Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 827 in total

  1. Altamimi AS, Alafeefy AM, Balode A, Vozny I, Pustenko A, El Shikh ME, et al.
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 2018 Dec;33(1):147-150.
    PMID: 29199484 DOI: 10.1080/14756366.2017.1404593
    A series of symmetric molecules incorporating aryl or pyridyl moieties as central core and 1,4-substituted triazoles as a side bridge was synthesised. The new compounds were investigated as lactate dehydro-genase (LDH, EC inhibitors. The cancer associated LDHA isoform was inhibited with IC50 = 117-174 µM. Seven compounds exhibited better LDHA inhibition (IC50 117-136 µM) compared to known LDH inhibitor - galloflavin (IC50 157 µM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  2. Negrier C, Young G, Abdul Karim F, Collins PW, Hanabusa H, Colberg T, et al.
    Haemophilia, 2016 Jul;22(4):507-13.
    PMID: 26936227 DOI: 10.1111/hae.12902
    BACKGROUND: The paradigm(™) 2 and 4 phase 3 clinical trials investigated the safety and efficacy of nonacog beta pegol, a recombinant glycoPEGylated factor IX (FIX) with extended half-life, in previously treated haemophilia B patients.

    AIM: These post hoc analyses investigated the bleeding patterns in target joints.

    METHODS: Patients randomized to 40 or 10 IU kg(-1) once weekly prophylaxis who had at least one target joint were included. Baseline demographics and disease-specific data were collected. Bleeding patterns were assessed, and an International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) definition of target joints was used.

    RESULTS: A total of 67% and 8% of patients in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arm, respectively, did not experience target joint bleeds during the paradigm(™) 2 trial. Twenty-four target joints were recorded in each prophylaxis arm at baseline. During the paradigm(™) 2 trial, no bleeds were reported in 17 (71%) and 7 (29%) target joints in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arms respectively. All target joint bleeds in the 40 IU kg(-1) once weekly prophylaxis arm were controlled with a single injection of 40 IU kg(-1) nonacog beta pegol. By the latest ISTH definition, 90% and 58% of target joints in the 40 and 10 IU kg(-1) arms, respectively, were no longer considered target joints at the end of the paradigm(™) 2 trial. At the end of the paradigm(™) 4 extension trial, all target joints in the 40 IU kg(-1) arm were no longer considered target joints.

    CONCLUSION: Routine prophylaxis with 40 IU kg(-1) once weekly nonacog beta pegol has the potential for effective management of target joint bleeds in haemophilia B patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  3. Mazlan M, Sue Mian T, Mat Top G, Zurinah Wan Ngah W
    J Neurol Sci, 2006 Apr 15;243(1-2):5-12.
    PMID: 16442562
    Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the factors that cause neurodegeneration and that this can be inhibited by antioxidants. Since astrocytes support the survival of central nervous system (CNS) neurons, we compared the effect of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol in minimizing the cytotoxic damage induced by H(2)O(2), a pro-oxidant. Primary astrocyte cultures were pretreated with either alpha-tocopherol or gamma-tocotrienol for 1 h before incubation with 100 microM H(2)O(2) for 24 h. Cell viability was then assessed using the MTS assay while apoptosis was determined using a commercial ELISA kit as well as by fluorescent staining of live and apoptotic cells. The uptake of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol by astrocytes were also determined using HPLC. Results showed that gamma-tocotrienol is toxic at concentrations >200 microM but protects against H(2)O(2) induced cell loss and apoptosis in a dose dependent manner up to 100 microM. alpha-Tocopherol was not cytotoxic in the concentration range tested (up to 750 microM), reduced apoptosis to the same degree as that of gamma-tocotrienol but was less effective in maintaining the viable cell number. Since the uptake of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol by astrocytes is similar, this may reflect the roles of these 2 vitamin E subfamilies in inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating proliferation in astrocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  4. Somchit N, Sanat F, Gan EH, Shahrin IA, Zuraini A
    Singapore Med J, 2004 Nov;45(11):530-2.
    PMID: 15510325
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat musculoskeletal disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Virtually all NSAIDs are capable of producing liver injury ranging from mild reversible elevation of liver enzymes to severe hepatic necrosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  5. Hatim A, Habil H, Jesjeet SG, Low CC, Joseph J, Jambunathan ST, et al.
    Hum Psychopharmacol, 2006 Jul;21(5):313-8.
    PMID: 16856220
    In this open-label pilot study, 20 adult patients hospitalized for acute bipolar mania received oral quetiapine as a single evening dose of 200 mg on day 1, increased by 200 mg/day on days 2, 3, and 4 until 800 mg/day taken in 2 divided doses on day 4. From day 5 onward, patients received a flexible total dose of 400-800 mg/day until completion of 3 weeks of treatment. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse-event (AE)-related dropouts in week 1, incidence of AEs including EPS, changes in electrocardiogram, and vital signs. Efficacy was assessed using the YMRS, PANSS, and CGI scales. Nineteen of 20 patients (95%) completed the quetiapine rapid titration during week 1. Significant improvement was observed in YMRS, PANSS, and CGI Severity of Illness scores by day 5, and was maintained throughout the study. A reduction of > or = 50% in YMRS score was achieved by 75% of patients by day 7, and maintained to day 21. Overall, 20% of patients discontinued due to AEs. Agitation was the most common cause of AE-related study discontinuation. Thirty-five per cent of patients required dose adjustment due to AEs after rapid dose administration was completed. Most patients tolerated rapid titration of quetiapine to 800 mg/day by day 4 of therapy, with a significant improvement in manic symptoms by day 7 of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  6. Yang X, Kord-Varkaneh H, Talaei S, Clark CCT, Zanghelini F, Tan SC, et al.
    Pharmacol Res, 2020 01;151:104588.
    PMID: 31816435 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104588
    BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis is needed to comprehensively consolidate findings from the influence of metformin on IGF-1 levels. The present study was conducted with the objective to accurately evaluate the influence of metformin intake on IGF-1 levels via a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was carried out in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Embase from inception until June 2019. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95 % CI were applied for estimating the effects of metformin on serum IGF-1 levels.

