Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 226 in total

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  1. Faisal T, Tan KY, Tan NH, Sim SM, Gnanathasan CA, Tan CH
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis, 2021 Apr 30;27:e20200177.
    PMID: 33995514 DOI: 10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2020-0177
    Background: The western Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is widely distributed in South Asia, and geographical venom variation is anticipated among distant populations. Antivenoms used for Russell's viper envenomation are, however, raised typically against snakes from Southern India. The present study investigated and compared the venom proteomes of D. russelii from Sri Lanka (DrSL) and India (DrI), the immunorecognition of Indian VINS Polyvalent Antivenom (VPAV) and its efficacy in neutralizing the venom toxicity.

    Methods: The venoms of DrSL and DrI were decomplexed with C18 high-performance liquid chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The proteins fractionated were identified through nano-ESI-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). The immunological studies were conducted with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The neutralization of the venom procoagulant effect was evaluated in citrated human plasma. The neutralization of the venom lethality was assessed in vivo in mice adopting the WHO protocol.

    Results: DrSL and DrI venom proteomes showed comparable major protein families, with phospholipases A2 (PLA2) being the most abundant (> 60% of total venom proteins) and diverse (six protein forms identified). Both venoms were highly procoagulant and lethal (intravenous median lethal dose in mice, LD50 = 0.24 and 0.32 µg/g, for DrSL and DrI, respectively), while lacking hemorrhagic and anticoagulant activities. VPAV was immunoreactive toward DrSL and DrI venoms, indicating conserved protein antigenicity in the venoms. The high molecular weight venom proteins were, however, more effectively immunorecognized than small ones. VPAV was able to neutralize the coagulopathic and lethal effects of the venoms moderately.

    Conclusion: Considering that a large amount of venom can be injected by Russell's viper during envenomation, the potency of antivenom can be further improved for optimal neutralization and effective treatment. Region-specific venoms and key toxins may be incorporated into the immunization procedure during antivenom production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  2. Hui Yan T, Lim SJ, Babji AS, Rawi MH, Sarbini SR
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Apr 01;175:422-431.
    PMID: 33561458 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.007
    Bioactive edible swiftlet's nest (ESN) sialylated-mucin (SiaMuc) hydrolysate is produced by alcalase hydrolysis. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ESN breakdown high-valued ESN SiaMuc-glycoprotein into bioactive SiaMuc-glycopeptide. This is a breakthrough for the issue of insolubility and low extraction rate in ESN, and even increases the bioavailability of ESN nutritional functionality and health benefits. Hydrolysis of ESN SiaMuc-glycoprotein was performed for 1 to 4 h and its effect on physicochemical properties, molecular weight (MW) distribution, SiaMuc-glycoprotein and glycopeptide integrity were determined. Other than improvement in solubility and bioavailability as SiaMuc-glycopeptide, results from SDS-PAGE revealed that MW of SiaMuc-glycoprotein decreased from 42.0-148.8 kDa to 17.7-142.7 kDa with increasing hydrolysis period. Further hydrolysis from maximized DH (90 min) showed an insignificant effect on the MW of ESN SiaMuc-glycopeptide and remained constant at 15.2 kDa. This highlights that enzymatic hydrolysis only influences macro SiaMuc-glycoprotein fractions (142.7, 115.3 and 102.7 kDa), while the majority of SiaMuc-glycopeptide fractions from 36.6-98.6 kDa remained intact. Conclusively, alcalase hydrolysis of ESN showed high recovery in the form of bioactive ESN SiaMuc-glycopeptide. Therefore, enzymatic biotechnology is an economic alternative applicable on ESN that broaden industrial utilization by reducing the MW without destroying the quality of bioactive SiaMuc-glycoprotein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  3. Jalil MTM, Ibrahim D
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2021 Mar;32(1):1-22.
    PMID: 33936548 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2021.32.1.1
    In the present study, pectinase was produced by local fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger LFP-1 grown on pomelo peels as a sole carbon source under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The purification process begins with the concentration of crude enzyme using ammonium sulfate precipitation and followed by purification using anion-exchange column chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex) and subsequently using gel filtration column chromatography (Sephadex G-100). On the other hand, the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was determined through SDS-PAGE. The findings revealed the crude enzyme was purified up to 75.89 folds with a specific activity of 61.54 U/mg and the final yield obtained was 0.01%. The molecular mass of the purified pectinase was 48 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature were 3.5 and 50°C, respectively. This enzyme was stable at a range of pH 3.5 to 4.5 and a relatively high temperature (40°C-50°C) for 100 min. The Km and Vmax were found to be 3.89 mg/mL and 1701 U/mg, respectively. Meanwhile, pectin from citrus fruit and the metal ion (Co2+) were the best substrate and inducer to enhance pectinase yield, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  4. Chellathurai MS, Ling VWT, Palanirajan VK
    Turk J Pharm Sci, 2021 Feb 25;18(1):96-103.
    PMID: 33634684 DOI: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2020.21033
    Objectives: Microneedle transdermal patches are a combination of hypodermic needles and transdermal patches used to overcome the individual limitations of both injections and patches. The objective of this study was to design a minimally invasive, biodegradable polymeric recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) microneedle array and evaluate the prepared biodegradable microneedles using in vitro techniques.

