Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 197 in total

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  1. Fong MY, Lau YL, Zulqarnain M
    Biotechnol. Lett., 2008 Apr;30(4):611-8.
    PMID: 18043869
    The surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene of the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, was cloned and extracellularly expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The effectiveness of the secreted recombinant SAG2 (rSAG2-S) as a serodiagnosis reagent was assessed by western blots and ELISA. In the western blot assay, rSAG2-S reacted with all Toxoplasma-antibody positive human serum samples but not with Toxoplasma-negative samples. In the ELISA, rSAG2-S yielded sensitivity rates ranging from 80% (IgG negative, IgM positive) to 100% (IgG positive, IgM negative). In vivo experiments showed that serum from mice immunized with rSAG2-S reacted specifically with the native SAG2 of T. gondii. These mice were protected when challenged with live cells of T. gondii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  2. Riazi M, Abdul Rani B, Fairuz A, Zainul FZ
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Aug;27(2):241-53.
    PMID: 20962722 MyJurnal
    There is a need for identification of new infection markers against common Leptospira isolates in Malaysia. To achieve this goal, seven-day-old cultures of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohemorrhagiae (L44) and Leptospira interrogans serogroup Javanica (L55) were used for antigen preparation by sequential extraction method using 40 mM Tris, 8M Urea and 2M thiourea. Immunoblot analysis of the antigens were performed using serum samples from 46 local patients with confirmed acute leptospirosis, 28 patients with other infections and 14 healthy controls. The patients serum samples used in this study contained heterologous antibody against a number of different leptospira serovars. A strong IgM reactivity to a broad diffuse band of 10-15 kDa was observed. Combining results using L44 and L55 antigens showed sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 95.2% for detection of leptospirosis. Proteinase K and periodate treatment indicated that the band is likely to be lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in nature. This study showed that the 10-15 kDa antigen could potentially be useful for serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  3. Eshaghi M, Tan WS, Ong ST, Yusoff K
    J. Clin. Microbiol., 2005 Jul;43(7):3172-7.
    PMID: 16000431
    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of Nipah virus (NiV) is a major constituent of the viral proteins which play a role in encapsidation, regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. To investigate the use of a fusion system to aid the purification of the recombinant N protein for structural studies and potential use as a diagnostic reagent, the NiV N gene was cloned into the pFastBacHT vector and the His-tagged fusion protein was expressed in Sf9 insect cells by recombinant baculovirus. Western blot analysis of the recombinant fusion protein with anti-NiV antibodies produced a band of approximately 62 kDa. A time course study showed that the highest level of expression was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Electron microscopic analysis of the NiV recombinant N fusion protein purified on a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid resin column revealed different types of structures, including spherical, ring-like, and herringbone-like particles. The light-scattering measurements of the recombinant N protein also confirmed the polydispersity of the sample with hyrdrodynamic radii of small and large types. The optical density spectra of the purified recombinant fusion protein revealed a high A(260)/A(280) ratio, indicating the presence of nucleic acids. Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that the recombinant N protein exhibited the antigenic sites and conformation necessary for specific antigen-antibody recognition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  4. Sunderasan E, Bahari A, Arif SA, Zainal Z, Hamilton RG, Yeang HY
    Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2005 Nov;35(11):1490-5.
    PMID: 16297147 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02371.x
    BACKGROUND:
    Hev b 4 is an allergenic natural rubber latex (NRL) protein complex that is reactive in skin prick tests and in vitro immunoassays. On SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Hev b 4 is discerned predominantly at 53-55 kDa together with a 57 kDa minor component previously identified as a cyanogenic glucosidase. Of the 13 NRL allergens recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies, the 53-55 kDa Hev b 4 major protein is the only candidate that lacks complete cDNA and protein sequence information.

    OBJECTIVE:
    We sought to clone the transcript encoding the Hev b 4 major protein, and characterize the native protein and its recombinant form in relation to IgE binding.

    METHODS:
    The 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method was employed to obtain the complete cDNA of the Hev b 4 major protein. A recombinant form of the protein was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The native Hev b 4 major protein was deglycosylated by trifluoromethane sulphonic acid. Western immunoblots of the native, deglycosylated and recombinant proteins were performed using both polyclonal antibodies and sera from latex-allergic patients.

