METHODS: We conducted a before-and-after trial with 5008 consecutive ED-treated hospital admissions in the control period and 5146 consecutive admissions in the intervention period. During the control period (18 February 2008 to 17 August 2008), patients received standard i.v. fluids. During the intervention period (18 February 2009 to 17 August 2009), we restricted all chloride-rich fluids. We used the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) staging to define AKI.
RESULTS: Stage 3 of KDIGO-defined AKI decreased from 54 (1.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-1.4) to 30 (0.6%; 95% CI 0.4-0.8) (P = 0.006). The rate of renal replacement therapy did not change, from 13 (0.3%; 95% CI 0.2-0.4) to 8 (0.2%; 95% CI 0.1-0.3) (P = 0.25). After adjustment for relevant covariates, liberal chloride therapy remained associated with a greater risk of KDIGO stage 3 (hazard ratio 1.82; 95% CI 1.13-2.95; P = 0.01). On sensitivity assessment after removing repeat admissions, KDIGO stage 3 remained significantly lower in the intervention period compared with the control period (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: In a before-and-after trial, a chloride-restrictive strategy in an ED was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of stage 3 of KDIGO-defined AKI.
Materials and Methods: In this study, medical records of 47 patients who underwent a two-stage surgical procedure for intra-articular distal tibia fractures accompanying soft tissue injury were retrospectively examined. Delta frame was applied in all cases within 24 hours following admission to the emergency department in accordance with AO principles. Those cases where fibular plate was applied during the initial stage and the second stage were classified as Group 1 and Group 2 in order to compare recorded data between the two groups.
Results: According to the results of the study, there were 25 cases in Group 1 and 22 cases in Group 2 in which fibular plate was applied at the first stage and the second stage, respectively. The mean follow-up was found as 27.7±7.0 months in Group 1 and 28.2±6.2 months in Group 2 (p=0.778). No difference was found between the two groups in terms of the age, sex, hospital stay, the time between two surgical procedures, tibiofibular angle and AOFAS scoring (p>0.05).These two groups were also similar in mechanism of injury, Denise-Weber or AO classification, rates of tibiofibular malalignment on post-operative CT, fibular rotation, intra-articular tibial step-off, tibial varus-valgus duration of union, rate of infection, fibular angulation and the presence of the flap/graft/debridement (p>0.05).
Conclusion: In conclusion, two-stage surgical procedure in intra-articular distal tibiofibular fractures may be an effective method decreasing soft tissue complications. The timing of the open reduction and internal fixation of the fibula at different stages may not necessarily have an impact on the success of the post-operative tibial reduction, the total duration of surgery, syndesmosis malalignment or soft tissue complications.
METHODS: An activity-based microcosting approach was applied to estimate the unit cost of events from the hospital's perspective. First, activities and resources that were involved in each cost center were identified and valued against a suitable form of unit. Thereafter, the mean cost of each resource per event was calculated by dividing the product of the quantity of the resource used and the unit cost of the resource by the number of events. The mean cost per event was the sum of the cost of resources for all cost centers involved. The costs were expressed in 2014 US dollars ($) and Malaysian Ringgit (RM).
RESULTS: Data were collected from 15 maintenance, 20 acute exacerbation, and 50 hospitalization events. The mean (±SD) cost of maintenance management was $48.04 (±10.10); RM154.68 (±32.52). The cost of acute exacerbation management in the Emergency Department was $13.50 (±2.21), RM43.46 (±7.10); and in the medical ward, the cost was $552.13 (±303.41), RM1777.86 (±976.98), per hospitalization event.
CONCLUSION: The microcosting of management of asthma-related events provides more accurate estimates that could be used in local economic studies. However, its possible limited generalizability to other types of health care settings in Malaysia needs to be kept in mind.
REPORT: The aim of this analysis is to present the real-time humanitarian impact and response to the 2018 earthquake and tsunami at Donggala and Palu, Sulawesi in Indonesia using the new disaster metrics YEW DSI. Based on the earthquake (measuring 7.7 on the Richter Scale) and tsunami at Donggala, the humanitarian impact calculated on September 29, 2018 scored 7.4 High in the YEW DSI with 11 of the total 17 indicators scoring more than the baseline coping capacity. The same YEW DSI score of 7.4 was scored on the earthquake and tsunami at Palu, with 13 of the total 17 indicators scoring more than baseline ability to cope within local capacity. Impact analysis reports were sent to relevant authorities on September 30, 2018.
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: A State of Emergency was declared for a national response, which indicated an inability to cope within the local capacity, shown by the YEW DSI. The strong correlation between the earthquake magnitude, intensities, and the humanitarian impact at Donggala and Palu reported could be added into the science of knowledge in prehospital care and disaster medicine research and practice. As a conclusion, the real-time disaster response was found to be almost an exact fit with the YEW DSI indicators, demonstrating the inability to cope within the local capacity.
Methods: Septic patient with hyperlactatemia and metabolic acidosis were randomized to receive either high SID fl uid or Hartmann's solution during initial fl uid resuscitation. The primary outcome measures the pH and bicarbonate levels difference pre- and post- resuscitation.
