Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 827 in total

  1. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2012 Feb;21(2):207-13.
    PMID: 21812068 DOI: 10.1002/pds.2218
    The present study examines the relationship between the dose of acetaminophen reported to have been ingested by patients and the occurrence of serum acetaminophen levels above the 'possible toxicity' line in patients presenting at the hospital after acetaminophen overdose. The prognostic value of patient-reported dosage cut-offs of 8, 10 and 12 g was determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  2. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Al-Jabi SW
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2011 Feb;20(2):203-8.
    PMID: 21254292 DOI: 10.1002/pds.2060
    Acetaminophen overdose may be accompanied by electrolyte disturbances. The basis for electrolyte change appears to be due to increased fractional urinary electrolyte excretion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  3. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Al-Jabi SW
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 2010 Nov;107(5):887-92.
    PMID: 20456332 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00594.x
    Identifying indices of poor prognosis at first presentation after acetaminophen poisoning is the key to both improving clinical care and determining targets for intervention. This study intended to document the prevalence, clinical characteristics and predictors of vomiting and to investigate the relationship between episodes of vomiting at first hospital presentation and outcome in acetaminophen poisoning. This retrospective cohort study included patients who attended the emergency department and were admitted within 24 hr of acetaminophen ingestion. The study was conducted over a period of 5 years from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to test differences between groups depending on the normality of the data. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis. Data from 291 patients were included. Vomiting was present in 65.3% of patients with acetaminophen poisoning at the time of first presentation. Multiple logistic regression showed that significant risk factors for vomiting were present among patients who reported an ingested dose of acetaminophen ≥10 g (p < 0.001) and a latency time of more than 8 hr (p = 0.030). Overall, an increasing trend in prothrombin time (p = 0.03), serum bilirubin (p < 0.001), serum creatinine (p = 0.005), serum potassium (p < 0.001), length of hospital stay (p < 0.001) and the prevalence of patients who had a serum acetaminophen level above a 'possible toxicity' treatment line (p = 0.001) were associated with an increased number of episodes of vomiting. In conclusion, vomiting was common among patients with acetaminophen poisoning. This study suggests that an increase in episodes of vomiting at first presentation appears to be an important risk marker of subsequent nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  4. Zolkiffly SZI, Stanslas J, Abdul Hamid H, Mehat MZ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2021 Oct 28;279:114309.
    PMID: 34119609 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114309
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ficus deltoidea Jack (FD) is widely consumed in traditional medicine as a treatment for various diseases in Malaysia. Each part of the plant such as its leave, stem, fruit and root are used traditionally to treat different types of diseases. Vitexin and isovitexin are bioactive compounds abundantly found in the leaves of FD that possessed many pharmacological properties including neuroprotection. Nonetheless, its effects on key events in neuroinflammation are unknown.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the inhibitory properties of FD aqueous extract on pro-inflammatory mediators involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial cells.

    METHODS: Vitexin and isovitexin in the extract were quantified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The extract was evaluated for its cytotoxicity activity via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Pre-treatment with the extract on LPS-induced microglial cells was done to determine its antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory properties by measuring the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) via 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) assay, Griess assay and Western blot respectively.

    RESULTS: The extract at all tested concentrations (0.1 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL) were not cytotoxic as the percentage viability of microglial cells were all above ~80%. At the highest concentration (100 μg/mL), the extract significantly reduced the formation of ROS, NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in microglial cells induced by LPS.

    CONCLUSION: The extract showed neuroprotective effects by attenuating the levels of pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic factors in LPS-induced microglial cells, possibly by mediating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  5. Zin NM, Baba MS, Zainal-Abidin AH, Latip J, Mazlan NW, Edrada-Ebel R
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:351-363.
    PMID: 28223778 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S121283
    Endophytic Streptomyces strains are potential sources for novel bioactive molecules. In this study, the diketopiperazine gancidin W (GW) was isolated from the endophytic actinobacterial genus Streptomyces, SUK10, obtained from the bark of Shorea ovalis tree, and it was tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei PZZ1/100. GW exhibited an inhibition rate of nearly 80% at 6.25 and 3.125 μg kg(-1) body weight on day four using the 4-day suppression test method on male ICR strain mice. Comparing GW at both concentrations with quinine hydrochloride and normal saline as positive and negative controls, respectively, 50% of the mice treated with 3.125 μg kg(-1) body weight managed to survive for more than 11 months after infection, which almost reached the life span of normal mice. Biochemical tests of selected enzymes and proteins in blood samples of mice treated with GW were also within normal levels; in addition, no abnormalities or injuries were found on internal vital organs. These findings indicated that this isolated bioactive compound from Streptomyces SUK10 exhibits very low toxicity and is a good candidate for potential use as an antimalarial agent in an animal model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  6. Zin CS, Rahman NA, Ismail CR, Choy LW
    Pain Pract, 2017 07;17(6):774-781.
