Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 827 in total

  1. Singh N, Menon V
    Med J Malaysia, 1975 Mar;30(3):209-13.
    PMID: 1160681
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  2. Mollataghi A, Hadi AH, Cheah SC
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 05;17(4):4197-208.
    PMID: 22481540 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044197
    A new dienamide, (2E,4E)-7-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-ethyl-6-(R)-hydroxyhepta- 2,4-dienamide, named (-)-kunstleramide (1), were isolated from the bark of Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble together with one neolignan: (+)-kunstlerone (2) and seven known alkaloids: (+)-nornuciferine (3), (-)-isocaryachine (4), (+)-cassythicine (5), (+)-laurotetanine (6), (+)-boldine (7), noratherosperminine (8), (+)-N-demethylphyllocaryptine (9). Their structures were established from spectroscopic techniques, most notably 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, OR, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and LCMS-IT-TOF. (-)-Kunstleramide (1) exhibited very poor dose-dependent inhibition of DPPH activity, with an IC₅₀ value of 179.5 ± 4.4 μg/mL, but showed a moderate cytotoxic effect on MTT assays of A375, A549, HT-29, PC-3 and WRL-68 with EC₅₀ values of 64.65, 44.74, 55.94, 73.87 and 70.95 µg/mL, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  3. Kamarudin MN, Mohd Raflee NA, Hussein SS, Lo JY, Supriady H, Abdul Kadir H
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1765-80.
    PMID: 25336920 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S67980
    Alpha-lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant with multifarious pharmacological benefits has been reported to be neuroprotective in several neuronal models and used to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Nonetheless, conclusive mechanisms of alpha-lipoic acid for its protective effects particularly in NG108-15 cells have never been investigated. In this study, the intricate neuroprotective molecular mechanisms by (R)-(+)-alpha-lipoic acid (R-LA) against H2O2-induced cell death in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration were elucidated. Pretreatment with R-LA (2 hours) significantly increased NG108-15 cell viability as compared to H2O2-treated cells and mitigated the induction of apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining. R-LA (12.5-50 μM) aggrandized the reduced glutathione over glutathione disulfide ratio followed by a reduction in the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential following H2O2 exposure. Moreover, pretreatment with R-LA stimulated the activation of PI3K-Akt through mTORC1 and mTORC2 components (mTOR, rictor and raptor) and production of antiinflammatory cytokine, IL-10 which led to the inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and reduction of both Bax/Bcl2 and Bax/Bcl-xL ratios, accompanied by inhibition of the cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, this observation was preceded by the suppression of NF-κβ p65 translocation and production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). The current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of R-LA against apoptogenic and brain inflammatory factors in a neuronal model. These results further advocate the therapeutic potential of R-LA for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  4. Hasima N, Aun LI, Azmi MN, Aziz AN, Thirthagiri E, Ibrahim H, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2010 Oct;17(12):935-9.
    PMID: 20729047 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.03.011
    Medicinal plants containing active natural compounds have been used as an alternative treatment for cancer patients in many parts of the world especially in Asia (Itharat et al. 2004). In this report, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), an analogue of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) on human breast cancer cells. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that AEA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity with an IC(50) value of 14.0 μM within 36 h of treatment on MCF-7 cells, but not in HMEC normal control cells. Both annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed that AEA induced cell death via apoptosis. AEA was also found to induce cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase with no adverse cell cycle arrest effects on HMEC normal control cells. It was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer cells with higher cytotoxicity potency than its analogue, ACA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  5. Zhang J, Ming C, Zhang W, Okechukwu PN, Morak-Młodawska B, Pluta K, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:3045-3063.
    PMID: 29123378 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S144415
    The asymptomatic properties and high treatment resistance of ovarian cancer result in poor treatment outcomes and high mortality rates. Although the fundamental chemotherapy provides promising anticancer activities, it is associated with severe side effects. The derivative of phenothiazine, namely, 10H-3,6-diazaphenothiazine (PTZ), was synthesized and reported with ideal anticancer effects in a previous paper. In this study, detailed anticancer properties of PTZ was examined on A2780 ovarian cancer cells by investigating the cytotoxicity profiles, mechanism of apoptosis, and cell invasion. Research outcomes revealed PTZ-induced dose-dependent inhibition on A2780 cancer cells (IC50 =0.62 µM), with significant less cytotoxicity toward HEK293 normal kidney cells and H9C2 normal heart cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) suggests PTZ-induced cell death through oxidative damage. The RT2 Profiler PCR Array on apoptosis pathway demonstrated PTZ-induced apoptosis via intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) and extrinsic (cell death receptor-dependent) pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB and subsequent inhibition of (BIRC6-XIAP) complex activities reduced the invasion rate of A2780 cancer cells penetrating through the Matrigel™ Invasion Chamber. Lastly, the cell cycle analysis hypothesizes that the compound is cytostatic and significantly arrests cell proliferation at G2/M phase. Hence, the exploration of the underlying anticancer mechanism of PTZ suggested its usage as promising chemotherapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  6. Yousuf S, Khan KM, Salar U, Chigurupati S, Muhammad MT, Wadood A, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2018 Nov 05;159:47-58.
