Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 266 in total

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  1. Aryane Suwin, Faye Borine, Hasya Putri Sari Amrizal, Muhammad Fakhrulraazi Rajiei, Muhammad Hafizul Zainal, Muhammad Syamil Zolpakar, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Clinical and sharp bins are commonly found in clinical settings. The usage of these bins is vital to ensure that health care facilities remain hygienic, free from any microbial transmissions and incidences of needle stick injuries. ‘oQ-Ba’ is a Japanese phrase that means bin. In real clinical settings, it is difficult to gather all bins at once while performing procedure due to limitations of space, frequency and mobility of bins. Therefore, ‘oQ-Ba’ the Universal Bins Trolley is developed to improve the waste management practice and increase the efficiency and effectivity of care delivery. Methods: A total of 40 respondents comprised of staffs from Emergency and Trauma De- partment and Haemodialysis Unit at Serian District Hospital were selected to use “oQ-Ba” the Universal Bins Trolley. They were given self-administered questionnaires pre and post-trials whichcomposed of ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers to ob- tain feedbacks on the effectiveness of this project. Descriptive statistics include frequencies, means and percentages were used to analyze the data using the SPSS version 22. Results: The staffs found that the prototype helps to ensure the availability of the three bins as the bins are all attached together under one compartment. The staffs also found that the prototype is more convenient compared to the existing waste bins because of its mobility and unique design which consumed little amount of space. Conclusion: ‘oQ-Ba’ the Universal Bins Trolley provides handful of benefits to medical practitioners as it can ensure the availability of the three bins during a procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  2. Tan, T.L., Dazlin Masdiana, S., Robertson, C.
    Medicine & Health, 2015;10(1):80-85.
    MyJurnal
    Cardiac concussion is a sudden, direct blunt trauma cause to the chest which led to death. However, there are patients who did not completely fulfil this definition. We report two cases which did not fit into the definition domain. Two male patients presented to Emergency Department with moderate anterior chest pain after motor vehicle crash showed transient anterior ST segment elevation at chest lead V2 and V3 with raised creatine kinase and normal troponin T. The electrocardiogram changes fully resolved after 24 hours. Both patients were discharged uneventfully after 24 hours monitoring in Emergency Department short-stay ward. Conventional definition of cardiac concussion (commotion cordis) and cardiac contusion may be unsuitable to describe these cases. Therefore, we propose the diagnosis of focal
    cardiac concussion. We also highlighted the ability of Emergency Department to manage these patients in short-stay ward.
    Keywords: commotio cordis, chest pain, nonpenetrating, electrocardiography
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  3. Woon YL, Lim MF, Tg Abd Rashid TR, Thayan R, Chidambaram SK, Syed Abdul Rahim SS, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2019 Feb 13;19(1):152.
    PMID: 30760239 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-3786-9
    BACKGROUND: A major outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) has been reported in Brazil in 2015. Since then, it spread further to other countries in the Americas and resulted in declaration of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by World Health Organization. In 2016, Singapore reported its first minor ZIKV epidemic. Malaysia shares similar ecological environment as Brazil and Singapore which may also favor ZIKV transmission. However, no ZIKV outbreak has been reported in Malaysia to date. This study aimed to discuss all confirmed ZIKV cases captured under Malaysia ZIKV surveillance system after declaration of the PHEIC; and explore why Malaysia did not suffer a similar ZIKV outbreak as the other two countries.

    METHODS: This was an observational study reviewing all confirmed ZIKV cases detected in Malaysia through the ZIKV clinical surveillance and Flavivirus laboratory surveillance between June 2015 and December 2017. All basic demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, clinical, laboratory and outcome data of the confirmed ZIKV cases were collected from the source documents.

    RESULTS: Only eight out of 4043 cases tested positive for ZIKV infection during that period. The median age of infected patients was 48.6 years and majority was Chinese. Two of the subjects were pregnant. The median interval between the onset of disease and the first detection of ZIKV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) in body fluid was 3 days. Six cases had ZIKV RNA detected in both serum and urine samples. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that isolates from the 7 cases of ZIKV infection came from two clusters, both of which were local circulating strains.