    RESULTS: 11 studies involving a total of 569 individuals reported changes in IGF-1 plasma concentrations as an outcome measure. Pooled results demonstrated an overall non-significant decline in IGF-1 following metformin intake (WMD: -8.292 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -20.248, 3.664, p = 0.174) with heterogeneity among (p = 0.000,I2 = 87.1 %). The subgroup analyses displayed that intervention duration <12 weeks on children (WMD:-55.402 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -79.845, -30.960, I2 = 0.0 %) significantly reduced IGF-1. Moreover, in age 18 < years older metformin intake (WMD: 15.125 ng/ml, 95 % CI: 5.522, 24.729, I2 = 92.5 %) significantly increased IGF-1 than 18 ≤ years older (WMD:-1.038 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -3.578,1.502,I2 = 78.0 %). Following dose-response evaluation, metformin intake reduced IGF-1 (coefficient for dose-response analysis= -13.14, P = 0.041 and coefficient for liner analysis= -0.066, P = 0.038) significantly based on treatment duration.

    CONCLUSION: We found in children, intervention duration <12 weeks yielded significant reductions in IGF-1, whilst paradoxically, in participants >18 years old, metformin intake significantly increased IGF-1. We suggest that caution be taken when interpreting the findings of this review, particularly given the discordant supplementation practices between children and adults.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  7. Lim SW, Loh HS, Ting KN, Bradshaw TD, Zeenathul NA
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2014 Oct;68(8):1105-15.
    PMID: 25456851 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.10.006
    The pure vitamin isomer, β-tocotrienol has the least abundance among the other vitamin E isomers that are present in numerous plants. Hence, it is very scarcely studied for its bioactivity. In this study, the antiproliferative effects and primary apoptotic mechanisms of β-tocotrienol on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and glioblastoma U87MG cells were investigated. It was evidenced that β-tocotrienol had inhibited the growth of both A549 (GI50=1.38±0.334μM) and U87MG (GI50=2.53±0.604μM) cells at rather low concentrations. Cancer cells incubated with β-tocotrienol were also found to exhibit hallmarks of apoptotic morphologies including membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. The apoptotic properties of β-tocotrienol in both A549 and U87MG cells were the results of its capability to induce significant (P<0.05) double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) without involving single-strand DNA breaks (SSBs). β-Tocotrienol is said to induce activation of caspase-8 in both A549 and U87MG cells guided by no activation when caspase-8 inhibitor, z-IETD-fmk was added. Besides, disruption on the mitochondrial membrane permeability of the cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner had occurred. The induction of apoptosis by β-tocotrienol in A549 and U87MG cells was confirmed to involve both the death-receptor mediated and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. These findings could potentiate the palm oil derived β-tocotrienol to serve as a new anticancer agent for treating human lung and brain cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  8. Moghaddam E, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Lani R, Hassandarvish P, Chik Z, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:5452.
    PMID: 24965553 DOI: 10.1038/srep05452
    Baicalin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, is the main metabolite of baicalein released following administration in different animal models and human. We previously reported the antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined the anti-DENV properties of baicalin in vitro, and described the inhibitory potentials of baicalin at different steps of DENV-2 (NGC strain) replication. Our in vitro antiviral experiments showed that baicalin inhibited virus replication at IC50 = 13.5 ± 0.08 μg/ml with SI = 21.5 following virus internalization by Vero cells. Baicalin exhibited virucidal activity against DENV-2 extracellular particles at IC50 = 8.74 ± 0.08 μg/ml and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 18.07 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Our findings showed that baicalin as the main metabolite of baicalein exerting in vitro anti-DENV activity. Further investigations on baicalein and baicalin to deduce its antiviral therapeutic effects are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  9. Lani R, Hassandarvish P, Chiam CW, Moghaddam E, Chu JJ, Rausalu K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:11421.
    PMID: 26078201 DOI: 10.1038/srep11421
    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back and small joint pain, and debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks and even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based and no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of three types of flavonoids against CHIKV in vitro replication. Three compounds: silymarin, quercetin and kaempferol were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against CHIKV using a CHIKV replicon cell line and clinical isolate of CHIKV of Central/East African genotype. A cytopathic effect inhibition assay was used to determine their activities on CHIKV viral replication and quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to calculate virus yield. Antiviral activity of effective compound was further investigated by evaluation of CHIKV protein expression using western blotting for CHIKV nsP1, nsP3, and E2E1 proteins. Briefly, silymarin exhibited significant antiviral activity against CHIKV, reducing both CHIKV replication efficiency and down-regulating production of viral proteins involved in replication. This study may have important consequence for broaden the chance of getting the effective antiviral for CHIKV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  10. Lani R, Hassandarvish P, Shu MH, Phoon WH, Chu JJ, Higgs S, et al.
    Antiviral Res, 2016 Sep;133:50-61.
    PMID: 27460167 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.07.009