    PMID: 30268823 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.09.052
    Acarbose and voglibose are well-known α-amylase inhibitors used for the management of type-II diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, these well-known and clinically used inhibitors are also associated with several adverse effects. Therefore, there is still need to develop the safer therapy. Despite of a broad spectrum of biological significances of pyrazolone, it is infrequently evaluated for α-amylase inhibition. Current study deals with the synthesis and biological screening of aryl and arylidene substituted pyrazolones 1-18 for their potential α-amylase inhibitory activity. Structures of synthetic derivatives 1-18 were identified by different spectroscopic techniques. All compounds 1-18 (IC50 = 1.61 ± 0.16 μM to 2.38 ± 0.09 μM) exhibited significant to moderate inhibitory potential when compared to standard acarbose (IC50 = 1.46 ± 0.26 μM). A number of derivatives including 8-12 (IC50 = 1.68 ± 0.1 μM to 1.97 ± 0.07 μM) and 14-16 (IC50 = 1.61 ± 0.16 μM to 1.93 ± 0.07 μM) were found to be significantly active. Limited SAR suggested that different substitutions on compounds do not have any significant effect on the inhibitory potential. Compounds were found to be mixed-type inhibitors revealed by kinetic studies. However, in silico study was identified a number of key features participating in the interaction with the binding site of α-amylase enzyme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  7. Adegboye AA, Khan KM, Salar U, Aboaba SA, Kanwal, Chigurupati S, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2018 Apr 25;150:248-260.
    PMID: 29533872 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.03.011
    Despite of many diverse biological activities exhibited by benzimidazole scaffold, it is rarely explored for the α-amylase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, 2-aryl benzimidazole derivatives 1-45 were synthesized and screened for in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity. Structures of all synthetic compounds were deduced by various spectroscopic techniques. All compounds revealed inhibition potential with IC50 values of 1.48 ± 0.38-2.99 ± 0.14 μM, when compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 1.46 ± 0.26 μM). Limited SAR suggested that the variation in the inhibitory activities of the compounds are the result of different substitutions on aryl ring. In order to rationalize the binding interactions of most active compounds with the active site of α-amylase enzyme, in silico study was conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  8. Liew K, Yong PV, Lim YM, Navaratnam V, Ho AS
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2014 Apr;28(3):335-9.
    PMID: 24291160 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2013.11.008
    Metastasis contributes to the escalating mortality rate among cancer patients worldwide. The search for novel and more effective anti-metastatic agent is crucial owing to the lack of anticancer drugs that can successfully combat metastasis. Hence, this study aims to examine the effects of 2-Methoxy-1,4-Naphthoquinone (MNQ) towards the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. In invasion assays, the number of cells permeating across a Matrigel barrier was found to be decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon treatment with MNQ (0-7.5 μM). In wound-healing migration assays, MNQ exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cell migration in which significant reduction in the zone of closure was observed as compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, the proteolytic activity of a pivotal metastatic mediator, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was also downregulated by MNQ as determined by gelatin zymography. This study reports for the first time, the ability of MNQ to inhibit the invasion and migration characteristics of a highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  9. Arshad T, Khan KM, Rasool N, Salar U, Hussain S, Asghar H, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2017 06;72:21-31.