    CONCLUSION: Despite similar ecological background characteristics, Malaysia was not as affected by the recent ZIKV outbreak compared to Brazil and Singapore. This could be related to pre-existing immunity against ZIKV in this population, which developed after the first introduction of the ZIKV in Malaysia decades ago. A serosurvey to determine the seroprevalence of ZIKV in Malaysia was carried out in 2017. The differences in circulating ZIKV strains could be another reason as to why Malaysia seemed to be protected from an outbreak.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  4. Sharma A, Lal SK
    Front Microbiol, 2017;8:110.
    PMID: 28217114 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00110
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus discovered in Uganda in the 1940s. To date, three major ZIKV outbreaks have been reported. ZIKV infections have known to be primarily asymptomatic while causing mild illness in a few cases. However, the recent emergence and spread of ZIKV in the Americas has resulted in the declaration of "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" due to the potential association between the infection and prenatal microcephaly or other brain anomalies. In Brazil, a 20-fold increase in prenatal microcephaly cases and 19% increase in Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) cases were reported in 2015, as compared to the preceding year. The probable deleterious effects of ZIKV infection prompt the urgent development of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this end, the existing evidences supporting the increasingly common prenatal microcephaly and GBS association and the current known ZIKV transmission dynamics, modes of detection (molecular and serology-based), and current control strategies are summarized in this review. This review also emphasizes the importance of understanding ZIKV transmission in order to design a sensitive yet cost and time-efficient detection technique. Development of an efficient detection technique would subsequently allow for better surveillance and control of ZIKV infection. Currently, limited literature is available on the pathogenesis of ZIKV, hence, focusing on the modes of ZIKV transmission could potentially contribute to the understanding of the disease spectrum and formulation of targeted treatment and control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  5. Al-Husuny, A., Rampal, L., Manohar, A.
    MyJurnal
    Work-Related Hand Injuries (WRHIs) may result in disability and diminished productivity and cause economic impacts not only to the individual, worker’s families and industries, but to the local community as well.
    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of severe Work-Related Hand Injuries (WRHIs) and factors associated at a tertiary hospital.
    Methods: A pre-tested validated questionnaire was used to obtain data. All patients 18 years and above with WRHIs seen at a tertiary hospital between January 2010 and June 2010 were included in the study. Data was analysed using SPSS version 18.
    Results: Out of the 297 industrial accidents, 74 (24.9%) were WRHIs. Among those with WRHIs, (47.3%) of them had severe hand injuries. The overall mean age of the respondents was 30.36 (± 9.54 SD) years. Majority (82.5%) of the injuries occurred between Mondays to Friday. Majority (70.1%) of hand injuries were caused by machine and 48.6% of the hand injuries occurred when the hand was caught in the operating part of the machine. Majority (62.1%) of the respondents had fingers’ injuries and 32.4% had open fracture. Bivariate analysis showed that there was significant association between severity of WRHIs and locations of injury, mechanisms of injury, sources of injury and sectors of industry (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that WRHIs was significantly associated with source of injury and sector of industry. Respondents with hand injury resulted while operating on mechanical machine was 26 times more likely to report severe WRHIs than those with other sources of their hand injury like (sharp tool, heavy door, and wet floor). Respondents working in metal-machinery industries were eight times more likely to report severe WRHIs than those who working in other sectors of industry like (wood-furniture, constriction, food preparing, service and automotive).
    Conclusions: WRHIs contributed to 24.9% of all industrial accidents seen at the emergency department and orthopaedic clinic and 47.3% of the respondents with WRHIs had severe hand injuries. Severity of WRHIs was significantly associated with sources of injury and sectors of industry.
    Study site: emergency room, orthopaedic ward, general surgery ward and the orthopaedic outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  6. Njaka S, Edeogu OC, Oko CC, Goni MD, Nkadi N
    Heliyon, 2020 Sep;6(9):e04800.
    PMID: 32964153 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04800
    Background: WPV amongst healthcare workers has been reported as a public health challenge across the countries of the world, with more in the developing countries where condition of care and service is very poor.

    Objectives: We aimed to systematically produce empirical evidence on the WPV against health care workers in Africa through the review of relevant literature.

    Method: We sourced for evidence through the following databases: PubMed, Science direct and Scopus from 30th November to 31st December 2019 as well as the reference list of the studies included. A total of 22 peer reviewed articles were included in the review (8065 respondents). Quality appraisal of the included studies was assessed using critical appraisal tools for cross-sectional studies.