    PMID: 27676695 DOI: 10.1111/papr.12525
    BACKGROUND: There are currently limited data available on the patterns of opioid prescribing in Malaysia. This study investigated the patterns of opioid prescribing and characterized the dosing and duration of opioid use in patients with noncancer and cancer pain.
    METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient hospital setting in Malaysia. All prescriptions for opioids (dihydrocodeine, fentanyl, morphine, and oxycodone) issued between January 2013 and December 2014 were examined. The number of prescriptions and patients, the distribution of mean daily dose, annual total days covered with opioids, and annual total opioid dose at the individual level were calculated and stratified by noncancer and cancer groups.
    RESULTS: A total of 1015 opioid prescriptions were prescribed for 347 patients from 2013 to 2014. Approximately 41.5% of patients (N = 144/347) and 58.5% (N = 203/347) were associated with noncancer and cancer diagnosis, respectively. Oxycodone (38.0%) was the highest prescribed primarily for the noncancer group. The majority of patients in both noncancer (74.3%) and cancer (60.4%) groups were receiving mean daily doses of < 50 mg morphine equivalents. The chronic use of opioids (> 90 days per year) was associated with 21.8% of patients in the noncancer group and 17.5% in the cancer group.
    CONCLUSIONS: The finding from this study showed that 41.5% of opioid users at an outpatient hospital setting in Malaysia received opioids for noncancer pain and 21.8% of these users were using opioids for longer than 90 days. The average daily dose in the majority of patients in both groups of noncancer and cancer was modest.
    Study site: outpatient clinic, hospital, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  7. Zia A, Kamaruzzaman SB, Tan MP
    Postgrad Med, 2015 Mar;127(2):186-93.
    PMID: 25622817 DOI: 10.1080/00325481.2015.996505
    Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition among older people, but many physicians avoid aggressive treatment in this age group due to concerns about adverse effects such as orthostatic hypotension and falls. Orthostatic hypotension, which also increases in prevalence with increasing age, has been considered to be associated with antihypertensive therapy. Both orthostatic hypotension and antihypertensive medications are considered independent yet closely related predictors for falls among older people. The prescription of antihypertensive therapy among the elderly remains a long-standing controversy in geriatric medicine due to ongoing concerns about potential complications such as falls, despite conclusive evidence supporting the treatment of hypertension even among the very elderly. However, recent evidence suggests a dose-dependent relationship between blood pressure lowering therapy and falls among older individuals with preexisting risk factors for falls. In response to the spate of revisions in hypertension treatment targets for older patients in international guidelines and the recent evidence on antihypertensive therapy and falls, this review article examines the complex relationship between hypertension, antihypertensives, orthostatic hypotension, and falls among older patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  8. Zhuo F, Abourehab MAS, Hussain Z
    Carbohydr Polym, 2018 Oct 01;197:478-489.
    PMID: 30007638 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.06.023
    Nano-delivery systems have gained remarkable recognition for targeted delivery of therapeutic payload, reduced off-target effects, and improved biopharmaceutical profiles of drugs. Therefore, we aimed to fabricate polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) to deliver tacrolimus (TCS) to deeper layers of the skin in order to alleviate its systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic efficacy against atopic dermatitis (AD). To further optimize the targeting efficiency, TCS-loaded NPs were coated with hyaluronic acid (HA). Following the various physicochemical optimizations, the prepared HA-TCS-CS-NPs were tested for in vitro drug release kinetics, drug permeation across the stratum corneum, percentage of drug retained in the epidermis and dermis, and anti-AD efficacy. Results revealed that HA-TCS-CS-NPs exhibit sustained release profile, promising drug permeation ability, improved skin retention, and pronounced anti-AD efficacy. Conclusively, we anticipated that HA-based modification of TCS-CS-NPs could be a promising therapeutic approach for rationalized management of AD, particularly in children as well as in adults having steroid phobia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  9. Zhang X, Tan Z, Jia K, Zhang W, Dang M
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;47(1):2171-2178.