    Materials and Methods: Biodegradable polymeric microneedle arrays were fabricated out of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) using the micromolding technique under aseptic conditions, and the morphology of the microneedles was characterized using light microscopy. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to rule out drug-polymer interactions. Standard procedures were used to analyze the prepared microneedle arrays for in vitro drug release and to perform a microneedle insertion test. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify rHuKGF.

    Results: The PLGA polymer was safe for use in the fabrication of rHuKGF microneedles as there was no interaction between the drug and the polymer. The fabricated rHuKGF microneedle arrays had fully formed microneedles with a height of 600 µm and a base of 300 µm. The drug from the microneedle patch was released in vitro within 30 minutes. The strength of the microneedles in the patch was good, as they were able to reach a depth of 381±3.56 µm into parafilm without any structural change or fracture.

    Conclusion: Microneedle transdermal patches were successfully prepared for rHuKGF, and their evaluation suggested excellent quality and uniformity of patch characteristics. This can have potential applications in the therapeutic arena, offering advantages in terms of reduced dosing frequency, improved patient compliance, and bioavailability.

    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  5. Jasim HA, Misnan R, Yadzir ZHM, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Arip M, et al.
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2021 Feb 11;20(1):76-87.
    PMID: 33639634 DOI: 10.18502/ijaai.v20i1.5414
    Crab allergy is reported as a serious form of food allergy in many countries. This study was aimed to identify the major allergens of the local mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica (S. tranquebarica), and subsequently, determine the effect of vinegar treatments on the crab allergens. Crab muscles were treated with synthetic and natural vinegar. Crab proteins were then extracted from the untreated and vinegar-treated crabs. All extracts were then fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and analyzed by immunoblotting; using sera from crab-allergic patients. The crab proteins were then further fractionated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE)and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). The untreated crab had 38 protein bands, while that was only a few bands between 18 to 73 kDa for the vinegar-treated crabs. Immunoblotting of untreated crab revealed 20 IgE-binding bands, whereas the vinegar-treated crabs could only retain a few IgE-binding bands. Five major allergens were identified with molecular weightsof38, 42, 49, 63, and 73 kDa in the untreated crab. In contrast, the vinegar-treated crabs had only a few major allergens with molecular weights of 38, 42, and 73 kDa. MS identified the 43 and 49 kDa as arginine kinase, while the 38, 63, and 73 kDa were identified as tropomyosin, actin, and hemocyanin, respectively. Inconclusion, we found three common major allergens for S. tranquebarica including tropomyosin, arginine kinase, and actin, and one novel allergen known as hemocyanin. All the major allergens could retain minimal allergenic capability in vinegar-treated crabs, suggesting that vinegar treatments might be useful to reduce crab allergenicity. These data would assist the clinicians in the management of crab-allergic patients worldwide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  6. Zainudin MAM, Jongberg S, Lund MN
    Food Chem, 2021 Jan 01;334:127611.
    PMID: 32712493 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127611
