Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 525 in total

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  1. Shishegaran A, Boushehri AN, Ismail AF
    J. Environ. Manage., 2020 Jun 15;264:110444.
    PMID: 32217322 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110444
    Surfactants are the emerging contaminant and cause a detrimental effect on the ecosystem. In this study, an attempt is made to removal anionic surfactant Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) containing wastewater using hydrophilic polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) (5-15 wt%) modified polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membrane. The influence of operating variables on membrane performance was also sequentially analyzed using tests and three numerical modeling methods such as multiple linear regression (MLR), multiple Ln-equation regression (MLnER), and gene expression programming (GEP). Contact angle value of 10 wt% PVP modified PES membrane decreased up to 23.8°, whereas the neat PES membrane is 70.7°. This study indicates that the required hydrophilic property was improved in the modified membrane. The water flux and porosity also enhanced in PVP modified PES membranes. In performance evaluation, the optimum operating variable condition of transmembrane pressure (TMP), feed concentration, and the temperature is found to be 3 bar, 100 ppm, and 25 °C, respectively. Among the models, GEP has a good correlation with experimental anionic surfactant SDS filtration data. GEP performs better than other model with respect to statistical parameter and error terms. This study provides an insight into an adaptation of novel numerical modeling methods for the prediction of membrane performance to the treatment of surfactant wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  2. Abdullah SRS, Al-Baldawi IA, Almansoory AF, Purwanti IF, Al-Sbani NH, Sharuddin SSN
    Chemosphere, 2020 May;247:125932.
    PMID: 32069719 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125932
    Due to the increasing importance of diesel and petroleum for industrial development during the last century, petrochemical effluents have significantly contributed to the pollution of aquatic and soil environments. The contamination generated by petroleum hydrocarbons can endanger not only humans but also the environment. Phytoremediation or plant-assisted remediation can be considered one of the best technologies to manage petroleum product-contaminated water and soil. The main advantages of this method are that it is environmentally-friendly, potentially cost-effective and does not require specialised equipment. The scope of this review includes a description of hydrocarbon pollutants from petrochemical industries, their toxicity impacts and methods of treatment and degradation. The major emphasis is on phytodegradation (phytotransformation) and rhizodegradation since these mechanisms are the most favourable alternatives for soil and water reclamation of hydrocarbons using tropical plants. In addressing these issues, this review also covers challenges to retrieve the environment (soil and water) from petroleum contaminations through phytoremediation, and its opportunities to remove or reduce the negative environmental impacts of petroleum contaminations and restore damaged ecosystems with sustainable ways to keep healthy life for the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  3. Swinfield T, Both S, Riutta T, Bongalov B, Elias D, Majalap-Lee N, et al.
    Glob Chang Biol, 2020 02;26(2):989-1002.
    PMID: 31845482 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14903
    Logging, pervasive across the lowland tropics, affects millions of hectares of forest, yet its influence on nutrient cycling remains poorly understood. One hypothesis is that logging influences phosphorus (P) cycling, because this scarce nutrient is removed in extracted timber and eroded soil, leading to shifts in ecosystem functioning and community composition. However, testing this is challenging because P varies within landscapes as a function of geology, topography and climate. Superimposed upon these trends are compositional changes in logged forests, with species with more acquisitive traits, characterized by higher foliar P concentrations, more dominant. It is difficult to resolve these patterns using traditional field approaches alone. Here, we use airborne light detection and ranging-guided hyperspectral imagery to map foliar nutrient (i.e. P, nitrogen [N]) concentrations, calibrated using field measured traits, over 400 km2 of northeastern Borneo, including a landscape-level disturbance gradient spanning old-growth to repeatedly logged forests. The maps reveal that canopy foliar P and N concentrations decrease with elevation. These relationships were not identified using traditional field measurements of leaf and soil nutrients. After controlling for topography, canopy foliar nutrient concentrations were lower in logged forest than in old-growth areas, reflecting decreased nutrient availability. However, foliar nutrient concentrations and specific leaf area were greatest in relatively short patches in logged areas, reflecting a shift in composition to pioneer species with acquisitive traits. N:P ratio increased in logged forest, suggesting reduced soil P availability through disturbance. Through the first landscape scale assessment of how functional leaf traits change in response to logging, we find that differences from old-growth forest become more pronounced as logged forests increase in stature over time, suggesting exacerbated phosphorus limitation as forests recover.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem*