    PMID: 28346872 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.03.007
    On the basis of previous report on promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 5-bromo-2-aryl benzimidazole derivatives, these derivatives were further screened for urease inhibitory and cytotoxicity activity in order to get more potent and non-cytotoxic potential dual inhibitor for the patients suffering from diabetes as well as peptic ulcer. In this study, all compounds showed varying degree of potency in the range of (IC50=8.15±0.03-354.67±0.19μM) as compared to standard thiourea (IC50=21.25±0.15μM). It is worth mentioning that derivatives 7 (IC50=12.07±0.05μM), 8 (IC50=10.57±0.12μM), 11 (IC50=13.76±0.02μM), 14 (IC50=15.70±0.12μM) and 22 (IC50=8.15±0.03μM) were found to be more potent inhibitors than standard. All compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxicity towards 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line and found to be completely non-toxic. Previously benzimidazole 1-25 were also showed α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. In silico studies were performed on the lead molecules i.e.2, 7, 8, 11, 14, and 22, in order to rationalize the binding interaction of compounds with the active site of urease enzyme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  10. Al-Dualimi DW, Shah Abdul Majid A, Al-Shimary SFF, Al-Saadi AA, Al Zarzour R, Asif M, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2018 Jan;41(1):82-88.
    PMID: 28635332 DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2017.1317785
    Herbal products contain a variety of compounds which may be useful in protecting against cellular damage caused by mutagens. Orthosiphon stamineus (O.s) also known as Cat whiskers. The herb has been shown anti-oxidative properties and can modulate key cellular proteins that have cytoprotective effect. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1) of 50% ethanol extract of O.s (Et. O.s) on micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), Polychromatic to normachromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE), Mitotic index (MI), and Chromosomal aberration (CA) in Bab/c mice. Moreover, these parameters were used to evaluate the anti-genotoxic and clastogenic potencies of (Et. O.s) against mitomycin c (MMC) that interact with biological molecules and induce genotoxic and clastogenic disorders in non-tumor cells. MMC (4 mg kg-1) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the mice before and after treatment with three different doses of (Et. O.s). The results indicated that the extract at different doses did not show significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences in (MNPCE), (PCE/NCE) ratios, and (CA) values. The higher doses sowed high (MI) values compared with untreated control group. MMC showed significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in (MNPCE), (CA) and reduce (PCE/NCE) and (MI) values compared with untreated control group. Treatment with (Et. O.s) at different doses before and after MMC injection showed to modulate MNPCE, PCE/NCE ratios, CA and MI values in mice bone marrow cells suggesting genoprotective potential of this plant extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  11. Vijayanathan Y, Lim FT, Lim SM, Long CM, Tan MP, Majeed ABA, et al.
    Neurotox Res, 2017 Oct;32(3):496-508.
    PMID: 28707266 DOI: 10.1007/s12640-017-9778-x
    Conventional mammalian models of neurodegeneration are often limited by futile axonogenesis with minimal functional recuperation of severed neurons. The emergence of zebrafish, a non-mammalian model with excellent neuroregenerative properties, may address these limitations. This study aimed to establish an adult zebrafish-based, neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model and subsequently validate the regenerative capability of dopaminergic neurons (DpN). The DpN of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were lesioned by microinjecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxin (6.25, 12.5, 18.75, 25, 37.5, 50 and 100 mg/kg) into the ventral diencephalon (Dn). This was facilitated by an optimised protocol that utilised 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanineperchlorate (DiI) dye to precisely identify the injection site. Immunostaining was utilised to identify the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) DpN in brain regions of interest (i.e. olfactory bulb, telencephalon, preoptic area, posterior tuberculum and hypothalamus). Open tank video recordings were performed for locomotor studies. The Dn was accessed by setting the injection angle of the microinjection capillary to 60° and injection depth to 1200 μm (from the exposed brain surface). 6-OHDA (25 mg/kg) successfully ablated >85% of the Dn DpN (preoptic area, posterior tuberculum and hypothalamus) whilst maintaining a 100% survival. Locomotor analysis of 5-min recordings revealed that 6-OHDA-lesioned adult zebrafish were significantly (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  12. Tan BS, Kang O, Mai CW, Tiong KH, Khoo AS, Pichika MR, et al.
    Cancer Lett, 2013 Aug 9;336(1):127-39.