    Plant polyphenols applied as natural antioxidant ingredients, are known to bind to cysteine residues on meat proteins. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of light exposure on the formation of cysteine-phenol adduct in meat added 4-methylcatechol (4MC), a model polyphenol, during storage through quantitative LC-MS/MS-based analysis. Cysteine-4-methylcatechol adduct (Cys-4MC) formation in meat added 1500 ppm 4-MC increased significantly (by 50%) when stored under light in oxygen at 4 °C for 7 days as compared to storage in the dark. This was reflected by a significant decrease in thiol concentrations in the same sample. Gel electrophoresis showed loss in myosin heavy chain (MHC), and a resulting increase in cross-linked MHC (CL-MHC) and larger protein polymers in samples added 4MC. Protein blots stained with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) showed intensive protein-polyphenol binding in the meat samples added 4MC, but no major differences between storage conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  7. Tan JS, Abbasiliasi S, Lalung J, Tam YJ, Murugan P, Lee CK
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2021;51(3):260-266.
    PMID: 32876520 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2020.1808793
    This study aimed at purification of phycocyanin (PC) from Phormidium tergestinum using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) comprised of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and salts. The partitioning efficiency of PC in ATPS and the effect of phase composition, pH, crude loading, and neutral salts on purification factor and yield were investigated. Results showed that PC was selectively partitioned toward bottom phase of the system containing potassium phosphate. Under optimum conditions of 20% (w/w) PEG 4000, 10% (w/w) potassium phosphate, 20% (v/v) crude load at pH 7, with addition of 0.5% (w/w) NaCl, PC from P. tergestinum was partially purified up to 5.34-fold with a yield of 87.8%. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the molecular weight of PC was ∼19 kDa. Results from this study demonstrated ATPS could be used as a potential approach for the purification of PC from P. tergestinum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  8. Baharudin MMA, Ngalimat MS, Mohd Shariff F, Balia Yusof ZN, Karim M, Baharum SN, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0251514.
    PMID: 33974665 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0251514
    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have reached epidemic proportions globally. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a continuous supply of antibiotics to combat the problem. In this study, bacteria initially identified as species belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens operational group were re-identified based on the housekeeping gene, gyrB. Cell-free supernatants (CFS) from the strains were used for antimicrobial tests using the agar well diffusion assay against MRSA and various types of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and physicochemical characteristics of the CFS were determined. Based on gyrB sequence analysis, five strains (PD9, B7, PU1, BP1 and L9) were identified as Bacillus velezensis. The CFS of all B. velezensis strains showed broad inhibitory activities against Gram-negative and -positive as well as MRSA strains. Strain PD9 against MRSA ATCC 33742 was chosen for further analysis as it showed the biggest zone of inhibition (21.0 ± 0.4 mm). The MIC and MBC values obtained were 125 μl/ml. The crude antimicrobial extract showed bactericidal activity and was stable at various temperatures (40-80°C), pH (4-12), surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 80, SDS and Triton X-100) and metal ions (MgCI2, NaCI2, ZnNO3 and CuSO4) when tested. However, the crude extract was not stable when treated with proteinase K. All these properties resembled the characteristics of peptides. The antimicrobial compound from the selected strain was purified by using solvent extraction method and silica gel column chromatography. The purified compound was subjected to High Performance Liquid Chromatography which resulted in a single peak of the anti-MRSA compound being detected. The molecular weight of the anti-MRSA compound was determined by using SDS-PAGE and zymogram. The size of the purified antimicrobial peptide was approximately ~ 5 kDa. The antimicrobial peptide produced from B. velezensis strain PD9 is a promising alternative to combat the spread of MRSA infections in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  9. Rahumatullah A, Ahmad A, Noordin R, Lai JY, Baharudeen Z, Lim TS
    Exp Parasitol, 2020 Dec;219:108029.
    PMID: 33096112 DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2020.108029