Results: One hundred and sixty-two patients underwent randomization, 81 were assigned each to receive high SID fluid or Hartmann's solution. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics. High SID group received 23.5 mL/kg and the Hartmann's group received 22.7 mL/kg (p = 0.360). High SID fluid increased the mean (± SD) pH by 0.107 (± 0.09) vs. Hartmann's solution by 0.014 (± 0.12), p ≤ 0.001. Mean bicarbonate level increased signifi cantly in high SID group compared to Hartmann's (4.30 ± 3.76 vs. 1.25 ± 3.33, p ≤ 0.001). High SID group had higher post resuscitation lactate clearance than Hartmann's group (25.4 ± 28.3% vs. 12.0 ± 34.1%, p = 0.009). Shorter hospital stay was observed in highSID group 8.04 ± 5.96 days vs. Hartmann's group 12.18 ± 12.41 days (p = 0.048). Both groups showed no difference in incidence of pulmonary oedema, acute kidney injury and mortality.
Conclusions: Initial resuscitation using high SID fluid in selected septic patient improves pH and bicarbonate levels. The high SID group had better post resuscitation lactate clearance and shorter hospital stay.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 140 emergency department medical officers working at general hospitals from seven Malaysia regions. They were randomly selected and their depression, anxiety and stress level were measured by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale.
RESULTS: The highest prevalence was anxiety (28.6%) followed by depression (10.7%) and stress (7.9%). Depression, anxiety and stress between seven hospitals were not significantly different (P>0.05). Male medical officers significantly experienced more anxiety symptoms than female medical officers (P=0.0022), however depression and stress symptoms between male and female medical officers were not significantly different (P>0.05). Depression, anxiety and stress were not associated with age, working experience, ethnicity, marital status, number of shifts and type of system adopted in different hospitals (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety was high, whereas for depression and stress were considerably low. Gender was the only factor significantly associated with anxiety. Other factors were not associated with depression, anxiety and stress. Future research should aim to gain better understanding on unique factors that affect female and male medical officers' anxiety level in emergency setting, thus guide authorities to chart strategic plans to remedy this condition.
METHODS: This was an observational study reviewing all confirmed ZIKV cases detected in Malaysia through the ZIKV clinical surveillance and Flavivirus laboratory surveillance between June 2015 and December 2017. All basic demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, clinical, laboratory and outcome data of the confirmed ZIKV cases were collected from the source documents.
RESULTS: Only eight out of 4043 cases tested positive for ZIKV infection during that period. The median age of infected patients was 48.6 years and majority was Chinese. Two of the subjects were pregnant. The median interval between the onset of disease and the first detection of ZIKV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) in body fluid was 3 days. Six cases had ZIKV RNA detected in both serum and urine samples. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that isolates from the 7 cases of ZIKV infection came from two clusters, both of which were local circulating strains.
CONCLUSION: Despite similar ecological background characteristics, Malaysia was not as affected by the recent ZIKV outbreak compared to Brazil and Singapore. This could be related to pre-existing immunity against ZIKV in this population, which developed after the first introduction of the ZIKV in Malaysia decades ago. A serosurvey to determine the seroprevalence of ZIKV in Malaysia was carried out in 2017. The differences in circulating ZIKV strains could be another reason as to why Malaysia seemed to be protected from an outbreak.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of seatbelt compliance of patients aged over 18 years, attending the emergency departments of five public hospitals in Singapore after road collisions from 2011-2014. Seatbelt data was obtained from paramedic and patient history.
RESULTS: There were 4,576 patients studied. Most were Singapore citizens (83.4 %) or permanent residents (2.4 %), with the largest non-resident groups from Malaysia, India, and China. Overall seatbelt compliance was 82.1 %. On univariate analysis, seatbelt compliance was higher in older patients (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.001-1.021, p
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of COPD in Malaysia, including direct costs for the management of COPD and indirect costs due to productivity losses for COPD patients.
METHODOLOGY: Overall, 150 patients with an established diagnosis of COPD were followed-up for a period of 1 year from August 2018 to August 2019. An activity-based costing, 'bottom-up' approach was used to calculate direct costs, while indirect costs of patients were assessed using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire.
RESULTS: The mean annual per-patient direct cost for the management of COPD was calculated as US$506.92. The mean annual costs per patient in the management phase, emergency department visits, and hospital admissions were reported as US$395.65, US$86.4, and US$297.79, respectively; 31.66% of COPD patients visited the emergency department and 42.47% of COPD patients were admitted to the hospital due to exacerbation. The annual mean indirect cost per patient was calculated as US$1699.76. Productivity losses at the workplace were reported as 31.87% and activity limitations were reported as 17.42%.
CONCLUSION: Drugs and consumables costs were the main cost-driving factors in the management of COPD. The higher ratio of indirect cost to direct medical costs shows that therapeutic interventions aimed to prevent work productivity losses may reduce the economic burden of COPD.