Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

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  1. Leman, Z., Ismail, N., Tai, S.S., Sapuan, S.M.
    ASM Science Journal, 2007;1(2):135-141.
    MyJurnal
    All relevant and essential data of an existing vehicle seat assembly line such as the operating time and processes, material handling system, workstation layout, bill of materials, equipment and hand tools, were collected and analyzed. The time standards for each of the vehicle seat assembly elements were established using work study techniques. A simulation approach was used to determine the productivity and effi ciency of the existing and proposed lines. Simulation technique was also used to determine and identify bottle-necks in both existing and proposed systems. Comparison of the existing assembly line and the proposed assembly line in terms of their productivity and effi ciency are also highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  2. Kulthanan K, Chusakul S, Recto MT, Gabriel MT, Aw DCW, Prepageran N, et al.
    Allergy Asthma Immunol Res, 2018 Jul;10(4):370-378.
    PMID: 29949833 DOI: 10.4168/aair.2018.10.4.370
    PURPOSE: Across Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, (referred to as Asia) approximately 30-53 million individuals of the 151 million employed suffer from allergic rhinitis (AR) and urticaria. It is estimated that approximately 90% of patients with these allergic conditions are insufficiently treated, impacting the socioeconomic burden in terms of absence from work and decreased productivity. This study aims to estimate the socioeconomic burden of allergies in Asia and the cost savings that their adequate management can provide. Due to the limited availability of regional data, this study focused AR and urticaria in selected countries.

    METHODS: Published literature, information from statistical bureaus, clinician surveys and extrapolation of selected data from the European Union were used to determine the socioeconomic costs of AR and urticaria.

    RESULTS: Many patients in Asia suffer from perennial allergies and experience symptoms of AR and urticaria for up to 298 days per year. An estimate of the indirect costs of patients insufficiently treated for AR and urticaria amounts to USD 105.4 billion a year, which equates to USD 1,137-2,195 per patient due to absenteeism and presenteeism. Adherence to guideline-approved treatment can lead to estimated savings of up to USD 104 billion.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that within Asia, the socioeconomic impact of AR and urticaria is similar to that seen in the European Union in spite of the lower wages in Asia. This is due to the mainly perennial allergens prevailing in Asia, whereas the sensitization patterns observed in the European Union are dominated by seasonal exposure to pollen. These results underline the need for governmental initiatives to increase public awareness on the prevention and treatment of these and other allergic diseases as well as greater research funding and large-scale studies to reduce their growing socioeconomic burden in coming years.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  3. Loo HS, Yeow PH
    Appl Ergon, 2015 Nov;51:383-91.
    PMID: 26154237 DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2015.06.007
    The research aims to address the physically loading task and quality and productivity problems in the brazing of coils of air-handler units. Eight operators participated in two intervention studies conducted in a factory in Malaysia to compare the status quo brazing with (1) the use of a new twin-brazing torch that replaced the single-brazing gun and (2) brazing in a sitting position. The outcome measures are related to quality, productivity, monetary costs, body postures and symptoms. After baseline, Interventions I and II were applied for 3 months respectively. The results show a 58.9% quality improvement, 140% productivity increase and 113 times ROI. There was also a reduction in poor work postures e.g. in the raising of the arms and shoulders; bending, twisting and extending of the neck; and bending of left and right wrists, and the back. This research can be replicated in other factories that share similar processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  4. Abu Bakar F, Sazliyana Shaharir S, Mohd R, Mohamed Said MS, Rajalingham S, Wei Yen K
    Arch Rheumatol, 2020 Jun;35(2):205-213.
    PMID: 32851369 DOI: 10.46497/ArchRheumatol.2020.7405
    Objectives: This study aims to assess the self-reported work productivity and activity daily living (ADL) impairment among Malaysian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to examine their associated factors.

    Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 167 SLE patients (21 males, 146 females; mean age 38.2±9.8 years; range, 20 to 60 years) recruited from the outpatient Rheumatology and Nephrology clinics. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to record patients' socio- demographics (age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and occupation) and SLE disease characteristics (system involvement, age onset, and presence of organ damage). Disease activity was assessed using the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K). Short form 36 (SF-36) was used to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) while Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire was used to assess the four domains of absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work productivity, and non-work related ADL impairment. Univariate analyses and multivariable regression analysis examined the association of demographic variables, SLE disease characteristics, and activity with reduced HRQoL and WPAI scores.