  4. Mat Jaafar TNA, Taylor MI, Mohd Nor SA, Bruyn M, Carvalho GR
    J. Fish Biol., 2020 Feb;96(2):337-349.
    PMID: 31721192 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.14202
    We examine genetic structuring in three commercially important species of the teleost family Carangidae from Malaysian waters: yellowtail scad Atule mate, bigeye scad Selar crumenophthalmus and yellowstripe scad Selaroides leptolepis, from the Indo-Malay Archipelago. In view of their distribution across contrasting habitats, we tested the hypothesis that pelagic species display less genetic divergence compared with demersal species, due to their potential to undertake long-distance migrations in oceanic waters. To evaluate population genetic structure, we sequenced two mitochondrial (mt)DNA [650 bp of cytochrome oxidase I (coI), 450 bp of control region (CR)] and one nuclear gene (910 bp of rag1) in each species. One hundred and eighty samples from four geographical regions within the Indo-Malay Archipelago including a population of yellowtail from Kuwait were examined. Findings revealed that the extent of genetic structuring among populations in the semi-pelagic and pelagic, yellowtail and bigeye were lower than demersal yellowstripe, consistent with the hypothesis that pelagic species display less genetic divergence compared with demersal species. The yellowtail phylogeny identified three distinct clades with bootstrap values of 86%-99% in mtDNA and 63%-67% in rag1. However, in bigeye, three clades were also observed from mtDNA data while only one clade was identified in rag1 dataset. In yellowstripe, the mtDNA tree was split into three closely related clades and two clades in rag1 tree with bootstraps value of 73%-99% and 56% respectively. However, no geographic structure appears in both mtDNA and rag1 datasets. Hierarchical molecular variance analysis (AMOVA), pair wise FST comparisons and the nearest-neighbour statistic (Snn ) showed significant genetic differences among Kuwait and Indo-Malay yellowtail. Within the Indo-Malay Archipelago itself, two distinct mitochondrial lineages were detected in yellowtail suggesting potential cryptic species. Findings suggests varying degrees of genetic structuring, key information relevant to management of exploited stocks, though more rapidly evolving genetic markers should be used in future to better delimit the nature and dynamics of putative stock boundaries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  5. Ng CK, Ooi PA, Wong WL, Khoo G
    J. Environ. Manage., 2020 Feb 01;255:109829.
    PMID: 31783208 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109829
    Anthropogenic pressures are causing substantial degradation to the freshwater ecosystems globally and Malaysia has not escaped such a bleak scenario. Prompted by the predicament, this study's objective was to pioneer a river assessment system that can be readily adopted to monitor, manage and drive improvement in a wholesome manner. Three sets of a priori metrics were selected to form the Ichthyofaunal Quality Index (IQI: biological), Water Quality Index (WQI: chemical) and River Physical Quality Index (RPQI: physical). These indices were further integrated on equal weighting to construct a novel Malaysian River Integrity Index (MyRII). To test its robustness, the MyRII protocol was field tested in four eco-hydrological zones located in the Kampar River water basin for 18 months to reveal its strengths, weaknesses, and establish the "excellent", "good", "average", "poor" and "impaired" thresholds based on the "best performer" reference site in an empirical manner. The resultant MyRII showed a clear trend that corresponded with different levels of river impairment. Test site zone A which was a reference site with minimal disturbance achieved the highest MyRII (88.95 ± 4.29), followed by partially disturbed zone B (61.95 ± 5.90) and heavily disturbed zone C (50.00 ± 4.29). However, the MyRII in zone D (59.9 ± 6.39), which was a heavily disturbed wetland that was disjointed from the river, did not conform to such trend. Also unveiled and recognized, however, are some unexpected nuances, limitations and challenges that emerged from this study. These are critically discussed as precautions when interpreting and implementing the MyRII protocol. This study adds to the mounting body of evidence that water resource stakeholders and policymakers must look at the big picture and adopt the "balanced ecosystem" mind-set when assessing, restoring and managing the rivers as a freshwater resource.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem*
  6. Ashikin CN, Rozaimi M, Arina N, Fairoz M, Hidayah N
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2020 Jan;150:110628.
