expressions were examined using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Antioxidant enzymatic activity was measured in colon tissue homogenates and associated with malondialdehyde level. The percentage inhibition of ACF was 56.04% and 68.68% in the low- and high-dose DECPR-treated groups, respectively. The ACF inhibition in the treatment control group was 74.17%. Results revealed that DECPR exposure at both doses significantly decreased AOM-induced ACF formation, which was accompanied by reduced expression of PCNA. Upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 suggested the involvement of apoptosis in the chemopreventive effect of DECPR. In addition, the oxidative stress resulting from AOM treatment was significantly attenuated after administration of DECPR, which was shown by the elevated antioxidant enzymatic activity and reduced malondialdehyde level. Taken together, the present data clearly indicate that DECPR significantly inhibits ACF formation in AOM-treated rats and may offer protection against colon cancer development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry*
  18. Hamdi OA, Anouar el H, Shilpi JA, Trabolsy ZB, Zain SB, Zakaria NS, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015 Apr 27;16(5):9450-68.
    PMID: 25923077 DOI: 10.3390/ijms16059450
    A series of 21 compounds isolated from Curcuma zedoaria was subjected to cytotoxicity test against MCF7; Ca Ski; PC3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines; and a normal HUVEC cell line. To rationalize the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds; a set of electronic; steric and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) method. Statistical analyses were carried out using simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR; MLR); principal component analysis (PCA); and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). SLR analyses showed that the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against a given cell line depend on certain descriptors; and the corresponding correlation coefficients (R2) vary from 0%-55%. MLR results revealed that the best models can be achieved with a limited number of specific descriptors applicable for compounds having a similar basic skeleton. Based on PCA; HCA and MLR analyses; active compounds were classified into subgroups; which was in agreement with the cell based cytotoxicity assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry*
  19. Khalid A, Shakeel R, Justin S, Iqbal G, Shah SAA, Zahid S, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2017;18(13):1545-1557.
    PMID: 28302036 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170315120627
    BACKGROUND: Stress is involved in memory impairment through multiple mechanisms, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which in turn activates release of corticosterone in blood. Cholinergic system blockade by the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, also impairs memory.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of turmeric (20mg/kg) on learning and memory and cholinergic system in a mouse model of stress along with cholinergic blockade.

    METHODS: Restrained stress was induced and cholinergic receptors were blocked using scopolamine in mice. Animals were treated with turmeric (turmeric rhizome powder which was also subjected to NMR analyses) and learning and social behavior was examined. Effect of turmeric on cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChR; M1, M3 and M5) gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR in both pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus.

    RESULTS: Ar-turmerone, curcuminoids and α-linolenic acid were the lead compounds present in turmeric extract. Increased serum corticosterone levels were observed in stressed mice when compared to the control group, while turmeric treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone level. Turmeric treatment caused an improved learning and memory in Morris water maze test in stressed animals. Social novelty preference was also restored in turmeric treated animals. Following turmeric treatment, M5 expression was improved in the cortex and M3 expression was improved in the hippocampus of stress + scopolamine + turmeric treated group.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the therapeutic role of turmeric by increasing the expression of M3, M5 and improving learning and memory. Turmeric can be an effective candidate for the treatment of amnesia caused by the stress.

    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma/chemistry
  20. Hossen MS, Tanvir EM, Prince MB, Paul S, Saha M, Ali MY, et al.
    Pharm Biol, 2017 Dec;55(1):1937-1945.
    PMID: 28675957 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1345951
    CONTEXT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity.

    OBJECTIVE: The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods.

    RESULTS: Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 μM Fe2+) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Curcuma*
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