    Results: The majority of the patients were Malays (59.3%), followed by Chinese (34.7%) and Indian (3.6%) patients. More than two-thirds of the patients reported some degree of impairment in their work productivity and ADL due to the disease. The absenteeism rate was 10.4% in the past one week and their indirect costs were 2,875.17 Malaysian ringgits (US $701.22) in the past seven days. Significant predictors of higher work productivity and ADL impairment scores were higher disease activity, more frequent SLE flares, lupus nephritis, and hematological involvement of SLE. Patients with higher work productivity and ADL impairment scores were also strongly associated with poor QoL. No ethnic disparities of work productivity and ADL impairment were found.

    Conclusion: Systemic lupus erythematosus significantly affected the overall productivity in work and non-work related activity in our Malaysian multi-ethnic cohort and both impairments were significantly associated with poor QoL.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  5. Othman N, Razak IA
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2010 Oct;22(4):415-25.
    PMID: 20462854 DOI: 10.1177/1010539510370794
    Feedback on satisfaction with dental care is vital for continuous improvement of the service delivery process and outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction with school dental service (SDS) provided via mobile dental squads in Selangor, Malaysia, under 4 domains of satisfaction: patient-personnel interaction, technical competency, administrative efficiency, and clinic setup using self-administered questionnaires. Among the 607 participants who had received treatment, 62% were satisfied with the services provided. In terms of domains, technical competency achieved the highest satisfaction score, whereas clinic setup was ranked the lowest. As for items within the domains, the most acceptable was "dental operator did not ask personal things which were not dentally related," whereas privacy of treatment was the least acceptable. In conclusion, whereas children were generally satisfied with the SDS, this study indicates that there are still areas for further improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational
  6. Yusof K, Neoh KH, bin Hashim MA, Ibrahim I
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(1):29-34.
    PMID: 12597515
    The equitable access to quality healthcare by Malaysians has consistently been the primary objective of the Ministry of Health (MOH). The epidemiological transition to chronic illnesses, advances in medical technology, escalating healthcare costs and rising patient expectations has necessitated the strategic use of information systems in healthcare delivery. Malaysia has broken new ground by implementing a nationwide network to address inadequate access to healthcare, as well as to lower costs and achieve better health outcomes. Teleconsultation refers to the electronic transmission of medical information and services from one site to another using telecommunication technologies. This technology transforms the healthcare system by rapidly matching patient needs with the appropriate level of care however geographically remote they may be. Our findings suggest that even in these early stages of implementation, teleconsultation has led to cost savings, a more efficient allocation of resources, enhanced diagnostic options and better health outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational
  7. Merican MI, bin Yon R
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(1):17-22.
    PMID: 12597513
    Health care reform is an intentional, sustained and systematic process of structural change to one or more health subsystems to improve efficiency, effectiveness, patient choices and equity. Health care all over the world is continuously reforming with time. Health care reform has become an increasingly important agenda for policy change in both developed and developing countries including Malaysia. This paper provides an overview of the Malaysian health care system, its achievements, and issues and challenges leading to ongoing reform towards a more efficient and equitable health care system that possess a better quality of life for the population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational
  8. Tan BA
    Asia Pac Popul J, 1987 Jun;2(2):45-66.
    PMID: 12341280
    PIP: The findings of the final phase of a 3-phase multivariate areal analysis study undertaken by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in 5 countries of the Asian and Pacific Region, including Malaysia, to examine the impact of family planning programs on fertility and reproduction are reported. The study used Malaysia's administrative district as the unit of analysis because the administration and implementation of socioeconomic development activities, as well as the family planning program, depend to a large extent on the decisions of local organizations at the district or state level. In phase 1, existing program and nonprogram data were analyzed using the multivariate technique to separate the impact of the family planning program net of other developmental efforts. The methodology in the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth investigation of selected areas in order to discern the dynamics and determinants of efficiency. The insights gained in phase 2 regarding dynamics of performance were used in phase 3 to refine the input variables of the phase 1 model. Thereafter, the phase 1 analysis was repeated. Insignificant variables and factors were trimmed in order to present a simplified model for studying the impact of environmental, socioeconomic development, family planning programs, and related factors on fertility. The inclusion of a set of family planning program and development variables in phase 3 increased the predictive power of the impact model. THe explained variance for total fertility rate (TFR) of women under 30 years increased from 71% in phase 1 to 79%. It also raised the explained variance of the efficiency model from 34% to 70%. For women age 30 years and older, their TFR was affected directly by the ethnic composition variable (.76), secondary educational status (-.45), and modern nonagricultural occupation (.42), among others. When controlled for other socioeconomic development and environmental indicators, the nonagricultural activities had a positive direct effect on TFR. No direct effects were found to come from other socioeconomic development indicators, once these factors were controlled. The 3 factors that had direct effects on the fertility of women below age 30 were ethnic composition (.33), contraceptive pevalence (-.32), and secondary educational status (-.25). Other family planning program variables (contraceptive knowledge) and socioeconomic development indicators (exposure to modernization as measured by television ownership and health/living conditions as measured by infant mortality rate) affected fertility significantly but indirectly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational*
  9. Zafirah SA, Nur AM, Puteh SEW, Aljunid SM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2018 01 25;18(1):38.
    PMID: 29370785 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-018-2843-1
    BACKGROUND: The accuracy of clinical coding is crucial in the assignment of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) codes, especially if the hospital is using Casemix System as a tool for resource allocations and efficiency monitoring. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential loss of income due to an error in clinical coding during the implementation of the Malaysia Diagnosis Related Group (MY-DRG®) Casemix System in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Four hundred and sixty-four (464) coded medical records were selected, re-examined and re-coded by an independent senior coder (ISC). This ISC re-examined and re-coded the error code that was originally entered by the hospital coders. The pre- and post-coding results were compared, and if there was any disagreement, the codes by the ISC were considered the accurate codes. The cases were then re-grouped using a MY-DRG® grouper to assess and compare the changes in the DRG assignment and the hospital tariff assignment. The outcomes were then verified by a casemix expert.