    This study focuses on the antiviral activity of selected flavonoids against the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause incapacitating arthritis in infected individuals. Based on the results of screening on Vero cells, the tested compounds were evaluated further with various assays, including cytotoxicity assay, virus yield assay by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), virus RNA replication assay with a CHIKV replicon cell line, Western blotting, and quantitative immunofluorescence assay. Baicalein, fisetin, and quercetagetin displayed potent inhibition of CHIKV infection, with 50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50] of 1.891 μg/ml (6.997 μM), 8.444 μg/ml (29.5 μM), and 13.85 μg/ml (43.52 μM), respectively, and with minimal cytotoxicity. The time-of-addition studies and various antiviral assays demonstrated that baicalein and quercetagetin mainly inhibited CHIKV binding to the Vero cells and displayed potent activity against extracellular CHIKV particles. The qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence assay, and Western blot analyses indicated that each of these flavonoids affects CHIKV RNA production and viral protein expression. These data provide the first evidence of the intracellular anti-CHIKV activity of baicalein, fisetin, and quercetagetin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  11. Oo A, Rausalu K, Merits A, Higgs S, Vanlandingham D, Bakar SA, et al.
    Antiviral Res, 2018 02;150:101-111.
    PMID: 29269135 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.12.012
    The past decade has seen the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) as a major global health threat, affecting millions around the world. Although fatal infections are rare among infected patients, the occurrence of long-lasting polyarthralgia has a significant impact on patients' quality of lives and ability to work. These issues were the stimuli for this study to determine the potential of baicalin, a bioflavonoid, as the novel antiviral compound against CHIKV. It was found that baicalin was well tolerated by Vero, BHK-21 and HEK 293T cells with maximal nontoxic doses >600 μM, ≈ 350 μM and ≈110 μM, respectively. Antiviral assays indicated that baicalin was the most effective inhibitor when tested for its direct virucidal activity with EC50 ≈ 7 μM, followed by inhibition of virus entry into the host cell, attachment of virus particle to cellular receptors and finally intracellular replication of viral RNA genome. In silico analysis using molecular docking demonstrated close interactions between baicalin and CHIKV envelope protein with considerably strong binding affinity of -9.7 kcal/mol. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that baicalin had the greatest effect on the synthesis of viral negative stand RNA with EC50 ≈ 0.4 μM followed by the inhibition of synthesis of positive-strand genomic (EC50 ≈ 13 μM) and subgenomic RNAs (EC50 ≈ 14 μM). These readings indicate that the compound efficiently inhibits replicase complexes formation but is a less potent inhibitor of existing replicase complexes. Coherent with this hypothesis, the use of recombinant CHIKV replicons harboring Renilla luciferase marker showed that replication of corresponding replicon RNAs was only slightly downregulated at higher doses of baicalin, with EC50 > 100 μM. Immunofluorescence and western blotting experiments demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of expression of different viral proteins. It was also observed that levels of important protein markers for cellular autophagy (LC3) and apoptosis (Bax) were reduced in baicalin treatment groups as compared with untreated virus infected controls. In summary, given its low toxicity and high efficacy against CHIKV, baicalin has great potential to be developed as the novel antiviral compound for CHIKV. In vivo studies to evaluate its activity in a more complexed system represent a necessary step for future analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  12. Mohd Ridzuan MA, Ruenruetai U, Noor Rain A, Khozirah S, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):140-6.
    PMID: 17322815 MyJurnal
    Malaria is a disease which is still endemic and has become a disastrous scourge because of the emergence of antimalarial drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. A new approach in addressing this is in developing a combination drug. This study is to show the enhancement of antimalarial properties, when single compound, goniothalamin combine with standard drug, chloroquine. Based on 4 Day Test, percentage of parasite growth on treated infected mice were determined. Oral treatment with 1 mg/kg BW of chloroquine on experimental mice suppressed 70% and 76.7% of both Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei, respectively. The infection of P. berghei in mice was inhibited less than 50% by goniothalamin individual treatment at all doses in this study. About 27.8% and 18.5% inhibition of infection were observed in P. yoelii infected mice treated with 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of goniothalamin respectively and the suppression exceed more than 50% at higher doses (90 and 120 mg/kg). Combination of 1 mg/kg chloroquine with either 30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg of goniothalamin decreased the parasitemia of P. yoelii infected mice more than 90% and prolong the survival up to 100% after treatment. Similar treatment to P. berghei infected mice only shows about 60% reduction of parasitemia. The study findings showed that antimalarial property of goniothalamin was enhanced by combination with chloroquine at lower dose of each drug.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  13. Zaizuhana S, Puteri J Noor MB, Noral'ashikin Y, Muhammad H, Rohana AB, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):214-9.
    PMID: 17322824 MyJurnal
    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  14. P S L, Miskan MM, Y Z C, Zaki RA
    BMC Anesthesiol, 2017 Oct 11;17(1):137.
    PMID: 29020936 DOI: 10.1186/s12871-017-0430-3
    BACKGROUND: Cough on emergence has been reported as a common adverse reaction with sugammadex reversal. We investigated if staggering the dose of sugammadex will reduce emergence cough in a single-center, randomized, double-blinded study.