    PMID: 31159596 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2019.1620249
    Nanomedicine is a rapidly emerging field and is reported to be a promising tool for treating various diseases. Green synthesized nanoparticles are documented to possess a potent anticancer effect. Rabdosia rubescens is a Chinese plant which is also one of the components of PC-SPES and used to treat prostate cancer. In the present study, we synthesized the gold nanoparticles from R. rubescens (RR-AuNP) and analyzed its anticancer activity against the lung carcinoma A549 cell lines. Since lung cancer is reported to be with increased morbidity and decreased survival rate. The biosynthesized RR-AuNP were confirmed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer, size and shape of RR-AuNP were assessed by DLS, TEM and EDX. The biomolecules present in RR-AuNP and its topographical structure were detected using FTIR, SAED and AFM analysis. MTT assay was performed to detect the IC50 dose of RR-AuNP and its apoptotic effect was assessed by detecting the caspases activation, ROS generation. The anticancer effect of RR-AuNP was confirmed by DAPI staining, TUNEL assay and its molecular mechanism were confirmed by assessing the apoptotic signalling molecules protein expression. Our results illustrate that RR-AuNP showed a strong absorption peak at 550 nm and the RRAuNP were polydispersed nanospheres with size of 130 nm. RR-AuNP IC50 dose against A549 lung carcinoma cell line was detected to be at 25 µg/ml. The results of DAPI staining, TUNEL and immunoblotting analysis confirms both the 25 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of RR-AuNP possess potent anticancer and apoptotic effect, suggesting that RR-AuNP that it may be a persuasive molecule to treat lung cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  10. Zhang J, Ming C, Zhang W, Okechukwu PN, Morak-Młodawska B, Pluta K, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:3045-3063.
    PMID: 29123378 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S144415
    The asymptomatic properties and high treatment resistance of ovarian cancer result in poor treatment outcomes and high mortality rates. Although the fundamental chemotherapy provides promising anticancer activities, it is associated with severe side effects. The derivative of phenothiazine, namely, 10H-3,6-diazaphenothiazine (PTZ), was synthesized and reported with ideal anticancer effects in a previous paper. In this study, detailed anticancer properties of PTZ was examined on A2780 ovarian cancer cells by investigating the cytotoxicity profiles, mechanism of apoptosis, and cell invasion. Research outcomes revealed PTZ-induced dose-dependent inhibition on A2780 cancer cells (IC50 =0.62 µM), with significant less cytotoxicity toward HEK293 normal kidney cells and H9C2 normal heart cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) suggests PTZ-induced cell death through oxidative damage. The RT2 Profiler PCR Array on apoptosis pathway demonstrated PTZ-induced apoptosis via intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) and extrinsic (cell death receptor-dependent) pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB and subsequent inhibition of (BIRC6-XIAP) complex activities reduced the invasion rate of A2780 cancer cells penetrating through the Matrigel™ Invasion Chamber. Lastly, the cell cycle analysis hypothesizes that the compound is cytostatic and significantly arrests cell proliferation at G2/M phase. Hence, the exploration of the underlying anticancer mechanism of PTZ suggested its usage as promising chemotherapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  11. Zhang D, Gao C, Li R, Zhang L, Tian J
    Arch Pharm Res, 2017 May;40(5):579-591.
    PMID: 28211011 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-017-0899-9
    2α,3α,24-Thrihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oicacid (TEOA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, isolated from the roots of Actinidia eriantha, exhibits significant cytotoxicity against SW620, BGC-823, HepG-2, A549 and PC-3 cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEOA in SW620 cells. We demonstrated that TEOA induced apoptosis through cleavage of caspase-9 and PARP in SW620 cells. In addition, evidence of TEOA-mediated autophagy included the induction of autophagolysosomes and activation of autophagic markers LC-3B and p62. Further analysis illustrated that TEOA promoted the phosphorylation of PERK and elF2α, followed by up-regulation of the downstream protein CHOP, suggesting the involvement of PERK/eIF2α/CHOP pathway and ER stress in TEOA-induced autophagy in SW620 cells. Meanwhile, TEOA-mediated PINK1, Parkin, ubiquitin and p62 activation revealed that TEOA induced specific autophagy-mitophagy in SW620 cells. Additionally, an antioxidant NAC attenuated the TEOA-induced mitophagy, indicating that TEOA triggers mitophagy via a ROS-dependent pathway. Collectively, our findings revealed a novel cellular mechanism of TEOA in the colon cancer cell line SW620, thus providing a molecular basis for developing TEOA into an anti-tumor candidate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  12. Zhang CY, Tan BK
    Phytother Res, 1999 Mar;13(2):157-9.