    RESULTS: Coding errors were found in 89.4% (415/424) of the selected patient medical records. Coding errors in secondary diagnoses were the highest, at 81.3% (377/464), followed by secondary procedures at 58.2% (270/464), principal procedures of 50.9% (236/464) and primary diagnoses at 49.8% (231/464), respectively. The coding errors resulted in the assignment of different MY-DRG® codes in 74.0% (307/415) of the cases. From this result, 52.1% (160/307) of the cases had a lower assigned hospital tariff. In total, the potential loss of income due to changes in the assignment of the MY-DRG® code was RM654,303.91.

    CONCLUSIONS: The quality of coding is a crucial aspect in implementing casemix systems. Intensive re-training and the close monitoring of coder performance in the hospital should be performed to prevent the potential loss of hospital income.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational/economics; Efficiency, Organizational/standards*
  10. Reidpath DD, Olafsdottir AE, Pokhrel S, Allotey P
    BMC Public Health, 2012;12 Suppl 1:S3.
    PMID: 22992346 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-S1-S3
    In the health systems literature one can see discussions about the trade off between the equity achievable by the system and its efficiency. Essentially it is argued that as greater health equity is achieved, so the level of efficiency will diminish. This argument is borrowed from economics literature on market efficiency. In the application of the economic argument to health, however, serious errors have been made, because it is quite reasonable to talk of both health equity being a desirable output of a health system, and the efficient production of that output. In this article we discuss notions of efficiency, and the equity-efficiency trade off, before considering the implications of this for health systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational*
  11. Mohd Suhaimi NAB, de Mey Y, Oude Lansink A
    Br Food J, 2017;119(12):2788-2803.
    PMID: 29720740 DOI: 10.1108/BFJ-11-2016-0549
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study uses multi-directional efficiency analysis to measure the technical inefficiency scores on a sample of 200 farm observations and single-bootstrap truncated regression model to define factors affecting technical inefficiency.

    Findings: Managerial and program inefficiency scores are presented for intensive and semi-intensive production systems. The results reveal marked differences in the inefficiency scores across inputs and between production systems.

    Practical implications: Intensive systems generally have lowest managerial and program inefficiency scores in the Malaysian dairy farming sector. Policy makers could use this information to advise dairy farmers to convert their farming system to the intensive system.