    RESULTS:
    The cDNA encoding the Hev b 4 major protein was cloned. Its open reading frame matched lecithinases in the conserved domain database and contained 10 predicted glycosylation sites. Detection of glycans on the Hev b 4 lecithinase homologue confirmed it to be a glycoprotein. The deglycosylated lecithinase homologue was discerned at 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE, this being comparable to the 38.53 kDa mass predicted by its cDNA. Deglycosylation of the lecithinase homologue resulted in the loss of IgE recognition, although reactivity to polyclonal rabbit anti-Hev b 4 was retained. IgE from latex-allergic patients also failed to recognize the non-glycosylated E. coli recombinant lecithinase homologue.

    CONCLUSION:
    The IgE epitopes of the Hev b 4 lecithinase homologue reside mainly in its carbohydrate moiety, which also account for the discrepancy between the observed molecular weight of the protein and the value calculated from its cDNA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/methods
  5. Mehrnoush A, Mustafa S, Yazid AM
    Molecules, 2011 Dec 08;16(12):10202-13.
    PMID: 22158589 DOI: 10.3390/molecules161210202
    A 'Heat treatment aqueous two phase system' was employed for the first time to purify serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper) leaves. In this study, introduction of heat treatment procedure in serine protease purification was investigated. In addition, the effects of different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000, 6000 and 8000) at concentrations of 8, 16 and 21% (w/w) as well as salts (Na-citrate, MgSO₄ and K₂HPO₄) at concentrations of 12, 15, 18% (w/w) on serine protease partition behavior were studied. Optimum conditions for serine protease purification were achieved in the PEG-rich phase with composition of 16% PEG6000-15% MgSO₄. Also, thermal treatment of kesinai leaves at 55 °C for 15 min resulted in higher purity and recovery yield compared to the non-heat treatment sample. Furthermore, this study investigated the effects of various concentrations of NaCl addition (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w) and different pH (4, 7 and 9) on the optimization of the system to obtain high yields of the enzyme. The recovery of serine protease was significantly enhanced in the presence of 4% (w/w) of NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor was increased 14.4 fold and achieved a high yield of 96.7%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  6. Rahim ZH, Yaacob HB
    J Nihon Univ Sch Dent, 1992 Dec;34(4):273-7.
    PMID: 1283755
    Fresh samples of human whole saliva containing approximately 20-40 micrograms protein were analyzed using SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis systems. More than 20 protein bands were revealed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue R 250 staining. Some of the protein bands were shown to be glycoprotein-positive with PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) reagent. The protein bands with alpha-Amylase activity appeared within a molecular weight range of 120,000-180,000, which is 2 to 2.8 times higher than the normal molecular weight reported for alpha-Amylase from parotid saliva, and showed positive staining with PAS reagent. These results show that the alpha-Amylase in whole saliva appears to exist in a macromolecular form which is not dissociated in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS).
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  7. Daltry JC, Ponnudurai G, Shin CK, Tan NH, Thorpe RS, Wüster W
    Toxicon, 1996 Jan;34(1):67-79.
    PMID: 8835335
    The Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) is of major clinical significance both as a leading cause of snakebite and as the source of ancrod (Arvin). Although its venom has been extensively studied, the degree to which venom composition varies between individuals is poorly known. We individually analysed the venoms of over 100 C. rhodostoma using isoelectric focusing. In all populations, females produced an intense band that was absent from all males, and significant ontogenetic variation was detected. Principal components analysis of the banding profiles also revealed strong geographic variation, which was significantly congruent with variation in the biological activities of the venom (phosphodiesterase, alkalinephosphoesterase, L-amino acid oxidase, arginine ester hydrolase, 5'-nucleotidase, thrombin-like enzyme, haemorrhagic activity). Studies of captive-bred snakes indicate that the intraspecific variation in venom is genetically inherited rather than environmentally induced. The intraspecific variation in venom composition and biological activity could be of applied importance to snakebite therapy, both in correct diagnosis of the source of envenomation and in the development of a more effective antivenom. Greater attention should be given to the source of C. rhodostoma venom used in research to ensure reproducibility of results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  8. Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M, Wong CF
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5797-814.