    PMID: 31740184 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110628
    Nitrogen is essential for seagrass productivity but excesses in nitrogen exposure contribute to declines in meadow health. This study reports baseline data of bulk nitrogen loadings and contents in surficial sediments and seagrass tissues to determine the extent of nitrogen inputs in meadows of Sungai Pulai estuary (Johor, Malaysia). The sediment contained relatively low nitrogen loadings (mean range of 91-94 g N m-2) with likely origins from land-based sources. At the meadow-level, Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea serrulata and Thalassia hemprichii are the most important species as nitrogen sinks. The highest δ15N values of seagrass tissues were recorded for T. hemprichii (10.7 ± 0.4‰), which indicated an elevated capacity for internal recycling of nitrogen. The data demonstrates the provision of ecosystem services by the meadows in mitigating excess nitrogen imported into the estuary. Seagrasses health, however, needs to be at optimum levels for the effectiveness of the meadow as a nutrient sink.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem*
  7. Asaduzzaman M, Igarashi Y, Wahab MA, Nahiduzzaman M, Rahman MJ, Phillips MJ, et al.
    Genes (Basel), 2019 12 30;11(1).
    PMID: 31905942 DOI: 10.3390/genes11010046
    The migration of anadromous fish in heterogenic environments unceasingly imposes a selective pressure that results in genetic variation for local adaptation. However, discrimination of anadromous fish populations by fine-scale local adaptation is challenging because of their high rate of gene flow, highly connected divergent population, and large population size. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have expanded the prospects of defining the weakly structured population of anadromous fish. Therefore, we used NGS-based restriction site-associated DNA (NextRAD) techniques on 300 individuals of an anadromous Hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha) species, collected from nine strategic habitats, across their diverse migratory habitats, which include sea, estuary, and different freshwater rivers. The NextRAD technique successfully identified 15,453 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. Outlier tests using the FST OutFLANK and pcadapt approaches identified 74 and 449 SNPs (49 SNPs being common), respectively, as putative adaptive loci under a divergent selection process. Our results, based on the different cluster analyses of these putatively adaptive loci, suggested that local adaptation has divided the Hilsa shad population into two genetically structured clusters, in which marine and estuarine collection sites were dominated by individuals of one genetic cluster and different riverine collection sites were dominated by individuals of another genetic cluster. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the riverine populations of Hilsa shad were further subdivided into the north-western riverine (turbid freshwater) and the north-eastern riverine (clear freshwater) ecotypes. Among all of the putatively adaptive loci, only 36 loci were observed to be in the coding region, and the encoded genes might be associated with important biological functions related to the local adaptation of Hilsa shad. In summary, our study provides both neutral and adaptive contexts for the observed genetic divergence of Hilsa shad and, consequently, resolves the previous inconclusive findings on their population genetic structure across their diverse migratory habitats. Moreover, the study has clearly demonstrated that NextRAD sequencing is an innovative approach to explore how dispersal and local adaptation can shape genetic divergence of non-model anadromous fish that intersect diverse migratory habitats during their life-history stages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  8. Menchaca A, Rossi NA, Froidevaux J, Dias-Freedman I, Caragiulo A, Wultsch C, et al.
    BMC Genet., 2019 12 27;20(1):100.
    PMID: 31881935 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-019-0801-5
    BACKGROUND: Connectivity among jaguar (Panthera onca) populations will ensure natural gene flow and the long-term survival of the species throughout its range. Jaguar conservation efforts have focused primarily on connecting suitable habitat in a broad-scale. Accelerated habitat reduction, human-wildlife conflict, limited funding, and the complexity of jaguar behaviour have proven challenging to maintain connectivity between populations effectively. Here, we used non-invasive genetic sampling and individual-based conservation genetic analyses to assess genetic diversity and levels of genetic connectivity between individuals in the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary and the Maya Forest Corridor. We used expert knowledge and scientific literature to develop models of landscape permeability based on circuit theory with fine-scale landscape features as ecosystem types, distance to human settlements and roads to predict the most probable jaguar movement across central Belize.

    RESULTS: We used 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to identify 50 individual jaguars. We detected high levels of genetic diversity across loci (HE = 0.61, HO = 0.55, and NA = 9.33). Using Bayesian clustering and multivariate models to assess gene flow and genetic structure, we identified one single group of jaguars (K = 1). We identified critical areas for jaguar movement that fall outside the boundaries of current protected areas in central Belize. We detected two main areas of high landscape permeability in a stretch of approximately 18 km between Sittee River Forest Reserve and Manatee Forest Reserve that may increase functional connectivity and facilitate jaguar dispersal from and to Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary. Our analysis provides important insights on fine-scale genetic and landscape connectivity of jaguars in central Belize, an area of conservation concern.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study demonstrate high levels of relatively recent gene flow for jaguars between two study sites in central Belize. Our landscape analysis detected corridors of expected jaguar movement between the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary and the Maya Forest Corridor. We highlight the importance of maintaining already established corridors and consolidating new areas that further promote jaguar movement across suitable habitat beyond the boundaries of currently protected areas. Continued conservation efforts within identified corridors will further maintain and increase genetic connectivity in central Belize.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  9. Stark DJ, Fornace KM, Brock PM, Abidin TR, Gilhooly L, Jalius C, et al.
