Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

  1. Wang Y, Ghoshal AG, Bin Abdul Muttalif AR, Lin HC, Thanaviratananich S, Bagga S, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2016 May;9:72-77.
    PMID: 27881264 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2015.11.004
    OBJECTIVES: Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases is a cross-sectional, observational study examining the burden of disease in adults with respiratory diseases across six countries. The aim of this study was to describe health care resource use (HCRU), work impairment, cost burden, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) associated with respiratory disease in the Asia-Pacific.

    METHODS: Consecutive participants aged 18 years or older with a primary diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants completed a survey detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity and activity impairment, and HRQOL. Locally sourced unit costs for each country were used in the calculation of total costs.

    RESULTS: The study enrolled 5250 patients. Overall, the mean annual cost for patients with a respiratory disease was US $4191 (SGD 8489) per patient. For patients who reported impairment at work, the mean annual cost was US $7315 (SGD 10,244), with productivity loss being the highest cost component for all four diseases (US $6310 [SGD 9100]). On average, patients were impaired for one-third of their time at work and 5% of their work time missed because of respiratory disease, which resulted in a 36% reduction in productivity. Patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had the greatest impact on HRQOL.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the Asia-Pacific, respiratory diseases have a significant impact on HCRU and associated costs, along with work productivity. Timely and effective management of these diseases has the potential to reduce disease burden and health care costs and improve work productivity and HRQOL.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
    Technology is a tool that influences today’s lifestyle especially in the employment sector. The use of technology in employment may help in increasing the worker’s appraisal. The efficiency can be measured based on the increase of the productivity and the acceptance in using this system to help in upgrading the quality of the product output. It also assists in communication, increasing the worker’s integrity, productivity and the spread of information.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  3. Tan QY, Zomer E, Owen AJ, Chin KL, Liew D
    Tob Control, 2020 01;29(1):111-117.
    PMID: 30610080 DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054677
    BACKGROUND: The loss of productivity arising from tobacco use in low/middle-income countries has not been well described. We sought to examine the impact of cigarette smoking on population health and work productivity in Malaysia using a recently published measure, the productivity-adjusted life year (PALY).

    METHODS: A life table model was constructed using published Malaysian demographic and mortality data. Our analysis was limited to male smokers due to the low smoking prevalence in females (1.1%). Male smokers aged 15-64 years were followed up until 65 years or until death. The population attributable risk, health-related quality of life decrements and relative reduction in productivity due to smoking were sourced from published data. The analysis was repeated assuming the cohorts were never smokers, and the differences in outcomes represented the health and productivity burden conferred by smoking. The cost of productivity loss was estimated based on the gross domestic product per equivalent full-time worker in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Tobacco use is highly prevalent among working-age males in Malaysia, with 4.2 million (37.5%) daily smokers among men aged between 15 and 64 years. Overall, our model estimated that smoking resulted in the loss of over 2.1 million life years (2.9%), 5.5 million (8.2%) quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and 3.0 million (4.8%) PALYs. Smoking was estimated to incur RM275.3 billion (US$69.4 billion) in loss of productivity.