    Result: Across the studies, diverse but high prevalence of WPV ranging from 9% to 100% was reported with the highest in South Africa (54%-100%) and Egypt (59.7%-86.1%). The common types were verbal, physical, sexual harassment and psychological violence. The correlates of WPV reported were gender, age, shift duty, emergency unit, psychiatric unit, nursing, marital status and others. Various impacts were reported including psychological impacts and desire to quit nursing. Patients and their relatives, the coworkers and supervisors were the mostly reported perpetrators of violence. Doctors were mostly implicated in the sexual violence against nurses. Policy on violence and management strategies were non-existent across the studies.

    Conclusion: High prevalence of WPV against healthcare workers exists in Africa but there is still paucity of research on the subject matter. However, urgent measures like policy formulation and others must be taken to address the WPV as to avert the impact on the healthcare system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  7. Chan HC, Adnan WA, Jaalam K, Abdullah MR, Abdullah J
    PMID: 16295557
    Mild head injury (MHI) is a common presentation to many hospitals in both rural and urban settings in Southeast Asia, but it is not well studied. We studied 330 patients that presented to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia Emergency Department with possible MHI, with the intentions to identify prognostic factors that may improve the diagnosis of MHI in the emergency setting as well as to determine which patients would need follow-up. Patients' one-year outcomes were classified as discharged well (DW) for patients without post-traumatic signs and symptoms and discharged with long term follow-up (DFU) for patients with such signs and symptoms. Four patients died and 82 were DFU. An abnormal skull X ray was associated with mode of accident and type of transportation, older age, presence of vomiting, confusion, bleeding from ear, nose or throat, abnormal pupil size on the right side associated with orbital trauma, unequal pupillary reflexes, absence of loss of consciousness (LOC), a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, multiple clinical presentations, and DFU. An abnormal CT scan was associated with older age, multiple clinical presentation, skull X-ray findings, and DFU. A similar analysis on outcomes revealed that mode of accident, older age, vomiting, confusion, headache, bleeding from ear, nose and throat, neurological deficits, absence of LOC, pupil size, multiple presentation, abnormal skull X ray, CT scan of the brain, and a GCS of 13 was associated with DFU. In conclusion, all patients involved in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), especially motorcycles, aged over 30 years of age, with multiple clinical presentations, including a lower GCS, and with abnormal radiological findings should have a longer follow-up due to persistent post-traumatic symptomatology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital/standards*; Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data*
  8. Jefferelli, S.B., Sunthar, R., Trauth B., Bauder, K.
    MyJurnal
    Good reporting of medical drill is important to optimise learning and benefit from the activity. This article shares our opinion on what constitutes a good medical emergency drill report. A good medical emergency medical drill report should include medical drill background, observation, remarks on observation and details of observers and reporter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  9. Yussof SJM, Zakaria MI, Mohamed FL, Bujang MA, Lakshmanan S, Asaari AH
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Aug;67(4):406-11.
    PMID: 23082451
    INTRODUCTION: The importance of early recognition and treatment of sepsis and its effects on short-term survival outcome have long been recognized. Having reliable indicators and markers that would help prognosticate the survival of these patients is invaluable and would subsequently assist in the course of effective dynamic triaging and goal directed management.
    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognosticative value of Shock Index (SI), taken upon arrival to the emergency department and after 2 hours of resuscitation on the shortterm outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock patients.
    METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective observational study involving 50 patients admitted to the University of Malaya Medical Centre between June 2009 and June 2010 who have been diagnosed with either severe sepsis or septic shock. Patients were identified retrospectively from the details recorded in the registration book of the resuscitation room. 50 patients were selected for this pilot study. The population comprised 19 males (38%) and 31 females (62%). The median (min, max) age was 54.5 (17.0, 84.0) years. The number of severe sepsis and septic shock cases were 31 (62%), and 19 (38%) respectively. There were 17 (34%) cases of pneumonias, 13 (26%) cases of urological sepsis, 8 (16%) cases of gastro intestinal tract related infections and 12 (24%) cases of other infections. There were a total of 23 (46%) survivors and 27 (54%) deaths. The value of the shock index is defined as systolic blood pressure divided by heart rate was calculated. Shock Index on presentation to ED (SI 1) and after 2 hours of resuscitation in the ED (SI 2). The median, minimum and maximum variables were tested using Mann-Whitney U and Chi square analysis. The significant parameters were re-evaluated for sensitivity, specificity and cut-off points. ROC curves and AUC values were generated among these variables to assess prognostic utility for outcome.
    RESULTS: Amongst all 7 variables tested, 2 were tested to be significant (p: < 0.05). From the sensitivity, specificity and ROC analysis, the best predictor for death was (SI 2) with a sensitivity of 80.8%, specificity of 79.2%, AUC value of 0.8894 [CI 95 0.8052, 0.9736] at a cut-off point of > or = 1.0.
    CONCLUSION: (SI 2) may potentially be utilized as a reliable predictor for death in patients presenting with septic shock and severe sepsis in an emergency department. This parameters should be further analyzed in a larger scale prospective study to determine its validity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  10. Lim BJV, Wahab SFA, Kueh YC
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Mar;27(2):90-100.
    PMID: 32788845 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.2.10
    Background: The study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the existing three-tier triaging system and a new five-level emergency triaging system, emergency severity index (ESI), in the Emergency Department (ED) of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM).