    Echinococcus granulosus is a worldwide zoonotic infection that causes human cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. The present study describes the isolation and production of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant AgB protein using the developed Human AntibodY Disease ENhanced (HAYDEN)-Filariasis library. The DNA sequences of the isolated clones were analyzed, followed by gene analysis and binding assays. Clone E1 showed a full-length sequence and represents the IgHV5-LV3 antibody gene family. The antibody protein yield was satisfactory, and it reacted specifically against rAgB. The novel E1 protein is potentially useful for the development of an antigen detection assay for CE. The ability of the Brugia malayi immune antibody library to isolate antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus antigens highlights the broad coverage of immune antibody libraries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  10. Chaosap C, Sitthigripong R, Sivapirunthep P, Pungsuk A, Adeyemi KD, Sazili AQ
    Food Chem, 2020 Aug 15;321:126677.
    PMID: 32247180 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126677
    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in goat muscles and their possible relationships with meat quality have not been fully elucidated. This study characterized the MHC isoforms in different caprine muscles using sodium dodecyl sulphate glycerol gel electrophoresis (SDS-GGE). The relationships between MHC isoforms, calpain systems and meat quality characteristics of different muscles in goats were examined. Four muscles, namely infraspinatus (IF), longissimus dorsi (LD), psoas major (PM) and supraspinatus (SS) were obtained from ten Boer crossbred bucks (7-10 months old; 26.5 ± 3.5 kg, BW). The percentages of MHC I, MHC IIa and MHC IIx in SS, IF, PM and LD were 47.2, 38.3, 32.1, 11.9; 28.0, 42.1, 33.0, 36.4; and 24.8, 19.6, 34.9 and 51.7, respectively. IF and SS had higher levels of calpastatin, total collagen and insoluble collagen contents than did PM and LD. PM had longer sarcomere length than did other muscles. LD had higher collagen solubility, troponin-T degradation products and glycogen content than did other muscles. These results infer that variable fiber-type composition could account partially for the differences in the physicochemical properties of goat muscles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  11. Lee PY, Saraygord-Afshari N, Low TY
    J Chromatogr A, 2020 Mar 29;1615:460763.
    PMID: 31836310 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460763
    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is a technique that has been widely applied in a variety of proteomics studies. It is capable of resolving complex protein mixtures into individual protein spots based on their isoelectric point and molecular weight, enabling large-scale analysis of protein expression patterns for deciphering their changes in different biological conditions. 2-DE is a powerful tool that empowers researchers to perform differential qualitative and quantitative proteome analysis and is particularly advantageous for characterizing protein isoforms and post-translationally modified proteins. Despite its popularity as the workhorse for proteomics in the past few decades, it has been gradually displaced by the more sophisticated and high-performance mass spectrometry-based methods. However, there are several variations of the 2-DE technique that have emerged as promising approaches that shine new light on specific niches that 2-DE could still contribute. In this review, we first provide an overview of the applications of 2-DE, its merits and pitfalls in the current proteomic research arena, followed by a discussion on several alternative approaches for potential future applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/trends
  12. Goh XT, Chua KH, Kee BP, Lim YAL
    Trop Med Int Health, 2020 02;25(2):172-185.
    PMID: 31733137 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13348
    OBJECTIVE: Plasmodium knowlesi, the fifth human malaria parasite, has caused mortality in humans. We aimed to identify P. knowlesi novel binding peptides through a random linear dodecapeptide phage display targeting the 19-kDa fragment of Merozoite Surface Protein-1 protein.