    CONCLUSION: Tobacco use imposes a significant public health and economic burden among working-age males in Malaysia. This study highlights the need of effective public health interventions to reduce tobacco use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency*
  4. Jawahar N, Ponnambalam SG, Sivakumar K, Thangadurai V
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:458959.
    PMID: 24790568 DOI: 10.1155/2014/458959
    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency*
  5. Wong LP, Alias H, Bhoo-Pathy N, Chung I, Chong YC, Kalra S, et al.
    J Headache Pain, 2020 Jun 08;21(1):68.
    PMID: 32513174 DOI: 10.1186/s10194-020-01144-z
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Productivity and monetary loss due to migraine in the workplace may be substantial. This study aimed to determine the impact of migraine on productivity and monetary lost among employees in the banking sectors, in a multiethnic middle income country.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among employees in two multinational banks in Malaysia between April and July 2019. Screening for migraine was conducted using the self-administered ID-Migraine™ questionnaire. Migraine-related disability (MIDAS) and headache frequency were recorded. Impact of migraine on work productivity and activities were evaluated using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Of the 1268 employees who submitted complete responses, 47.2% (n = 598) were screened positive for migraine. Strikingly, the mean percent productivity loss at work (presenteeism) was almost 20-fold higher than the mean percent work time missed due to migraine (absenteeism) (39.1% versus 1.9%). The mean percent productivity loss in regular activity (activity impairment) and overall work productivity loss (work impairment) was 38.4% and 39.9%, respectively. It was also found that the costs related to presenteeism (MYR 5392.6) (US$1296) was 3.5-fold higher than absenteeism (MYR1,548.3) (US$370). Highest monetary loss related to presenteeism was reported in migraineurs with frequency of headache of above 3 days (MYR 25,691.2) (US$6176), whereas highest monetary loss related to absenteeism was reported in migraineurs with MIDAS grade IV (MYR 12,369.1) (US$2973). Only 30% of migraineurs of MIDAS grade IV reported taking prescribed medication. Notably, a vast majority (96%) of migraineurs who had three or lower episodes of migraine per month did not seek treatment.

    CONCLUSION: The significant impact of migraine on work productivity and regular activity, appears to lead to substantial monetary loss attributed to not only absenteeism, but more importantly to presenteeism. This study also highlights the unmet needs in migraine management among employees in the banking sector.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency/physiology*
  6. Lan S, Tseng ML, Yang C, Huisingh D
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Apr 10;712:136381.
    PMID: 31940512 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136381
    "Smart cities" have become the development direction pursued by city leaders to address challenges related to rapid growth in urban areas. The sustainable development of the logistics sector has important practical significance for the evolution of smart cities. This study assessed the inefficiency rate and total factor productivity (TFP) of logistics in 36 Chinese cities from 2006 to 2015. The directional distance function (DDF) and Luenberger productivity index analytical approaches were used to assess the relevant parameters. The results revealed that the logistics system inefficiency rate of the eastern region was much higher than that of the central and western regions, while that of the western region was slightly higher than that of the central region. This study identified the main constraints of the logistics TFP in different regions in China. This finding is used to promote policy-making and investment planning to improve China's competitive advantage. The results documented that the central region of China needs to accelerate logistics reforms and use its location advantage of its location to form an organic connection with the eastern and western regions. Countries can use such metrics to take actions to improve their logistics performance, as such an improvement has a causal relationship with economic development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  7. Basit AA
    J Psychol, 2017 Nov 17;151(8):701-721.
    PMID: 29043913 DOI: 10.1080/00223980.2017.1372350
    In the social context of job engagement, the role of trust in supervisor in predicting engagement of employees has received attention in research. Very limited research, however, has investigated the mechanisms mediating this dynamic relationship. To address this important gap in knowledge, the aim of this study was to examine psychological safety and felt obligation as two psychological mechanisms mediating the effect of trust in supervisor on job engagement. Drawing from job engagement and social exchange theories, the mediating roles of psychological safety and felt obligation in the trust-engagement relationship were empirically investigated in the Malaysian context. Using self-report questionnaires, data were collected from 337 nurses employed in a public hospital located near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results fully supported the proposed serial multiple mediator model. Trust in supervisor was indirectly related to job engagement via psychological safety followed by felt obligation. This study provides empirical evidence that trust in supervisor makes employees feel psychologically safe to employ and express their selves in their job roles. This satisfaction of the psychological safety need is interpreted by employees as an important socioemotional benefit that, in turn, makes them feel obligated to pay back to their organization through their enhanced level of job engagement. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency*
  8. Rehman AU, Hassali MAA, Muhammad SA, Harun SN, Shah S, Abbas S
    Eur J Health Econ, 2020 Mar;21(2):181-194.
    PMID: 31564007 DOI: 10.1007/s10198-019-01119-1
    OBJECTIVES: To find the economic burden of COPD and to identify the key cost drivers in the management of COPD patients across different European countries.