    Methods: This study was conducted in HUSM's ED over two study periods. In the first three months, 300 patients were triaged under the three-tier triaging system, and, in the subsequent three months, 280 patients were triaged under the ESI. The patients were triaged by junior paramedics and the triage records were retained and later re-triaged by senior paramedics. The inter-rater reliability was evaluated using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The acuity ratings of the junior paramedics were compared with those of the expert panel to determine the sensitivity and specificity of each acuity level for both the ESI and the three-tier triaging system. The over-triage rate, under-triage rate, amount of resources used, admission rate and discharge rate were also determined.

    Results: The inter-rater agreement for the three-tier triaging system was 0.81 while that of the ESI was 0.75. The ESI had a higher average sensitivity of 74.3% and a specificity of 94.4% while the three-tier system's average sensitivity was 68.5% and its specificity 87.0%. The average under-triage and over-triage rates for the ESI were 10.7% and 6.2%, respectively, which were lower than the three-tier system's average under-triage rate of 13.1% and over-triage rate of 17.1%. The urgency levels of both the ESI and the three-tier system were associated with increased admission rates and resources used in the ED.

    Conclusion: The ESI's inter-rater reliability was comparable to the three-tier triaging system and it demonstrated better validity than the existing three-tier system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  11. Mohd Mokhtar MA, Pin TM, Zakaria MI, Hairi NN, Kamaruzzaman SB, Vyrn CA, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2015 Aug;15(8):944-50.
    PMID: 25311907 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12369
    AIM: To determine the pattern of utilization of emergency department (ED) services by older patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, compared with younger patients in the same setting.
    METHODS: The sociodemographics, clinical characteristics and resource utilization of consecutive patients attending the adult ED at the University Malaya Medical Center were recorded during a typical week.
    RESULTS: A total of 1649 patients were included in the study; 422/1649 (25.6%) were aged ≥60 years and 1077 (74.4%) were aged <60 years. Older adult patients were more likely to be diagnosed with ischemic heart disease (12.6% vs 2.5%, P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  12. Leow VM, Mohamad IS, Subramaniam M
    BMJ Case Rep, 2020 Jul 16;13(7).
    PMID: 32675132 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2020-236918
    WHO declared worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Healthcare authorities have temporarily stopped all elective surgical and endoscopy procedures. Nevertheless, there is a subset of patients who require emergency treatment such as aerosol-generating procedures. Herein, we would like to discuss the management of a patient diagnosed with impending biliary sepsis during COVID-19 outbreak. The highlight of the discussion is mainly concerning the advantages of concurrent use of aerosol protective barrier in addition to personal protective equipment practice, necessary precautions to be taken during endoscopy retrograde cholangiopancreatography and handling of the patient preprocedure and postprocedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital*
  13. Jatau AI, Aung MMT, Kamauzaman THT, Ab Rahman AF
    Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2018 May;31:53-56.
    PMID: 29705480 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.01.016
    OBJECTIVE: Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM) are widely used worldwide, and many of them have the potential to cause toxicity, interaction with conventional medications and non-adherence to prescribed medications due to patients' preference for the TCM use. However, information regarding their use among patients seeking care at emergency departments (ED) of a healthcare facility is limited. The study aimed to evaluate the TCM use among patients attending the ED of a teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    STUDY DESIGN: A sub-analysis of data from a prevalence study of medication-related visits among patients at the ED of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia was conducted. The study took place over a period of six weeks from December 2014 to January 2015 involving 434 eligible patients. Data on demography, conventional medication, and TCM uses were collected from patient interview and the medical folders.