    PMID: 23612072 DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2013.04.014
    6-Shogaol has been shown to possess many antitumor properties including inhibition of cancer cell growth, inhibition of cancer metastasis, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and induction of cancer cell differentiation. Despite its prominent antitumor effects, the direct molecular target of 6-shogaol has remained elusive. To identify the direct targets of 6-shogaol, a comprehensive antitumor profile of 6-shogaol (NSC752389) was tested in the NCI-60 cell line in an in vitro screen. The results show that 6-shogaol is COMPARE negative suggesting that it functions via a mechanism of action distinct from existing classes of therapeutic agents. Further analysis using microarray gene profiling and Connectivity Map analysis showed that MCF-7 cells treated with 6-shogaol display gene expression signatures characteristic of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, suggesting that 6-shogaol may activate the PPARγ signaling pathway for its antitumor effects. Indeed, treatment of MCF-7 and HT29 cells with 6-shogaol induced PPARγ transcriptional activity, suppressed NFκB activity, and induced apoptosis in breast and colon cancer cells in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Furthermore, 6-shogaol is capable of binding to PPARγ with a binding affinity comparable to 15-delta prostaglandin J2, a natural ligand for PPARγ. Together, our findings suggest that the antitumor effects of 6-shogaol are mediated through activation of PPARγ and imply that activation of PPARγ might be beneficial for breast and colon cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  13. Lim CP, Md-Redzuan A, Lai YK, Borhanuddin B, Cheah FC
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2017 10;46(10):395-398.
    PMID: 29177368
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug*
  14. Ahmad NA, Jumbri K, Ramli A, Abd Ghani N, Ahmad H, Lim JW
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 05;23(12).
    PMID: 30563037 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123201
    The antiradical efficiency (AE) and kinetic behavior of a new ferulate-based protic ionic liquids (PILs) were described using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. The reduction of the DPPH free radical (DPPH•) was investigated by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 517 nm. The time to reach steady state for the reaction of parent acid (ferulic acid) and synthesized PILs with DPPH• was continuously recorded for 1 h. Results revealed that the AE of 2-butylaminoethanol ferulate (2BAEF), 3-dimethylaminopropanol ferulate (3DMAPF) and 3-diethylaminopropanol ferulate (3DEAPF) PILs have improved compared to ferulic acid (FA) as the reaction class changes from low to medium. This attributed to the strong hydrogen abstraction occurred in the PILs. Furthermore, these PILs were found to have a good kinetic behavior compared to FA due to the high rate constant (k₂) (164.17, 242.84 and 244.73 M-1 s-1, respectively). The alkyl chain length and more alkyl substituents on the nitrogen atom of cation were believed to reduce the cation-anion interaction and speed up the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and electron transfer (ET) mechanisms; hence, increased rate constant was observed leading to a strong antioxidant activity of the synthesized PILs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  15. Chik Z, Basu RC, Pendek R, Lee TC, Mohamed Z
    Clin Ther, 2010 Sep;32(10):1822-31.
    PMID: 21194606 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2010.09.006
    Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin used worldwide for the treatment of various forms of tuberculosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  16. Hong Ng C, Norman TR, Naing KO, Schweitzer I, Kong Wai Ho B, Fan A, et al.
    Int Clin Psychopharmacol, 2006 Mar;21(2):87-92.
    PMID: 16421459
    This prospective 6-week study examined the differences in dosage and steady state plasma concentrations of sertraline in Chinese versus Caucasian depressed patients. Two groups of Chinese patients from different geographical sites and a group of Caucasian patients were evaluated with clinical measures during an initial dose of 50 mg/day, with subsequent doses adjusted clinically. The results of 17 Australian Chinese (ACHI), 13 Malaysian Chinese (MCHI) and 15 Australian Caucasians (AC) were analysed. Despite controlling for weight, the AC subjects received a significantly higher dose than both the ACHI (P = 0.002) and the MCHI groups (P = 0.012). However, the mean sertraline concentration to dose ratios at weeks 1 and 6 were not significantly different between the three groups. Sertraline was effective and well tolerated in both ethnic groups with few adverse events. Although there was a lack of difference between groups in the pharmacokinetic results, Chinese depressed patients appeared to require lower dosages with consequently lower plasma concentrations of sertraline compared to Caucasian patients to achieve clinical efficacy. Further studies of the dosages, kinetics and adverse effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors linked with genotyping are necessary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  17. Alawieyah Syed Mortadza S, Sim JA, Neubrand VE, Jiang LH
    Glia, 2018 03;66(3):562-575.