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of mortality and morbidity and is associated with considerable economic burden on the individual and society. It limits the daily activities and working ability of the patients.

    METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic search of PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, Cochrane CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and SAGE Premier Databases to find scientific research articles evaluating the cost of COPD management from patient and societal perspective.

    RESULTS: Estimated per patient per year direct cost in Norway, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Greece, Belgium, and Serbia was €10,701, €9580, €7847, €7448, €7045, €2896, €1963, and €2047, respectively. Annual per patient cost of work productivity loss was highest in Germany as €5735 and lowest in Greece as €998. It was estimated as €4824, €2033 and €1298 in Bulgaria, Denmark and Sweden, respectively. Several factors found associated with increasing cost of COPD management that include but not limited to late diagnosis, severity of disease, frequency of exacerbation, hospital readmissions, non-adherence to the therapy and exposure to COPD risk factors.

    CONCLUSION: Minimizing the COPD exacerbations and controlling the worsening of symptoms may potentially reduce the cost of COPD management at any stage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  9. Chong HY, Mohamed Z, Tan LL, Wu DBC, Shabaruddin FH, Dahlui M, et al.
    Br. J. Dermatol., 2017 Oct;177(4):1102-1112.
    PMID: 28346659 DOI: 10.1111/bjd.15498
    BACKGROUND: A strong association has been documented between HLA-B*15:02 and carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in Asians. Human leucocyte antigen testing is potentially valuable in many countries to facilitate early recognition of patient susceptibility to SCARs.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the cost-effectiveness of universal HLA-B*15:02 screening in preventing carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis in an ethnically diverse Malaysian population.

    METHODS: A hybrid model of a decision tree and Markov model was developed to evaluate three strategies for treating newly diagnosed epilepsy among adults: (i) carbamazepine initiation without HLA-B*15:02 screening (current practice); (ii) universal HLA-B*15:02 screening prior to carbamazepine initiation; and (iii) alternative treatment [sodium valproate (VPA)] prescribing without HLA-B*15:02 screening. Base-case analysis and sensitivity analyses were performed over a lifetime time horizon. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated.

    RESULTS: Both universal HLA-B*15:02 screening and VPA prescribing were dominated by current practice. Compared with current practice, universal HLA-B*15:02 screening resulted in a loss of 0·0255 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at an additional cost of 707 U.S. dollars (USD); VPA prescribing resulted in a loss of 0·2622 QALYs at an additional cost of USD 4127, owing to estimated differences in antiepileptic treatment efficacy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Universal HLA-B*15:02 screening is unlikely to be a cost-effective intervention in Malaysia. However, with the emergence of an ethnically diverse population in many other countries, this may render HLA-B*15:02 screening a viable intervention when an increasing proportion of the population is at risk and an equally effective yet safer antiepileptic drug is available.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  10. Zaidi SZ, Abidi SS, Manickam S
    PMID: 15460713
    This paper presents a case for an intelligent agent based framework for knowledge discovery in a distributed healthcare environment comprising multiple heterogeneous healthcare data repositories. Data-mediated knowledge discovery, especially from multiple heterogeneous data resources, is a tedious process and imposes significant operational constraints on end-users. We demonstrate that autonomous, reactive and proactive intelligent agents provide an opportunity to generate end-user oriented, packaged, value-added decision-support/strategic planning services for healthcare professionals, manages and policy makers, without the need for a priori technical knowledge. Since effective healthcare is grounded in good communication, experience sharing, continuous learning and proactive actions, we use intelligent agents to implement an Agent based Data Mining Infostructure that provides a suite of healthcare-oriented decision-support/strategic planning services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational
  11. Pau A, Omar H, Khan S, Jassim A, Seow LL, Toh CG
    Singapore Dent J, 2017 12;38:45-54.
    PMID: 29229074 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdj.2017.08.001
    BACKGROUND: To quantify participation in dental research activities in Malaysia, and investigate its association with socio-demographic and professional characteristics, and perceptions of research and development (R&D) culture.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental academics in Malaysian dental schools were invited to complete a questionnaire by email and post. The survey comprised questions on research activities in the past 12 months, socio-demographic and professional characteristics, and the R&D Culture Index. Principal components factor analysis was carried out to confirm the factor structure of the R&D Culture Index. Chi-square test was used to identify association of research activities with R&D culture, and socio-demographic and professional characteristics. Binary logistic regression was carried to identify predicators of research activities.