    PMID: 22016627 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095797
    Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  9. Marhaini Mostapha, Noorhasmiera Abu Jahar, Sarani Zakaria, Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Kamalrul Azlan Azizan, Wan Mohd Aizat
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1259-1268.
    Oil palm is the major crop grown and cultivated in various Asian countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.
    The core of oil palm trunk (COPT) consists of high sugar content, hence suitable for synthesis of fine chemicals and
    biofuels. Increase of sugar content was reported previously during prolonged COPT storage. However, until now, there
    has been no report on protein profiles during storage. Therefore, in this study, protein expression of the COPT during the
    storage period of one to six weeks was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    (SDS-PAGE) coupled with optical density quantification and multivariate analyses for measuring differentially expressed
    proteins. Accordingly, protein bands were subjected to tryptic digestion followed by tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLCMS/MS)
    protein identification. The results from SDS-PAGE showed consistent protein bands appearing across the biological
    replicates ranging from 10.455 to 202.92 kDa molecular weight (MW) regions. The findings from the principal component
    analysis (PCA) plot illustrated the separation pattern of the proteins at weeks 4 and 5 of storage, which was influenced
    mainly by the molecular weights of 14.283, 25.543, 29.757, 30.549, 31.511, 34.585 and 84.395 kDa, respectively. The
    majority of these proteins are identified as those involved in stress- and defense-related, disease resistance, as well
    as gene/protein expression processes. Indeed, these proteins were mostly upregulated during the later storage period
    suggesting that long-term storage may influence the molecular regulation of COPT sap.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  10. Sandholzer C, Hallman DM, Saha N, Sigurdsson G, Lackner C, Császár A, et al.
    Hum. Genet., 1991 Apr;86(6):607-14.
    PMID: 2026424
    Apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] exhibits a genetic size polymorphism explaining about 40% of the variability in lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration in Tyroleans. Lp(a) concentrations and apo(a) phenotypes were determined in 7 ethnic groups (Tyrolean, Icelandic, Hungarian, Malay, Chinese, Indian, Black Sudanese) and the effects of the apo(a) size polymorphism on Lp(a) levels were estimated in each group. Average Lp(a) concentrations were highly significantly different among these populations, with the Chinese (7.0 mg/dl) having the lowest and the Sudanese (46 mg/dl) the highest levels. Apo(a) phenotype and derived apo(a) allele frequencies were also significantly different among the populations. Apo(a) isoform effects on Lp(a) levels were not significantly different among populations. Lp(a) levels were however roughly twice as high in the same phenotypes in the Indians, and several times as high in the Sudanese, compared with Caucasians. The size variation of apo(a) explains from 0.77 (Malays) to only 0.19 (Sudanese) of the total variability in Lp(a) levels. Together these data show (I) that there is considerable heterogeneity of the Lp(a) polymorphism among populations, (II) that differences in apo(a) allele frequencies alone do not explain the differences in Lp(a) levels among populations and (III) that in some populations, e.g. Sudanese Blacks, Lp(a) levels are mainly determined by factors that are different from the apo(a) size polymorphism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  11. Trépanier P, Minocha HC, Ibrahim AL, Sheikh-Omar AR, Montpetit C, Lecomte J, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 1988 Dec;18(3-4):219-31.
    PMID: 2852870
    Hemagglutination activity, structural protein profiles and neutralization assays were used in a comparative study of bovine herpesvirus 1 strains from the U.S.A., Canada, Great Britain, Denmark and Malaysia with equine, feline and human herpesviruses in order to further characterize the bovine herpesvirus 1 hemagglutinin. Bovine herpesvirus 1 strains of different geographical origins all showed hemagglutinating activity for mouse erythrocytes; furthermore, feline herpesvirus 1 was also shown to hemagglutinate mouse erythrocytes. Analyses of partly purified viruses showed that a distinctive and specific polypeptides profile is associated with each species of herpesviruses used in our study; strains of bovine herpesvirus 1 from North America, Europe and Southeast Asia however, presented a remarkable similarity as to their electrophoretic protein patterns. A protein similar to the 97-kDa bovine viral hemagglutinin was not identified with the hemagglutinating feline herpesvirus. An important neutralization epitope on the bovine viral hemagglutinin was also not found on feline, equine and human herpesviruses but was identified on all bovine strains tested from North America, Europe and Southeast Asia stressing the importance of the bovine hemagglutinin for eventual prophylactic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  12. Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Alenius H, Leynadier F, Autegarden JE, André C, et al.