    METHODS: rPkMSP-119 protein was heterologously expressed using Expresso® Solubility and Expression Screening System and competent E. cloni® 10G cells according to protocol. Three rounds of biopanning were performed on purified rPkMSP-119 to identify binding peptides towards rPkMSP-119 using Ph.D.™-12 random phage display library. Binding sites of the identified peptides to PkMSP-119 were in silico predicted using the CABS-dock web server.

    RESULTS: Four phage peptide variants that bound to PkMSP-119 were identified after three rounds of biopanning, namely Pkd1, Pkd2, Pkd3 and Pkd4. The sequences of both Pkd1 and Pkd2 consist of a large number of histidine residues. Pkd1 showed positive binding signal with 6.1× vs. BSA control. Docking results showed that Pkd1 and Pkd2 were ideal binding peptides for PkMSP-119 .

    CONCLUSION: We identified two novel binding peptides of PkMSP-119 , Pkd1 (HFPFHHHKLRAH) and Pkd2 (HPMHMLHKRQHG), through phage display. They provide a valuable starting point for the development of novel therapeutics.

    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  13. Müller-Sienerth N, Shilts J, Kadir KA, Yman V, Homann MV, Asghar M, et al.
    Malar J, 2020 Jan 17;19(1):31.
    PMID: 31952523 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-020-3111-5
    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a global health problem and accurate surveillance of Plasmodium parasites that are responsible for this disease is required to guide the most effective distribution of control measures. Serological surveillance will be particularly important in areas of low or periodic transmission because patient antibody responses can provide a measure of historical exposure. While methods for detecting host antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are well established, development of serological assays for Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae have been inhibited by a lack of immunodiagnostic candidates due to the limited availability of genomic information.

    METHODS: Using the recently completed genome sequences from P. malariae, P. ovale and P. knowlesi, a set of 33 candidate cell surface and secreted blood-stage antigens was selected and expressed in a recombinant form using a mammalian expression system. These proteins were added to an existing panel of antigens from P. falciparum and P. vivax and the immunoreactivity of IgG, IgM and IgA immunoglobulins from individuals diagnosed with infections to each of the five different Plasmodium species was evaluated by ELISA. Logistic regression modelling was used to quantify the ability of the responses to determine prior exposure to the different Plasmodium species.

    RESULTS: Using sera from European travellers with diagnosed Plasmodium infections, antigens showing species-specific immunoreactivity were identified to select a panel of 22 proteins from five Plasmodium species for serological profiling. The immunoreactivity to the antigens in the panel of sera taken from travellers and individuals living in malaria-endemic regions with diagnosed infections showed moderate power to predict infections by each species, including P. ovale, P. malariae and P. knowlesi. Using a larger set of patient samples and logistic regression modelling it was shown that exposure to P. knowlesi could be accurately detected (AUC = 91%) using an antigen panel consisting of the P. knowlesi orthologues of MSP10, P12 and P38.

    CONCLUSIONS: Using the recent availability of genome sequences to all human-infective Plasmodium spp. parasites and a method of expressing Plasmodium proteins in a secreted functional form, an antigen panel has been compiled that will be useful to determine exposure to these parasites.