    Social implications: The results suggest that the Malaysian Government should redefine its policy for providing farm finance and should target young farmers when designing training and extension programs in order to improve the performance of the dairy sector.

    Originality/value: The existing literature on Southeast Asian dairy farming has neither focused on investigating input-specific efficiency nor on comparing managerial and program efficiency. This paper aims to fill this gap.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational
  12. Kieny MP, Bekedam H, Dovlo D, Fitzgerald J, Habicht J, Harrison G, et al.
    Bull World Health Organ, 2017 07 01;95(7):537-539.
    PMID: 28670019 DOI: 10.2471/BLT.16.187476
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational
  13. Mokhtar D, Abdullah NA, Roshaizad NA
    Data Brief, 2020 Jun;30:105505.
    PMID: 32368580 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.105505
    This data belongs to a sample of 347 diplomatic officers from two different locations which are the National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN) in Johor and Terengganu. This data consists of the demographic characteristics of the sample and three main variables. Each variable has sub-dimension which are (1) presenteeism: ability to complete a task and avoid disturbance, (2) job demand: workload, emotional and cognitive demand, (3) job insecurity: the importance and probability of an event to take place. The data were collected using a cross-sectional questionnaire via paper-and-pencil mode and was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Pearson correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between avoiding disturbance (sub-dimension of presenteeism) and the probability of an event happening (sub-dimension of job insecurity) and no significant correlation between other variables. Analyses of the data can provide insights into determinants of presenteeism that may be useful for researchers in the field and policymakers that are interested in this area. It may serve as a reference to expand research and to develop interventions to facilitate productivity and well-being in the workplace.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  14. Chan NW
    Disasters, 1997 Sep;21(3):206-22.
    PMID: 9301137
    Institutional aspects of flood hazards significantly affect their outcomes in Malaysia. Institutional arrangements to deal with floods include: legislative activity, organisational structures, attitudes and sub-culture, and policies and instruments. When assessed in terms of four specific criteria, institutional aspects of flood hazards are found to be largely inadequate. Disaster reduction programmes are over-dependent on a reactive approach based largely on technology and not even aimed at floods specifically. Structural flood reduction measures are the predominant management tool and, although the importance of non-structural measures is recognised, thus far they have been under-employed. Current laws and regulations with regard to flood management are also insufficient and both the financial and human resources of flood hazard organisations are generally found to be wanting. Finally, economic efficiency, equity and public accountability issues are not adequately addressed by institutional arrangements for flood hazards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational
  15. Crawford B, Hashim SS, Prepageran N, See GB, Meier G, Wada K, et al.
    Drugs - real world outcomes, 2017 Mar;4(1):21-31.
    PMID: 27888477 DOI: 10.1007/s40801-016-0099-9
    BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) affects both child and parental quality of life (QoL). Data on QoL associated with AOM in Malaysia is sparse, and the burden of indirect costs have not been previously reported.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of pediatric AOM on child and parental QoL in Malaysia and its economic impact (indirect costs).

    METHODS: We utilized a set of QoL questionnaires (PAR-AOM-QOL, OM-6, and EQ-5D) combined with questions addressing work/productivity loss and financial costs associated with caring for a child during his or her illness in an observational, multicenter, prospective study.