    RESULTS: Among this cohort, 66 patients (15.2%, 95%CI 12.0, 19.0) reported concurrent TCM use. Sixteen (24.2%) of the TCM users were using more than one (1) type of TCM, and 17 (25.8%) came to the ED for medication-related reasons. Traditional Malay Medicine (TMM) was the most frequently used TCM by the patients. Five patients (7.6%) sought treatment at the ED for medical problems related to use of TCM.

    CONCLUSION: Patients seeking medical care at the ED may be currently using TCM. ED-physicians should be aware of these therapies and should always ask patients about the TCM use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Jatau AI, Aung MM, Kamauzaman TH, Chedi BA, Sha'aban A, Rahman AF
    J Intercult Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Mar 2;5(2):191-7.
    PMID: 27104042 DOI: 10.5455/jice.20160223105521
    Many studies have been conducted in health-care settings with regards to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among patients. However, information regarding CAM use among patients in the emergency department (ED) is scarce. The aim of this article was to conduct a systematic review of published studies with regards to CAM use among the ED patients. A literature search of published studies from inception to September 2015 was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and manual search of the reference list. 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The prevalence rate of CAM use among ED patients across the studies ranged of 1.4-68.1%. Herbal therapy was the sub-modality of CAM most commonly used and frequently implicated in CAM-related ED visits. Higher education, age, female gender, religious affiliation, and chronic diseases were the most frequent factors associated with CAM use among the ED patients. Over 80% of the ED physicians did not ask the patients about the CAM therapy. Similarly, 80% of the ED patients were ready to disclose CAM therapy to the ED physician. The prevalence rate of CAM use among patients at ED is high and is growing with the current increasing popularity, and it has been a reason for some of the ED visits. There is a need for the health-care professionals to receive training and always ask patients about CAM therapy to enable them provide appropriate medical care and prevent CAM-related adverse events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  15. Lui, Sze Yee, Noor Zuraini Abu Bakar, Ida Zaliza Zainol Abidin
    MyJurnal
    The clinical diagnosis of snakebite is critical, particularly in Southeast Asia where venomous snakebites are a public health concern. Additionally, cases involving unwitnessed snakebite with no species identification, especially in non-verbal children posed a challenge in the emergency setting. A 2-year-2-month-old boy presented to our emergency department with signs of neurotoxicity. He was restless and mildly bradypnoeic with the respiratory rate of 24 to 28 breaths per minute. He also had bilateral ptosis with absent gag reflex. There were faint fang marks noted over the medial aspect of his left ankle with local swelling and bruises, despite no history of animal bite and no eyewitness. A high index of suspicion of neurotoxic envenomation was prompted and a total of 6 vials of neuro-polyvalent anti-venom were administered in scheduled batches. Progressive clinical recovery was subsequently observed after the first batch of anti-venom administration. The case illustrated the importance of clinical recognition of neurotoxic envenomation in the absence of snake bite history or species identification. Early administration of anti-venom may potentially reverse the neurotoxic effects of systemic envenomation and saves lives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  16. Seak CJ, Goh ZNL, Wong AC, Seak JC, Seak CK
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Sep;98(38):e17229.
    PMID: 31567985 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017229
    RATIONALE: Abdominal pain in pregnancy represents a demanding diagnostic challenge in the emergency department (ED) due to the extensive list of differential diagnoses to be considered, coupled with the possibility of each disease having nonclassical, atypical signs and symptoms, resultant from the patient's pregnant state. Additionally, emergency physicians (EPs) face limitations on investigative imaging modalities because of the need to minimize fetal radiation exposure. EPs have to tackle this diagnostic challenge while performing a balancing act to maximize both maternal and fetal outcomes in a time-sensitive manner, becauser any delays in decision-making at the ED may threaten the safety of mother and child. Two common causes of abdominal pain in pregnancy presenting to the ED are acute appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. The latter is almost always diagnosed by 10 weeks of gestation. Here, we report an extremely rare case of unilateral live spontaneous twin tubal ectopic pregnancy presenting past 12 weeks of gestation, diagnosed after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen.

