AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the inhibitory properties of FD aqueous extract on pro-inflammatory mediators involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial cells.
METHODS: Vitexin and isovitexin in the extract were quantified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The extract was evaluated for its cytotoxicity activity via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Pre-treatment with the extract on LPS-induced microglial cells was done to determine its antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory properties by measuring the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) via 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) assay, Griess assay and Western blot respectively.
RESULTS: The extract at all tested concentrations (0.1 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL) were not cytotoxic as the percentage viability of microglial cells were all above ~80%. At the highest concentration (100 μg/mL), the extract significantly reduced the formation of ROS, NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in microglial cells induced by LPS.
CONCLUSION: The extract showed neuroprotective effects by attenuating the levels of pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic factors in LPS-induced microglial cells, possibly by mediating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway.
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