    RESULTS: Of 256 potential participants contacted, 128 (50%) useable responses were returned. Three R&D Culture factors accounting for 57.4% of variance were extracted. More positive perception of R&D Support was associated with Malaysians (0.025) and those employed in Government schools (0.017). R&D Skills and Aptitude were associated with older respondents (0.050), PhD qualification (0.014) and more years in academia (0.014). R&D Intention was associated with any of the socio-demographic characteristics. Thirty (23.4%) respondents reported a peer-review research publication in the past 12 months, which was associated with having a PhD (OR 12.79, CI 1.28-127.96), after adjustment in regression analyses.

    DISCUSSION: Postgraduate research training should be encouraged to promote participation in research activities. R&D culture did not appear to impact on research productivity. Other factors such as individual attitudinal interests should be studied.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  12. Touhidul IASM, Sorooshian S
    Sci Eng Ethics, 2019 10;25(5):1605-1607.
    PMID: 29717466 DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0055-z
    Communication is an essential part of all activities of organizations. However, it is affected by technology. Today, email and social media are popular methods of communication in organizations. Each of the listed methods has advantages and disadvantages which will be discussed in this letter which tries to drive the attention of organizations to the need for a standard and balanced approach toward communication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational*
  13. Rubayah Yakob, Zulkornain Yusop, Alias Radam, Noriszura Ismail
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1439-1450.
    The objective of this study was to identify the exogenous variables of risk and investment management efficiency by using a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. The first stage involves obtaining the efficiency scores of risk and investment management via DEA that requires only the traditional inputs and outputs. In the second stage, the Tobit regression analysis is conducted in which the efficiency score obtained from the first stage is treated as a dependent variable, while the exogenous factors are considered to be independent variables. The exogenous factors consist of operating systems, organizational form, consumer preference and size. The results showed that the mutual company as well as the takaful system demonstrate better risk management performance than their stock and conventional system counterparts. In addition, size is also a significant indicator for risk management efficiency in which the larger insurer/takaful operator exhibits better risk management performance than the smaller one. However, consumer preference is found to be insignificantly correlated with the efficiency of risk management. In contrast, with risk management, organizational form, operating system and size are not indicators of the investment management efficiency, but consumer preference is significantly and positively associated with investment management efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  14. Najmeh Malekmohammadi, Azmi Jaafar, Mansor Monsi
    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a mathematical programming for evaluating the relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs). The first DEA model (CCR model) assumed for exact data, later some authors introduced the applications of DEA which the data was imprecise. In imprecise data envelopment analysis (IDEA) the data can be ordinal, interval and fuzzy. Data envelopment analysis also can be used for the future programming of organizations and the response of the different policies, which is related to the target setting and resource allocation. The existing target model that conveys performance based targets in line with the policy making scenarios was defined for exact data. In this paper we improved the model for imprecise data such as fuzzy, ordinal and interval data. To deal with imprecise data we first established an interval DEA model. We used one of the methods to convert fuzzy and ordinal data into the interval data. A numerical experiment is used to illustrate the application to our interval model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
  15. Khalid R, Nawawi MK, Kawsar LA, Ghani NA, Kamil AA, Mustafa A
    PLoS One, 2013;8(4):e58402.
    PMID: 23560037 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058402
    M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products). However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES) software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational/statistics & numerical data*
  16. Hasan MZ, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Baten MA
    PLoS One, 2012;7(5):e37047.
    PMID: 22629352 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037047