    PMID: 29143372 DOI: 10.1002/glia.23265
    Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation plays an important part in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emerging evidence supports a role for the transient receptor potential melastatin-related 2 (TRPM2) channel in Aβ-induced neuroinflammation, but how Aβ induces TRPM2 channel activation and this relates to neuroinflammation remained poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms by which Aβ42 activates the TRPM2 channel in microglial cells and the relationships to microglial activation and generation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key cytokine implicated in AD. Exposure to 10-300 nM Aβ42 induced concentration-dependent microglial activation and generation of TNF-α that were ablated by genetically deleting (TRPM2 knockout ;TRPM2-KO) or pharmacologically inhibiting the TRPM2 channel, revealing a critical role of this channel in Aβ42 -induced microglial activation and generation of TNF-α. Mechanistically, Aβ42 activated the TRPM2 channel via stimulating generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of poly(ADPR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Aβ42 -induced generation of ROS and activation of PARP-1 and TRPM2 channel were suppressed by inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC) and NADPH oxidases (NOX). Aβ42 -induced activation of PARP-1 and TRPM2 channel was also reduced by inhibiting PYK2 and MEK/ERK. Aβ42 -induced activation of PARP-1 was attenuated by TRPM2-KO and moreover, the remaining PARP-1 activity was eliminated by inhibiting PKC and NOX, but not PYK2 and MEK/ERK. Collectively, our results suggest that PKC/NOX-mediated generation of ROS and subsequent activation of PARP-1 play a role in Aβ42 -induced TRPM2 channel activation and TRPM2-dependent activation of the PYK2/MEK/ERK signalling pathway acts as a positive feedback to further facilitate activation of PARP-1 and TRPM2 channel. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying Aβ-induced AD-related neuroinflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  18. Shaharir SS, Ghafor AH, Said MS, Kong NC
    Lupus, 2014 Apr;23(4):436-42.
    PMID: 24399814 DOI: 10.1177/0961203313518624
    INTRODUCTION: Renal involvement is the most common serious complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate and determine the associated factors of disease damage among lupus nephritis (LN) patients.
    METHODS: Medical records of LN patients who attended regular follow-up for at least one year in the Nephrology/SLE Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), were reviewed. Their Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index scores were noted. Univariate analysis and multivariable regression analysis were performed to determine the independent factors of disease damage in LN.
    RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were included and their follow-up duration ranged from one to 20 years. Sixty (40%) LN patients had disease damage (SDI ≥1). In the univariate analysis, it was associated with age, longer disease duration, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), higher maximum daily oral prednisolone dose (mg/day), lower mean C3 and C4, higher chronicity index and global sclerosis on renal biopsies (p < 0.05). Patients who received early (≤3 months after the SLE diagnosis) hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), optimum HCQ dose at 6.5 mg/kg/day and achieved early complete remission (CR) were less likely to have disease damage (p < 0.05). After adjustment for age, gender, disease duration and severity, multivariable regression analysis revealed that a higher maximum daily dose of oral prednisolone was independently associated with disease damage while early HCQ and CR were associated with lower disease damage.
    CONCLUSION: Higher maximum daily prednisolone dose predicted disease damage whereas treatment with early HCQ and early CR had a protective role against disease damage.
    KEYWORDS: Antiphospholipid syndrome; lupus nephritis; systemic lupus erythematosus

    Study site: Nephrology/SLE Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  19. Kia Y, Osman H, Kumar RS, Murugaiyah V, Basiri A, Perumal S, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2013 May 15;23(10):2979-83.
    PMID: 23570788 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.03.027
    A series of novel hybrid spiro heterocycles comprising pyrrolizine, spiroxindole and piperidine moieties was synthesized chemo-, regio- and stereoselectively in good yields from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of a series of 1-acryloyl-3,5-bisarylmethylidenepiperidin-4-ones with azomethine ylides generated in situ from 5-choloroisatin and l-proline in methanol. These cycloadducts displayed significant cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Among the compounds screened, 8g and 8e, showed maximum inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) with IC50 values of 3.33 and 3.13μM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  20. Bharkavi C, Vivek Kumar S, Ashraf Ali M, Osman H, Muthusubramanian S, Perumal S
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2016 11 15;24(22):5873-5883.
    PMID: 27687968 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2016.09.044
    A facile stereoselective synthesis of novel dispiro indeno pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman hybrids has been achieved by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides, generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine/thiaproline, on a series of 3-benzylidenethiochroman-4-ones. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial, anticancer and AchE inhibition activities. Compound 4l (IC50 1.07μM) has been found to exhibit the most potent antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine (12 times), pyrimethamine (37 times) and ethambutol (IC50 <1.56μM) and 6l (IC50=2.87μM) is more active than both cycloserine (4 times) and pyrimethamine (12 times). Three compounds, 4a, 6b and 6i, display good anticancer activity against CCRF-CEM cell lines. Compounds 6g and 4g display maximum AchE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 1.10 and 1.16μmol/L respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
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