    Ecohealth, 2019 12;16(4):638-646.
    PMID: 30927165 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-019-01403-9
    Land-use changes can impact infectious disease transmission by increasing spatial overlap between people and wildlife disease reservoirs. In Malaysian Borneo, increases in human infections by the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi are hypothesised to be due to increasing contact between people and macaques due to deforestation. To explore how macaque responses to environmental change impact disease risks, we analysed movement of a GPS-collared long-tailed macaque in a knowlesi-endemic area in Sabah, Malaysia, during a deforestation event. Land-cover maps were derived from satellite-based and aerial remote sensing data and models of macaque occurrence were developed to evaluate how macaque habitat use was influenced by land-use change. During deforestation, changes were observed in macaque troop home range size, movement speeds and use of different habitat types. Results of models were consistent with the hypothesis that macaque ranging behaviour is disturbed by deforestation events but begins to equilibrate after seeking and occupying a new habitat, potentially impacting human disease risks. Further research is required to explore how these changes in macaque movement affect knowlesi epidemiology on a wider spatial scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem*
  10. Davidson G, Chua TH, Cook A, Speldewinde P, Weinstein P
    Ecohealth, 2019 12;16(4):594-610.
    PMID: 30675676 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-019-01395-6
    Defining the linkages between landscape change, disease ecology and human health is essential to explain and predict the emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria, a zoonotic parasite residing in Southeast Asian macaques, and transmitted by species of Anopheles mosquitos. Changing patterns of land use throughout Southeast Asia, particularly deforestation, are suggested to be the primary drivers behind the recent spread of this zoonotic parasite in humans. Local ecological changes at the landscape scale appear to be increasing the risk of disease in humans by altering the dynamics of transmission between the parasite and its primary hosts. This paper will focus on the emergence of P. knowlesi in humans in Malaysian Borneo and the ecological linkage mechanisms suggested to be playing an important role.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  11. Brändle J, Kunert N
    Tree Physiol., 2019 12 01;39(12):1975-1983.
    PMID: 31631217 DOI: 10.1093/treephys/tpz104
    Tree autotrophic respiratory processes, especially stem respiration or stem CO2 efflux (Estem), are important components of the forest carbon budget. Despite efforts to investigate the controlling processes of Estem in recent years, a considerable lack in our knowledge remains on the abiotic and biotic drivers affecting Estem dynamics. It has been strongly advocated that long-term measurements would shed light onto those processes. The expensive scientific instruments needed to measure gas exchange have prevented Estem measurements from being applied on a larger temporal and spatial scale. Here, we present an automated closed dynamic chamber system based on inexpensive and industrially broadly applied CO2 sensors, reducing the costs for the sensing system to a minimum. The CO2 sensor was cross-calibrated with a commonly used gas exchange system in the laboratory and in the field, and we found very good accordance of these sensors. We tested the system under harsh tropical climatic conditions, characterized by heavy tropical rainfall events, extreme humidity and temperatures, in a moist lowland forest in Malaysia. We recorded Estem of three Dyera costulata (Miq.) trees with our prototype over various days. The variation of Estem was large among the three tree individuals and varied by 7.5-fold. However, clear diurnal changes in Estem were present in all three tree individuals. One tree showed high diurnal variation in Estem, and the relationship between Estem and temperature was characterized by a strong hysteresis. The large variations found within one single tree species highlight the importance of continuous measurement to quantify ecosystem carbon fluxes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem*
  12. Han Y, Bai J, Zhang Z, Wu T, Chen P, Sun G, et al.
    Sci. Total Environ., 2019 Nov 10;690:748-759.