    The stock market is considered essential for economic growth and expected to contribute to improved productivity. An efficient pricing mechanism of the stock market can be a driving force for channeling savings into profitable investments and thus facilitating optimal allocation of capital. This study investigated the technical efficiency of selected groups of companies of Bangladesh Stock Market that is the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) market, using the stochastic frontier production function approach. For this, the authors considered the Cobb-Douglas Stochastic frontier in which the technical inefficiency effects are defined by a model with two distributional assumptions. Truncated normal and half-normal distributions were used in the model and both time-variant and time-invariant inefficiency effects were estimated. The results reveal that technical efficiency decreased gradually over the reference period and that truncated normal distribution is preferable to half-normal distribution for technical inefficiency effects. The value of technical efficiency was high for the investment group and low for the bank group, as compared with other groups in the DSE market for both distributions in time-varying environment whereas it was high for the investment group but low for the ceramic group as compared with other groups in the DSE market for both distributions in time-invariant situation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Hossain MK, Kamil AA, Baten MA, Mustafa A
    PLoS One, 2012;7(10):e46081.
    PMID: 23077500 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046081
    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989-2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency*
  18. Hasan MZ, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Baten MA
    PLoS One, 2012;7(8):e42215.
    PMID: 22900009 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042215
    Banking system plays an important role in the economic development of any country. Domestic banks, which are the main components of the banking system, have to be efficient; otherwise, they may create obstacle in the process of development in any economy. This study examines the technical efficiency of the Malaysian domestic banks listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market over the period 2005-2010. A parametric approach, Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), is used in this analysis. The findings show that Malaysian domestic banks have exhibited an average overall efficiency of 94 percent, implying that sample banks have wasted an average of 6 percent of their inputs. Among the banks, RHBCAP is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.986 and PBBANK is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.918. The results also show that the level of efficiency has increased during the period of study, and that the technical efficiency effect has fluctuated considerably over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency, Organizational/economics*
  19. Ur Rehman A, Hassali MAA, Muhammad SA, Shakeel S, Chin OS, Ali IABH, et al.
    Pharmacoecon Open, 2021 Mar;5(1):35-44.
    PMID: 32291727 DOI: 10.1007/s41669-020-00214-x
    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires long-term pharmacological and non-pharmacological management that encompasses continuous economic burden on patients and society, and also results in productivity losses due to compromised quality of life. Among working-age patients, COPD is the 11th leading cause of work productivity loss.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of COPD in Malaysia, including direct costs for the management of COPD and indirect costs due to productivity losses for COPD patients.

    METHODOLOGY: Overall, 150 patients with an established diagnosis of COPD were followed-up for a period of 1 year from August 2018 to August 2019. An activity-based costing, 'bottom-up' approach was used to calculate direct costs, while indirect costs of patients were assessed using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The mean annual per-patient direct cost for the management of COPD was calculated as US$506.92. The mean annual costs per patient in the management phase, emergency department visits, and hospital admissions were reported as US$395.65, US$86.4, and US$297.79, respectively; 31.66% of COPD patients visited the emergency department and 42.47% of COPD patients were admitted to the hospital due to exacerbation. The annual mean indirect cost per patient was calculated as US$1699.76. Productivity losses at the workplace were reported as 31.87% and activity limitations were reported as 17.42%.

    CONCLUSION: Drugs and consumables costs were the main cost-driving factors in the management of COPD. The higher ratio of indirect cost to direct medical costs shows that therapeutic interventions aimed to prevent work productivity losses may reduce the economic burden of COPD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Efficiency
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