    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  14. Jaafaru MS, Nordin N, Rosli R, Shaari K, Bako HY, Saad N, et al.
    Neurotoxicology, 2019 12;75:89-104.
    PMID: 31521693 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.09.008
    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are pathological conditions characterised by progressive damage of neuronal cells leading to eventual loss of structure and function of the cells. Due to implication of multi-systemic complexities of signalling pathways in NDDs, the causes and preventive mechanisms are not clearly delineated. The study was designed to investigate the potential signalling pathways involved in neuroprotective activities of purely isolated glucomoringin isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. GMG-ITC was isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds, and confirmed with NMR and LC-MS based methods. Gene expression analysis of phase II detoxifying markers revealed significant increase in the expression of all the genes involved, due to GMG-ITC pre-treatment. GMG-ITC also caused significant decreased in the expression of NF-kB, BACE1, APP and increased the expressions of IkB and MAPT tau genes in the differentiated cells as confirmed by multiplex genetic system analysis. The effect was reflected on the expressed proteins in the differentiated cells, where GMG-ITC caused increased in expression level of Nrf2, SOD-1, NQO1, p52 and c-Rel of nuclear factor erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) pathways respectively. The findings revealed the potential of GMG-ITC to abrogate oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration through Nrf2 and NF-kB signalling pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  15. Abdelhaleem AA, Elamin EM, Bakheit SM, Mukhtar MM
    Trop Biomed, 2019 Dec 01;36(4):866-873.
    PMID: 33597459
    This study was aimed to identify and characterize Leishmania amastigote, and axenic form antigens. Two in vitro techniques were used to change leishmania parasite isolates from promastigote form to amastigotes and amastigote like (axenic) forms. The main strategy relied upon in vitro infection of murine macrophages cell line J774 with leishmania promastigote, at 37°C with 5% CO2, while the second technique relied upon the culture of promastigote at 37°C with low pH (5.5), and 5-10% CO2. Proteins were extracted and fractionated utilizing 12% Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). Antigens were recognized using both immune dot blot and western blot procedures. PCR was performed for recognition of leishmania parasites in infected J774 macrophages. L. major was quicker in infectivity of macrophages cell line than L. donovani. Shared proteins ranging from 26-116 kDa were identified by SDS PAGE in all stages. Immune Dot-blot method showed positive outcomes, while western blot identified an exceptional antigen band of 16 kDa in amastigote, this unique band could be of value in diagnosis and vaccination of leishmaniasis. PCR results confirmed presence of both isolates demonstrating that coinfection is conceivable, and no indications of hereditary recombination at kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) were identified in macrophages simultaneously infected by L. major and L. donovani.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  16. Kusuma SAF, Parwati I, Rostinawati T, Yusuf M, Fadhlillah M, Ahyudanari RR, et al.
    Heliyon, 2019 Nov;5(11):e02741.
    PMID: 31844694 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02741
    MPT64 is a specific protein that is secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The objective of this study was to obtain optimum culture conditions for MPT64 synthetic gene expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM was undertaken to optimize the culture conditions under different cultivation conditions (medium concentration, induction time and inducer concentration), designed by the factorial Box-Bhenken using Minitab 17 statistical software. From the randomized combination, 15 treatments and three center point repetitions were obtained. Furthermore, expression methods were carried out in the flask scale fermentation in accordance with the predetermined design. Then, the MPT64 protein in the cytoplasm of E. coli cell was isolated and characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrilamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) then quantified using the ImageJ program. The optimum conditions were two-fold medium concentration (tryptone 20 mg/mL, yeast extract 10 mg/mL, and sodium chloride 20 mg/mL), 5 h of induction time and 4 mM rhamnose. The average concentration of recombinant MPT64 at optimum conditions was 0.0392 mg/mL, higher than the predicted concentration of 0.0311 mg/mL. In conclusion, the relationship between the selected optimization parameters strongly influenced the level of MPT64 gene expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3).
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  17. Tang ELH, Tan NH, Fung SY, Tan CH
    Toxicon, 2019 Aug 22;169:91-102.
    PMID: 31445943 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.08.004
    The intraspecific geographical venom variations of Calloselasma rhodostoma from Malaysia (CR-M), Indonesia (CR-I), Thailand (CR-T) and Vietnam (CR-V) were investigated through 1D SDS-PAGE and nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. The venom antigenicity, procoagulant activities and neutralization using Thai C. rhodostoma Monovalent Antivenom (CRMAV) were also investigated. SDS-PAGE patterns of the venoms were relatively similar with minor variations. Proteomic analysis revealed that snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs, particularly P-I class), serine proteases (SVSPs) and snaclecs dominated the venom protein composition (68.96-81.80%), followed by L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (7.37-11.08% and 5.18-13.81%, respectively), corroborating C. rhodostoma envenoming effects (hemorrhage, consumptive coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and local tissue necrosis). Other proteins of lower abundances (2.82-9.13%) identified include cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP), phospholipase B, phosphodiesterase, nerve growth factor, 5'-nucleotidase, aminopeptidase and hyaluronidase. All four venoms exhibited strong procoagulant effects which were neutralized by CRMAV to different extents. CRMAV immunoreactivity was high toward venoms of CR-M, CR-I and CR-T but relatively low for CR-V venom. Among the venom samples from different locales, CR-V venom proteome has the smallest SVMP composition while SVSP, PLA2 and phosphodiesterase were more abundant in the venom. These variations in C. rhodostoma venom protein composition could partly explain the differences seen in immunoreactivity. (198 words).