    PMID: 31302540 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.508
    Many species of birds gradually adapt to urbanization and colonize cities successfully. However, their nest site selection and competitive relationship in an urban community remain little known. Understanding the impact of urbanization on birds and the competitive relationship has important implications for the conservation and management of wildlife in urban ecosystems. Here, we undertook a systematic study to quantify nests in all species of birds in an urbanizing area of Nanchang, China. A total of 363 nests were detected in surveys including 340 nests of 16 bird species and 23 unidentified species nests. We mainly analyzed 5 dominant breeding birds with a sample size of >10 during the two breeding seasons (From April to July in 2016 and 2017), which included the light-vented bulbul, Chinese blackbird, scaly-breasted munia, spotted dove and grey-capped greenfinch. Most birds (93.66%) nested in the tree of artificial green belts, which seems to be the best breeding habitat for urban birds. Our results suggested that birds' breeding success relies on the trade-off between the benefit and the expense of specific stresses from habitats. The nest site selection of birds is also affected by the life habit of urban predators. Furthermore, competition among species can influence their distributions and utilization of environmental resources when birds nest in cities. We confirmed that the niche differentiation of five bird species in an urban environment makes them coexist successfully by utilizing various resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem*
  13. Khan F, Ahmed W, Najmi A, Younus M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Nov;26(32):33054-33066.
    PMID: 31512138 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06411-4
    The rapid increase in urbanization has given rise to the need of proper waste management. Within municipal waste, the plastic waste is a growing concern which is causing severe harm to our ecosystem. If ignored, this problem will have harmful effects on both human and wildlife. Therefore, this study aims to find out the factors that influence the recycling behavior patterns of consumers regarding plastic waste. The variables from the theory of planned behavior were adopted to study the behavior of consumers toward recycling plastic waste. The data was collected from 243 residents of Karachi-metropolitan city of Pakistan. The partial least square-structural equation modelling was applied to analyze the data. The findings of the current study reveal that different consumers' attributes and attitudes trigger different types of recycling behavior when it comes to waste disposal. Pressure from family and friends and perceived behavioral control trigger the behavior of reselling the waste plastic products while consumer's awareness of consequences and personal attitude toward proper waste disposal leads to reuse or donating that product to someone who can use that plastic product. The understanding of these consumer attributes may help to shape the behavioral outcomes in order to manage waste disposal. This study will be beneficial for business managers looking to improve reverse logistics as well as government/municipal policy makers and academics/researchers who are interested in a solution-oriented study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  14. Peng W, Sonne C, Lam SS, Ok YS, Alstrup AKO
    Environ. Res., 2019 Nov 01.
    PMID: 31732170 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108887
    The Amazon rainforest has sustained human existence for more than 10,000 years. Part of this has been the way that the forest controls regional climate including precipitation important for the ecosystem as well as agroforestry and farming. In addition, the Amazon also affects the global weather systems, so cutting down the rainforest significantly increases the effects of climate change, threatening the world's biodiversity and causing local desertification and soil erosion. The current fire activities and deforestation in the Amazon rainforest therefore have consequences for global sustainability. In the light of this, the current decisions made in Brazil regarding an increase in Amazon deforestation require policy changes if the global ecosystems and biodiversity are not to be set to collapse. There is only one way to move forward and that is to increase efforts in sustainable development of the region including limitation in deforestation and to continuously measure and monitor the development. The G7 countries have offered Brazil financial support for at least 20 million euros for fighting the forest fires but the president denies receiving such financial support and says that it is more relevant to raise new forests in Europe. In fact, this is exactly what is happening in Denmark and China in order to reduce climate change. Such activities should be global and include South America, Europe, Africa and Asia where deforestation is important issue. Forest restoration reduces climate change, desertification, and preserves both the regional tropical and global environment if the wood is not burned at a later stage but instead used in e.g. roads as filling material. Changes are therefore needed through improved international understanding and agreements to better avoid the global climate changes, from cutting down the precious rainforest before it is too late as rainforest cannot be re-planted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  15. Mustapa NI, Yong HL, Lee LK, Lim ZF, Lim HC, Teng ST, et al.
    Harmful Algae, 2019 Nov;89:101671.
    PMID: 31672230 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2019.101671
    Species of the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus produce polyether neurotoxins that caused ciguatera fish/shellfish poisoning in human. The toxins enter marine food webs by foraging of herbivores on the biotic substrates like macroalgae that host the toxic dinoflagellates. Interaction of Gambierdiscus and their macroalgal substrate hosts is believed to shape the tendency of substrate preferences and habitat specialization. This was supported by studies that manifested epiphytic preferences and behaviors in Gambierdiscus species toward different macroalgal hosts. To further examine the supposition, a laboratory-based experimental study was conducted to examine the growth, epiphytic behaviors and host preferences of three Gambierdiscus species towards four macroalgal hosts over a culture period of 40 days. The dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus balechii, G. caribaeus, and a new ribotype, herein designated as Gambierdiscus type 7 were initially identified based on the thecal morphology and molecular characterization. Our results showed that Gambierdiscus species tested in this study exhibited higher growth rates in the presence of macroalgal hosts. Growth responses and attachment behaviors, however, differed among different species and strains of Gambierdiscus over different macroalgal substrate hosts. Cells of Gambierdiscus mostly attached to substrate hosts at the beginning of the experiments but detached at the later time. Localized Gambierdiscus-host interactions, as demonstrated in this study, could help to better inform efforts of sampling and monitoring of this benthic toxic dinoflagellate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  16. Fornace KM, Alexander N, Abidin TR, Brock PM, Chua TH, Vythilingam I, et al.