    Allergy, 1997 Jan;52(1):41-50.
    PMID: 9062628
    For the diagnosis of IgE-mediated (immediate) hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex (NRL), skin prick testing with extracts of latex gloves has been widely used, but such extracts are difficult to standardize. The present study aimed to produce on an industrial scale an NRL extract from freshly collected NRL and to evaluate, calibrate, and standardize the extract by both in vivo and in vitro testing. The source material, latex of the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis (clone RRIM 600), was frozen immediately after collection in Malaysia and shipped in dry ice to Stallergènes SA, France. Protein and allergen profiles were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting, isoelectric focusing (IEF), crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE). Allergen quantification was effected by RAST inhibition. The capacity of the preparation to elicit immediate hypersensitivity reactions in vivo was measured by skin prick testing in 46 latex-allergic patients and 76 nonallergic control subjects. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot profiles of the extract and an NRL standard (E8) provided by the US Food and Drug Administration were almost identical, disclosing several distinct IgE-binding proteins with apparent molecular weights of 14, 20, 27, 30, and 45 kDa, conforming to reported molecular weights of several significant NRL allergens. An arbitrary index of reactivity (IR) of 100 was assigned to the extract at 1:200 dilution (w/v), having a protein content of 22 micrograms/ml. Skin prick testing of latex-allergic patients and controls using the extract at 100 IR revealed 93% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% negative predictive value, and 96% positive predictive value. In conclusion, a skin prick test reagent for diagnosis of type I NRL allergy was successfully standardized. The reagent was demonstrated to contain most, if not all, of the currently known clinically significant NRL allergens, and it showed high sensitivity and specificity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  13. Cheong KB, Cheong SK, Boo NY, Jemilah M, Ton SH
    Malays J Pathol, 1995 Dec;17(2):97-101.
    PMID: 8935134
    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is one of the four known surfactant-associated proteins found in human lungs. It plays a major role in determining regulation of surfactant uptake and resecretion. Qualitative and quantitative deficiencies of SP-A may contribute to neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. The measurement of its level in amniotic fluid or neonatal tracheal aspirate may be useful in the assessment of replacement therapy using natural or synthetic surfactants. In order to develop an in-house immunoassay to detect the level of SP-A, we used a discontinuous sucrose density gradient to isolate SP-A from amniotic fluid. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out on the isolates with low molecular weight markers. We successfully isolated SP-A from 12 out of 31 samples of amniotic fluid. The isolates were found to be relatively pure and have a molecular weight of about 35 kD. The isolated SP-A were used as immunogens to raise antibodies in rabbits for the immunoassay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  14. Chew FN, Tan WS, Boo HC, Tey BT
    Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2012;42(6):535-50.
    PMID: 23030465 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2012.660903
    An optimized cultivation condition is needed to maximize the functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) production. Six process variables (agitation rate, temperature, initial medium pH, concentration of inducer, time of induction, and inoculum density) were screened using the fractional factorial design. Three variables (agitation rate, temperature, and time of induction) exerted significant effects on functional GFP production in E. coli shake flask cultivation and were optimized subsequently using the Box-Behnken design. An agitation rate of 206 rpm at 31°C and induction of the protein expression when the cell density (OD(600nm)) reaches 1.04 could enhance the yield of functional GFP production from 0.025 g/L to 0.241 g/L, which is about ninefold higher than the unoptimized conditions. Unoptimized cultivation conditions resulted in protein aggregation and hence reduced the quantity of functional GFP. The model and regression equation based on the shake flask cultivation could be applied to a 2-L bioreactor for maximum functional GFP production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  15. Ng MY, Tan WS, Tey BT
    PMID: 22819608 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.06.043
    Fusion M13 phage with disulfide constrained heptapeptide, C-WSFFSNI-C, inserted into the minor coat protein (gpIII), has been selected in the current study as ligand in direct purification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) from unclarified Escherichia coli (E. coli) feedstock. The selected fusion phage showed strong association with the surface of the core particle. In the present study, this fusion M13 phage was immobilized onto Streamline base matrix via epoxy activation and used as adsorbent to capture HBcAg from crude E. coli homogenate. The maximum binding capacity for the adsorbent was 3.76 mg/mL with equilibrium coefficient of 1.83 mg/mL. Due to the slow uptake rate of HBcAg by M13 phage-immobilized adsorbents, a modified EBAC operation with recirculation of feedstock into the expanded bed has been investigated in this study. The introduction of feedstock recirculation has led to an 18% increase in yield; however, the purity of the eluted product was reduced by 15% compared with typical EBAC operation. The level of antigenicity exhibited by the core particles purified by both EBAC operations employed in the present study was comparable to that purified using sucrose ultracentrifugation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  16. Chew FN, Tan WS, Tey BT
    J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2011 Feb;111(2):246-8.