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  18. Hempolchom C, Sookrung N, Srisuka W, Reamtong O, Sakolvaree Y, Chaicumpa W, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2019 Aug;118(8):2353-2359.
    PMID: 31263951 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-019-06383-x
    Simulium dermatitis is an IgE-mediated skin reaction in animals and humans caused by the bites of black flies. Although Simulium nigrogilvum has been incriminated as the main human-biting black fly species in Thailand, information on its salivary allergens is lacking. Salivary gland extract of S. nigrogilvum females was subjected to sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the separated components were applied onto nitrocellulose membranes for immunoblotting, which was performed by probing the protein blots with sera from 17 individuals who were allergic to the bites of S. nigrogilvum. IgE-reactive protein bands were characterized further by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Nine protein bands (79, 42, 32, 25, 24, 22, 15, 13, and 11 kDa) were recognized in the serum of the subjects. Four of the nine protein bands (32, 24, 15, and 11 kDa) showed IgE reactivity in all (100%) of the tested sera, and they were identified as salivary secreted antigen 5-related protein, salivary serine protease, erythema protein, and hypothetical secreted protein, respectively. Three other proteins, salivary serine protease (25 kDa), salivary D7 secreted protein (22 kDa), and hypothetical protein (13 kDa), reacted with > 50% of the sera. The relevance of the identified protein bands as allergens needs to be confirmed by using pure recombinant proteins, either in the in vivo skin prick test or in vitro detection of the specific IgE in the serum samples of allergic subjects. This will be useful for the rational design of component-resolved diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy for the allergy mediated by the bites of black flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  19. Hempolchom C, Reamtong O, Sookrung N, Srisuka W, Sakolvaree Y, Chaicumpa W, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2019 Jun;194:82-88.
    PMID: 30922801 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.03.026
    Although several studies have reported pharmacological and immunological activity, as well as the role of black flies in transmitting pathogens to vertebrate hosts through salivary glands (SG) during blood feeding, SG proteomes of the anthropophilic black flies in Thailand have never been reported. Therefore, this study determined the SG proteomes of female S. nigrogilvum and S. nodosum. Sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional (2-DE) gels containing separated SG proteins of individual species were subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) and an orthologous protein search from eukaryotic organism, nematocera and simuliidae databases for total protein identification. SDS-PAGE and protein staining revealed at least 13 and 9 major protein bands in the SGs of female S. nigrogilvum and S. nodosum, respectively, as well as several minor ones. The 2-DE demonstrated a total of 56 and 41 protein spots for S. nigrogilvum and S. nodosum, respectively. Most of the proteins obtained in both species were enzymes involved in blood feeding, including proteases, apyrases, hyaluronidases, aminopeptidase and elastase. The results obtained in this study provided a new body of knowledge for a better understanding on the role of salivary gland proteins in these black fly species in Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  20. Singh V, Haque S, Kumari V, El-Enshasy HA, Mishra BN, Somvanshi P, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 04 24;9(1):6482.
    PMID: 31019210 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-42740-7
    Arterial/venous thrombosis is the major cardiovascular disorder accountable for substantial mortality; and the current demand for antithrombotic agents is extensive. Heparinases depolymerize unfractionated heparin (UFH) for the production of low molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs; used as anticoagulants against thrombosis). A microbial strain of Streptomyces sp. showing antithrombotic activity was isolated from the soil sample collected from north India. The strain was characterized by using 16S rRNA homology technique and identified as Streptomyces variabilis MTCC 12266 capable of producing heparinase enzyme. This is the very first communication reporting Streptomyces genus as the producer of heparinase. It was observed that the production of intracellular heparinase was [63.8 U/mg protein (specific activity)] 1.58 folds higher compared to extracellular heparinase [40.28 U/mg protein]. DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column followed by Sepharose-6B column purification of the crude protein resulted 19.18 folds purified heparinase. SDS-PAGE analysis of heparinase resulted an estimated molecular-weight of 42 kDa. It was also found that intracellular heparinase has the ability to depolymerize heparin to generate LMWHs. Further studies related to the mechanistic action, structural details, and genomics involved in heparinase production from Streptomyces variabilis are warranted for large scale production/purification optimization of heparinase for antithrombotic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
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