    Elife, 2019 10 22;8.
    PMID: 31638575 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.47602
    Human movement into insect vector and wildlife reservoir habitats determines zoonotic disease risks; however, few data are available to quantify the impact of land use on pathogen transmission. Here, we utilise GPS tracking devices and novel applications of ecological methods to develop fine-scale models of human space use relative to land cover to assess exposure to the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysian Borneo. Combining data with spatially explicit models of mosquito biting rates, we demonstrate the role of individual heterogeneities in local space use in disease exposure. At a community level, our data indicate that areas close to both secondary forest and houses have the highest probability of human P. knowlesi exposure, providing quantitative evidence for the importance of ecotones. Despite higher biting rates in forests, incorporating human movement and space use into exposure estimates illustrates the importance of intensified interactions between pathogens, insect vectors and people around habitat edges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  17. Holzner A, Ruppert N, Swat F, Schmidt M, Weiß BM, Villa G, et al.
    Curr. Biol., 2019 Oct 21;29(20):R1066-R1067.
    PMID: 31639346 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.09.011
    Conversion of tropical forests into oil palm plantations reduces the habitats of many species, including primates, and frequently leads to human-wildlife conflicts. Contrary to the widespread belief that macaques foraging in the forest-oil palm matrix are detrimental crop pests, we show that the impact of macaques on oil palm yield is minor. More importantly, our data suggest that wild macaques have the potential to act as biological pest control by feeding on plantation rats, the major pest for oil palm crops, with each macaque group estimated to reduce rat populations by about 3,000 individuals per year (mitigating annual losses of 112 USD per hectare). If used for rodent control in place of the conventional method of poison, macaques could provide an important ecosystem service and enhance palm oil sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  18. Schepaschenko D, Chave J, Phillips OL, Lewis SL, Davies SJ, Réjou-Méchain M, et al.
    Sci Data, 2019 10 10;6(1):198.
    PMID: 31601817 DOI: 10.1038/s41597-019-0196-1
    Forest biomass is an essential indicator for monitoring the Earth's ecosystems and climate. It is a critical input to greenhouse gas accounting, estimation of carbon losses and forest degradation, assessment of renewable energy potential, and for developing climate change mitigation policies such as REDD+, among others. Wall-to-wall mapping of aboveground biomass (AGB) is now possible with satellite remote sensing (RS). However, RS methods require extant, up-to-date, reliable, representative and comparable in situ data for calibration and validation. Here, we present the Forest Observation System (FOS) initiative, an international cooperation to establish and maintain a global in situ forest biomass database. AGB and canopy height estimates with their associated uncertainties are derived at a 0.25 ha scale from field measurements made in permanent research plots across the world's forests. All plot estimates are geolocated and have a size that allows for direct comparison with many RS measurements. The FOS offers the potential to improve the accuracy of RS-based biomass products while developing new synergies between the RS and ground-based ecosystem research communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
  19. Serrano O, Lovelock CE, B Atwood T, Macreadie PI, Canto R, Phinn S, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 10 02;10(1):4313.
    PMID: 31575872 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-12176-8
    Policies aiming to preserve vegetated coastal ecosystems (VCE; tidal marshes, mangroves and seagrasses) to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions require national assessments of blue carbon resources. Here, we present organic carbon (C) storage in VCE across Australian climate regions and estimate potential annual CO2 emission benefits of VCE conservation and restoration. Australia contributes 5-11% of the C stored in VCE globally (70-185 Tg C in aboveground biomass, and 1,055-1,540 Tg C in the upper 1 m of soils). Potential CO2 emissions from current VCE losses are estimated at 2.1-3.1 Tg CO2-e yr-1, increasing annual CO2 emissions from land use change in Australia by 12-21%. This assessment, the most comprehensive for any nation to-date, demonstrates the potential of conservation and restoration of VCE to underpin national policy development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ecosystem
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