    PMID: 21036662 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2010.10.004
    A gel imaging method was employed to quantitate the GFP that had been subjected to denaturation and degradation treatments. This method is able to differentiate the nativity of GFP by relating the observed changes in the position of fluorescent bands which is unable to be detected using the spectrofluorometric method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  17. Chew FN, Tan WS, Ling TC, Tey BT
    Electrophoresis, 2009 Sep;30(17):3017-23.
    PMID: 19685471 DOI: 10.1002/elps.200900246
    Mechanical and non-mechanical breakages of bacterial cells are usually the preliminary steps in intracellular protein purification. In this study, the recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) was purified from intact Escherichia coli cells using preparative PAGE. In this purification process, cells disruption step is not needed. The cellular content of E. coli was drifted out electrically from cells and the negatively charged GFP was further electroeluted from polyacrylamide gel column. SEM investigation of the electrophoresed cells revealed substantial structural damage at the cellular level. This integrated purification technique has successfully recovered the intracellular GFP with a yield of 82% and purity of 95%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/methods*
  18. Chew FN, Tan WS, Ling TC, Tan CS, Tey BT
    Anal. Biochem., 2009 Jan 15;384(2):353-5.
    PMID: 18952038 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2008.10.010
    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a versatile reporter protein and has been widely used in biological research. However, its quantitation requires expensive equipment such as a spectrofluorometer. In the current study, a gel documentation imaging system using a native polyacrylamide gel for the quantitation of GFP was developed. The assay was evaluated for its precision, linearity, reproducibility, and sensitivity in the presence of Escherichia coli cells and was compared with the spectrofluorometric method. Using this newly established, gel-based imaging technique; the amount of GFP can be quantified accurately.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/methods*
  19. Ho CW, Tan WS, Chong FC, Ling TC, Tey BT
    J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2009 Apr;19(4):416-23.
    PMID: 19421000
    Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an important serological marker used in the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. In the current study, a fast and efficient preparative purification protocol for truncated HBcAg from Escherichia coli disruptate was developed. The recombinant HBcAg was first captured by anion exchange expanded bed adsorption chromatography integrated with a cell disruption process. This online capture process has shortened the process time and eliminated the "hold-up" period that may be detrimental to the quality of target protein. The eluted product from the expanded bed adsorption chromatography was subsequently purified using size-exclusion chromatography. The results showed that this novel purification protocol achieved a recovery yield of 45.1% with a product purity of 88.2%, which corresponds to a purification factor of 4.5. The recovered HBcAg is still biologically active as shown by ELISA test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  20. Tanaka H, Kawamoto Y, Terao K
    J. Med. Primatol., 1991 May;20(3):126-32.
    PMID: 1895332
    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) of crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) was examined by means of three electrophoretic methods. DBP phenotypes were observed to be one or two bands in each method. All of DBP molecular variants could be detected by the simultaneous typing with these three methods. Family analysis suggested that DBP variants followed the mode of autosomal codominant inheritance. A total of 17 phenotypes governed by at least 11 alleles were observed in the populations of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The genetic variability was high in Malaysian and Indonesian populations but low in the Philippine population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
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