    METHODS: A hundred and twenty ASA 1-3 adults were randomly reversed with 1 mg/kg sugammadex prior to extubation followed by another 1 mg/kg immediately after extubation (staggered group), single dose of 2 mg/kg sugammadex (single bolus group) or neostigmine 0.02 mg/kg with glycopyrrolate (neostigmine group).

    RESULTS: We found 70% of patients (n = 28) reversed with single boluses of sugammadex had Grade 3 emergence cough compared to 12.5% (n = 5) in the staggered sugammadex group and 17.5% (n = 7) in the neostigmine group (p dose of sugammadex for reversal will effectively decrease common emergence and early postoperative complications.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR Number ACTRN12616000116426 . Retrospectively registered on 2nd February 2016.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  15. Zabidi Z, Wan Zainulddin WN, Mamat SS, Shamsahal Din S, Kamisan FH, Yahya F, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2012;21(5):501-3.
    PMID: 22517296 DOI: 10.1159/000337406
    To determine the potential antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves (MEMM) using various established rat models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  16. Ponto T, Ismail NI, Abdul Majeed AB, Marmaya NH, Zakaria ZA
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2010 Jul-Aug;32(6):427-32.
    PMID: 20852752 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2010.32.6.1477907
    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder and pharmacotherapy plays a major role in its management. The 1950s and early 1960s saw milestones in the introduction of psychotropic drugs in clinical practice. A review of drug prescriptions in different settings provides an insight into the pattern of drug use, identifies drug-related problems and may be used to compare recommended guidelines with actual practice. This effort led to the evaluation of the drug prescribing pattern of antipsychotics in patients attending the psychiatric clinic at a government hospital. The data from 371 antipsychotic medication prescriptions that included 200 prescriptions for schizophrenia were collected during one month (1rst-31rst August 2008) at the outpatient pharmacy department. The mean age of patients was 35.0 years (SD = 1.131), with a male to female ratio of 2:1. The most widely used oral antipsychotic was haloperidol (16.3%) while the most common depot preparation prescribed was zuclopenthixol decanoate (8.8%). The daily dose of the average antipsychotic prescribed in this clinic was 342.06 mg equivalent of chlorpromazine. There was no relation between the doses received and ethnicity of the patient (Malay, Chinese or Indian). However, there was a significant relationship between the prescribed dose and patient age (P < 0.042). Nearly 32% of the schizophrenia patients were prescribed with atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine (10.8%), risperidone (10.0%), quetiapine (7.6%) and clozapine (3.2%). Monotherapy was given to 73.0% of the schizophrenia patients. The majority of patients also received antidepressants. To conclude, this study gave evidence that physicians had a strong preference for monotherapy with conventional antipsychotic drugs while the use of atypical drugs was less prevalent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  17. Adam Y, Somchit MN, Sulaiman MR, Nasaruddin AA, Zuraini A, Bustamam AA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2009 Jul 6;124(1):154-8.
    PMID: 19375494 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.04.014
    Orthosiphon stamineus has been used in traditional medicine for centuries especially to treat diseases of the urinary system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  18. Taha M, Rahim F, Ullah H, Wadood A, Farooq RK, Shah SAA, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 06 30;10(1):10673.
    PMID: 32606439 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-67414-7