    RESULTS: One hundred and ten AOM patients aged ≤5 years were included in the analysis. The majority of respondents were the patient's mother. Parental QoL was negatively affected for both emotional and daily disturbance scales, but the level of disturbance was low. Using OM-6, the greatest negative impact was on the child's QoL, followed by caregiver concerns, physical suffering, and emotional distress. Using EQ-5D, a moderately positive relationship between parents' emotional disturbance and daily disturbance, and a weak, negative correlation between parental emotional disturbance and parental health status was found. Parents with paid employment took an average of 21 h from work to care for their child, at an average cost of 321.8 Malaysian ringgit (US$97) in addition to their contribution to direct medical costs. Productivity losses whilst at work, uncompensated wage losses, and leisure time losses are also reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found that AOM is associated with some negative impact on parental QoL and significant economic impact at both patient and societal levels. The findings provide useful data on healthcare resource utilization and disease burden of AOM in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  16. Dzullijah Ibrahim, Alifah Alyana, Hasrul Hafizuddin Hassim, Yusli Yaakob, Hamid Yusuf
    ESTEEM Academic Journal, 2018;14(1):83-92.
    MyJurnal
    A facility layout can be defined as an arrangement of the equipment area in the
    industry or organization of the factory. The main objective of this project was to
    improve the existing layout in SMEs using DELMIA QUEST simulation. In this
    project, new layouts are proposed to reduce the waiting time in a production
    line and increase the productivity. This study focused on packaging production
    line of a coffee manufacturing company located in Tasek Gelugor Pulau
    Pinang. The problems identified in this production line are limited working
    space, some processes overlap and are stuck due to high demands of the
    products. This results in high lead time. The existing layout was studied and
    simulated to improve certain parameters such as labour, machines, and shape
    of the layout. The workstations were repositioned in the proposed layout before
    undergoing simulation process using DELMIA QUEST software. From the
    simulation results, the significant improvement was determined and the best
    layout was chosen in terms of machines utilization and total output. Based on
    this, a new layout is proposed to increase the productivity capacity and to meet
    customers’ demands. Simulation data of the proposed layout showed its
    productivity had increased to approximately 41.5%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  17. Kamaruzzaman SN, Egbu CO, Zawawi EM, Karim SB, Woon CJ
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 May;187(5):242.
    PMID: 25864077 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4447-0
    It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace's building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants' level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants' satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of "user satisfaction" and "degree of importance." The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants' satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building's appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants' satisfaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  18. Law SH, Moradbeigi M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Oct;24(28):22458-22475.
    PMID: 28803332 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9871-y
    This study investigates whether financial development dampens the negative impact of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Because of substantial cross-sectional dependence in our data, which contain a core sample of 63 oil-producing countries from 1980 through 2010, we use the common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG) estimator to account for the high degree of heterogeneity and drop the outlier countries. The empirical results reveal that oil resource abundance affects the growth rate in output contingent on the degree of development in financial markets. More developed financial markets can channel the revenues from oil into more productive activities and thus offset the negative effects of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Thus, better financial development can reverse resource curse or enhance resource blessing in oil-rich economies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  19. Shair F, Shaorong S, Kamran HW, Hussain MS, Nawaz MA, Nguyen VC
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Apr;28(16):20822-20838.
    PMID: 33405126 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11938-y
    This paper investigates the efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of the Pakistani banking industry and determines the impact of risk and competition on the efficiency and TFP growth. The data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based Malmquist productivity index is used to measure efficiency and TFP growth of the Pakistani banking industry. The generalized method of moments (GMM) model is applied to observe the impact of risk and competition on efficiency and TFP growth. The motivation behind the use of GMM model is its ability to overcome unobserved heterogeneity, autocorrelation, and endogeneity issues. The results of the study show that the credit and liquidity risks have positive while insolvency risk has negative effect on the efficiency and TFP growth. The competition leads to improve technological efficiency but declines the technical efficiency growth. Among other explanatory variables, operational cost management, banking sector development, GDP growth rate, and infrastructure development show significant relationships with various efficiencies and TFP growth. The banks also facilitate for the purchase of carbon-intensive products in order to reduce carbon emissions. Strong banking development successfully allocate their financial resources for the development of energy-efficient technology while banking sector development is found to be negatively related with environmental sustainability. The strong banking sector possesses a significant negative influence on carbon reduction and environmental degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency*
  20. Zhang J, Lu G, Skitmore M, Ballesteros-Pérez P
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jul;28(27):35392-35405.
    PMID: 34018106 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14467-4
    The current world economy needs to undergo a green transformation. Green total factor productivity provides the basis for judging whether a country or region can attain long-term sustainable development. However, there is little research into the factors that influence green total factor productivity and this has become an obstacle in the transition to a greener economy. On filtering relevant articles and interviews data collected from 2009 to 2019, open decoding, spindle decoding, and selective decoding are carried out to classify research conducted into green total factor productivity. From this analysis, cutting-edge research and knowledge gaps in green total factor productivity are identified. Also, an influencing factor model of green total factor productivity is built. Findings suggest that technical, economic, and government are the three main research streams involved in this transformation process. In particular, technology plays a decisive role, economy plays a guaranteeing role, and government plays a regulatory role. Moreover, the impact of these factors cannot be isolated, as each influence and mediate the other two. Results from this study will help further popularize green total factor productivity and provide a new starting point for reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
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