    PMID: 10190192
    14-deoxyandrographolide (DA) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA) are two diterpenoids isolated from A. paniculata, a popular folk medicine used as an antihypertensive drug in Malaysia. We have previously reported that DDA exhibited a greater hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rats and a vasorelaxant activity in isolated rat aorta, compared with DA. Their vasorelaxant activities were mediated through the activation of the enzymes, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylyl cyclase. The present study demonstrated that both DA and DDA stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release from human endothelial cells. DDA compared with DA caused a greater production of NO; this is in line with the finding of the earlier study that the vasorelaxant effect of DDA was more dependent on endothelium than DA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  13. Zengin G, Rodrigues MJ, Abdallah HH, Custodio L, Stefanucci A, Aumeeruddy MZ, et al.
    Comput Biol Chem, 2018 Dec;77:178-186.
    PMID: 30336375 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2018.10.005
    The genus Silene is renowned in Turkey for its traditional use as food and medicine. Currently, there are 138 species of Silene in Turkey, amongst which have been several studies for possible pharmacological potential and application in food industry. However, there is currently a paucity of data on Silene salsuginea Hub.-Mor. This study endeavours to access its antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and anti-inflammatory properties. Besides, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) was used to detect phenolic compounds, and molecular docking was performed to provide new insights for tested enzymes and phenolics. High amounts of apigenin (534 μg/g extract), ferulic acid (452 μg/g extract), p-coumaric acid (408 μg/g extract), and quercetin (336 μg/g extract) were detected in the methanol extract while rutin (506 μg/g extract) was most abundant in the aqueous extract. As for their biological properties, the methanol extract exhibited the best antioxidant effect in the DPPH and CUPRAC assays, and also the highest inhibition against tyrosinase. The aqueous extract was the least active enzyme inhibitor but showed the highest antioxidant efficacy in the ABTS, FRAP, and metal chelating assays. At a concentration of 15.6 μg/mL, the methanol extract resulted in a moderate decrease (25.1%) of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. Among the phenolic compounds, epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and kaempferol showed the highest binding affinity towards the studied enzymes in silico. It can be concluded that extracts of S. salsuginea are a potential source of functional food ingredients but need further analytical experiments to explore its complexity of chemical compounds and pharmacological properties as well as using in vivo toxicity models to establish its maximum tolerated dose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  14. Zawawi NK, Rajput SA, Taha M, Ahmat N, Ismail NH, Abdullah N, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2015 Oct 15;25(20):4672-6.
    PMID: 26330080 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.08.022
    Apoptotic cell death is the cause of the loss of insulin-producing β-cells in all forms of diabetes mellitus. The identification of small molecules capable of protecting cytokine-induced apoptosis could form the basis of useful therapeutic interventions. Here in, we present the discovery and synthesis of new benzimidazole derivatives, capable of rescuing pancreatic β-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Three hydrazone derivatives of benzimidazole significantly increased the cellular ATP levels, reduced caspase-3 activity, reduced nitrite production and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that these compounds may protect β-cells from the harmful effects of cytokines and may serve as candidates for therapeutic intervention for diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  15. Zaman K, Rahim F, Taha M, Ullah H, Wadood A, Nawaz M, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2019 08;89:103024.
    PMID: 31176853 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103024
    Despite of many diverse biological activities exhibited by benzimidazole scaffold, it is rarely explored for the urease inhibitory potential. For that purpose, benzimidazole analogues 1-19 were synthesized and screened for in vitro urease inhibitory potential. Structures of all synthetic analogues were deduced by different spectroscopic techniques. All analogues revealed inhibition potential with IC50 values of 0.90 ± 0.01 to 35.20 ± 1.10 μM, when compared with the standard thiourea (IC50 = 21.40 ± 0.21 μM). Limited SAR suggested that the variations in the inhibitory potentials of the analogues are the result of different substitutions on phenyl ring. In order to rationalize the binding interactions of most active compounds with the active site of urease enzyme, molecular docking study was conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  16. Zaman K, Rahim F, Taha M, Wadood A, Adnan Ali Shah S, Gollapalli M, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2019 08;89:102999.