    In continuation of our work on enzyme inhibition, the benzofuran-based-thiazoldinone analogues (1-14) were synthesized, characterized by HREI-MS, 1H and 13CNMR and evaluated for urease inhibition. Compounds 1-14 exhibited a varying degree of urease inhibitory activity with IC50 values between 1.2 ± 0.01 to 23.50 ± 0.70 µM when compared with standard drug thiourea having IC50 value 21.40 ± 0.21 µM. Compound 1, 3, 5 and 8 showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values 1.2 ± 0.01, 2.20 ± 0.01, 1.40 ± 0.01 and 2.90 ± 0.01 µM respectively, better than the rest of the series. A structure activity relationship (SAR) of this series has been established based on electronic effects and position of different substituents present on phenyl ring. Molecular docking studies were performed to understand the binding interaction of the compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  19. Merawin LT, Arifah AK, Sani RA, Somchit MN, Zuraini A, Ganabadi S, et al.
    Res Vet Sci, 2010 Feb;88(1):142-7.
    PMID: 19500810 DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2009.05.017
    Canine dirofilariasis is a common tropical parasitic disease of companion animals, caused by infestation of Dirofilaria immitis filarids within the pulmonary arteries and extending into the right heart. Increased reports of adverse reactions elicited by current microfilaricidal agents against D. immitis such as neurological disorders, circulatory collapse and potential resistance against these agents, warrant the search for new agents in forms of plant extracts. The use of plant extracts in therapeutic medicine is commonly met with scepticism by the veterinary community, thus the lack of focus on its medical potential. This study evaluated the presence of microfilaricidal activities of the aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa Miers on D. immitisin vitro at different concentrations; 10mg/ml, 1mg/ml, 100 microg/ml, 10 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml within 24h, by evaluation of relative microfilarial motility as a measure of microfilaricidal activity. All extracts showed microfilaricidal activity with Z. officinale exhibiting the strongest activity overall, followed by A. paniculata and T. crispa Miers. It is speculated that the microfilaricidal mechanism exhibited by these extracts is via spastic paralysis based upon direct observation of the microfilarial motility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  20. Supardy NA, Ibrahim D, Sulaiman SF, Zakaria NA
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2012 Jun;22(6):872-81.
    PMID: 22573167
    The inhibitory effect of the Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 strain caused by the hexane extract of Halimeda discoidea (Nor Afifah et al., 2010) was further evaluated by means of the microscopy view and its growth curves. The morphological changes of the K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 cells were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) after they were treated at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 0.50 mg/ml) (Nor Afifah et al., 2010) for 12, 24, and 36 h. The results showed the severity of the morphological deteriorations experienced by the treated cells. The killing curve assay was performed for 48 h at three different extract concentrations (1/2 MIC, MIC, and 2 MIC). An increase in the extract concentration of up to 2 MIC value did significantly reduce the number of cells by approximately 1.9 log10, as compared with the control. Identification of the potential compounds of the extract responsible for the antibacterial activity was carried out through the gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GCMS) analysis of the active subfraction, and the compound E-15-heptadecenal was identified and suggested as the most potential antibacterial compound of this extract. The subsequent cellular degenerations showed by the data might well explain the inhibitory mechanisms of the suggested antibacterial compound. All of these inhibitory effects have further proven the presence of an antibacterial compound within H. discoidea that can inhibit the growth of K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
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