AIM: These post hoc analyses investigated the bleeding patterns in target joints.
METHODS: Patients randomized to 40 or 10 IU kg(-1) once weekly prophylaxis who had at least one target joint were included. Baseline demographics and disease-specific data were collected. Bleeding patterns were assessed, and an International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) definition of target joints was used.
RESULTS: A total of 67% and 8% of patients in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arm, respectively, did not experience target joint bleeds during the paradigm(™) 2 trial. Twenty-four target joints were recorded in each prophylaxis arm at baseline. During the paradigm(™) 2 trial, no bleeds were reported in 17 (71%) and 7 (29%) target joints in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arms respectively. All target joint bleeds in the 40 IU kg(-1) once weekly prophylaxis arm were controlled with a single injection of 40 IU kg(-1) nonacog beta pegol. By the latest ISTH definition, 90% and 58% of target joints in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arms, respectively, were no longer considered target joints at the end of the paradigm(™) 2 trial. At the end of the paradigm(™) 4 extension trial, all target joints in the 40 IU kg(-1) arm were no longer considered target joints.
CONCLUSION: Routine prophylaxis with 40 IU kg(-1) once weekly nonacog beta pegol has the potential for effective management of target joint bleeds in haemophilia B patients.
METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was carried out in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Embase from inception until June 2019. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95 % CI were applied for estimating the effects of metformin on serum IGF-1 levels.
RESULTS: 11 studies involving a total of 569 individuals reported changes in IGF-1 plasma concentrations as an outcome measure. Pooled results demonstrated an overall non-significant decline in IGF-1 following metformin intake (WMD: -8.292 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -20.248, 3.664, p = 0.174) with heterogeneity among (p = 0.000,I2 = 87.1 %). The subgroup analyses displayed that intervention duration <12 weeks on children (WMD:-55.402 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -79.845, -30.960, I2 = 0.0 %) significantly reduced IGF-1. Moreover, in age 18 < years older metformin intake (WMD: 15.125 ng/ml, 95 % CI: 5.522, 24.729, I2 = 92.5 %) significantly increased IGF-1 than 18 ≤ years older (WMD:-1.038 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -3.578,1.502,I2 = 78.0 %). Following dose-response evaluation, metformin intake reduced IGF-1 (coefficient for dose-response analysis= -13.14, P = 0.041 and coefficient for liner analysis= -0.066, P = 0.038) significantly based on treatment duration.
CONCLUSION: We found in children, intervention duration <12 weeks yielded significant reductions in IGF-1, whilst paradoxically, in participants >18 years old, metformin intake significantly increased IGF-1. We suggest that caution be taken when interpreting the findings of this review, particularly given the discordant supplementation practices between children and adults.
METHODS: A hundred and twenty ASA 1-3 adults were randomly reversed with 1 mg/kg sugammadex prior to extubation followed by another 1 mg/kg immediately after extubation (staggered group), single dose of 2 mg/kg sugammadex (single bolus group) or neostigmine 0.02 mg/kg with glycopyrrolate (neostigmine group).
RESULTS: We found 70% of patients (n = 28) reversed with single boluses of sugammadex had Grade 3 emergence cough compared to 12.5% (n = 5) in the staggered sugammadex group and 17.5% (n = 7) in the neostigmine group (p dose of sugammadex for reversal will effectively decrease common emergence and early postoperative complications.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR Number ACTRN12616000116426 . Retrospectively registered on 2nd February 2016.
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