    PMID: 31151055 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.102999
    Isoquinoline analogues (KA-1 to 16) have been synthesized and evaluated for their E. coli thymidine phosphorylase inhibitory activity. Except compound 11, all other analogs showed outstanding thymidine inhibitory potential ranging in between 4.40 ± 0.20 to 69.30 ± 1.80 µM when compared with standard drug 7-Deazaxanthine (IC50 = 38.68 ± 4.42 µM). Structure Activity Relationships has been established for all compounds, mainly based on substitution pattern on phenyl ring. All analogs were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS. The binding interactions of isoquinoline analogues with the active site of TP enzyme, the molecular docking studies were performed. Furthermore, the angiogenic inhibitory potentials of isoquinoline analogues (KA-1-9, 14, 12 and 16) were determined in the presence of standard drug Dexamethasone based on percentage inhibitions at various concentrations. Herein this work analogue KA-12, 14 and 16 emerged with most potent angiogenic inhibitory potentials among the synthesized analogues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  17. Zaman K, Rahim F, Taha M, Sajid M, Hayat S, Nawaz M, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2021 10;115:105199.
    PMID: 34329995 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105199
    Synthesis of quinoline analogs and their urease inhibitory activities with reference to the standard drug, thiourea (IC50 = 21.86 ± 0.40 µM) are presented in this study. The inhibitory activity range is (IC50 = 0.60 ± 0.01 to 24.10 ± 0.70 µM) which displayed that it is most potent class of urease inhibitor. Analog 1-9, and 11-13 emerged with many times greater antiurease potential than thiourea, in which analog 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 11 (IC50 = 3.50 ± 0.10, 7.20 ± 0.20, 1.30 ± 0.10, 2.30 ± 0.10, 0.60 ± 0.01, 1.05 ± 0.10 and 2.60 ± 0.10 µM respectively) were appeared the most potent ones among the series. In this context, most potent analogs such as 1, 3, 4, 8, and 9 were further subjected for their in vitro antinematodal study against C. elegans to examine its cytotoxicity under positive control of standard drug, Levamisole. Consequently, the cytotoxicity profile displayed that analogs 3, 8, and 9 were found with minimum cytotoxic outline at higher concentration (500 µg/mL). All analogs were characterized through 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HR-EIMS. The protein-ligand binding interaction for most potent analogs was confirmed via molecular docking study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  18. Zaman Huri H, Hui Xin C, Sulaiman CZ
    PLoS One, 2014;9(1):e86215.
    PMID: 24475089 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086215
    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patients are at risk of acquiring drug-related problems (DRPs), as it is present in the majority of aging men. To date, DRPs among BPH patients have not been well studied. We conducted this retrospective study in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to June 2012 with the aim of identifying the factors associated with DRPs among BPH patients. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification Version (PCNE) 5.01 was used as a tool to classify DRPs. We enrolled 203 patients from 259 hospital admissions. A total of 390 DRPs were found and there was an average of 1.5±1.3 problems per hospitalization. 76.1% of hospital admissions included at least one DRP. The most common DRP categories encountered were drug choice problems (45.9%), drug interactions (24.9%), and dosing problems (13.3%). Factors such as advanced age (p = 0.005), a hospital stay of more than 6 days (p = 0.001), polydrug treatments (p<0.001), multiple comorbidities (p<0.001), and comorbid cardiovascular disease (p = 0.011), diabetes mellitus(p = 0.001), hypertension (p<0.001) and renal impairment (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with the occurrence of DRPs. These data indicated that the prevalence of DRPs is high among BPH patients. The identification of different subtypes of DRPs and the factors associated with DRPs may facilitate risk reduction for BPH patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  19. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Hisam EE, Norhafizah M, Rofiee MS, Othman F, Hasiah AH, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2012;21(5):476-82.
    PMID: 22398984 DOI: 10.1159/000336593
    The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer activity of a methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf (MEBP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  20. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Hisam EE, Rofiee MS, Norhafizah M, Somchit MN, Teh LK, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Sep 2;137(2):1047-54.
    PMID: 21802502 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.038
    Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various ailments, including ulcers. In order to establish pharmacological properties of the leaf of Bauhinia purpurea, studies were performed on antiulcer activity of the plant's aqueous extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
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