    PATIENT CONCERNS: A 37-year-old gravida 2 para 1 at 12 weeks and 6 days of gestation presented to our ED with a 2-day history of right iliac fossa pain, not associated with vaginal bleeding, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. On examination, she was tachycardic (pulse rate 124 beats/min) and hypertensive (blood pressure 142/88 mm Hg). There was marked tenderness and guarding at the lower abdomen.

    DIAGNOSES: Blood investigations were unremarkable, while abdominal ultrasonography found a live twin gestation with foetal heartbeats of 185 and 180 beats/min. MRI of the abdomen revealed an empty uterine cavity; 2 amniotic sacs and fetuses of diameter 10 cm, and a single placenta were noted in the right uterine adnexa. The patient was diagnosed with right live monochorionic diamniotic twin tubal pregnancy.

    INTERVENTION: Our patient underwent emergency laparoscopic right salpingectomy.

    OUTCOMES: The operation was successful and her postoperative care remained uneventful up to discharge.

    LESSONS: Ectopic pregnancy cannot be ruled out based on prior normal antenatal examinations and gestational age of >10 weeks. EPs should not hesitate to order MRI scans for further evaluation if ultrasonography and laboratory findings are equivocal.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  17. Mohd Ariff NA, Mazlan MZ, Mat Hassan ME, Seevaunnamtum PA, Wan Muhd Shukeri WF, Nik Mohamad NA, et al.
    Respir Med Case Rep, 2018;23:93-95.
    PMID: 29387523 DOI: 10.1016/j.rmcr.2018.01.001
    Introduction: Bronchoscopy is a commonly used procedure in the context of aspiration in the Intensive Care Unit setting. Despite its ability to remove mucus plug and undigested gastric contents, aspiration of gastric content into the trachea is one of the most feared complications among anesthesiologist.

    Discussion: The scenario is made worst if the aspiration causes acute hypoxemic respiratory failure immediately post intubation. However, in the event of desaturation, the quick decision to proceed with bronchoscopy is a challenging task to the anesthesiologist without knowing the causes.

    Case presentation: We present a case of a 12-year-old boy who had a difficult-to-ventilate scenario post transferring and immediately connected to ventilator in operation theatre (OT) from portable ventilator from the emergency department. She was successfully managed by bronchoscopy.

    Conclusion: Special attention should be given to the difficult-to-ventilate scenario post intubation of traumatic brain injury patient prior to operation. Prompt diagnosis and bronchoscope-assisted removal of foreign body was found to be a successful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  18. Stephens TJ, Bamber JR, Beckingham IJ, Duncan E, Quiney NF, Abercrombie JF, et al.
    Implement Sci, 2019 08 23;14(1):84.
    PMID: 31443689 DOI: 10.1186/s13012-019-0932-0
    BACKGROUND: Acute gallstone disease is the highest volume Emergency General Surgical presentation in the UK. Recent data indicate wide variations in the quality of care provided across the country, with national guidance for care delivery not implemented in most UK hospitals. Against this backdrop, the Royal College of Surgeons of England set up a 13-hospital quality improvement collaborative (Chole-QuIC) to support clinical teams to reduce time to surgery for patients with acute gallstone disease requiring emergency cholecystectomy.

    METHODS: Prospective, mixed-methods process evaluation to answer the following: (1) how was the collaborative delivered by the faculty and received, understood and enacted by the participants; (2) what influenced teams' ability to improve care for patients requiring emergency cholecystectomy? We collected and analysed a range of data including field notes, ethnographic observations of meetings, and project documentation. Analysis was based on the framework approach, informed by Normalisation Process Theory, and involved the creation of comparative case studies based on hospital performance during the project.

    RESULTS: Chole-QuIC was delivered as planned and was well received and understood by participants. Four hospitals were identified as highly successful, based upon a substantial increase in the number of patients having surgery in line with national guidance. Conversely, four hospitals were identified as challenged, achieving no significant improvement. The comparative analysis indicate that six inter-related influences appeared most associated with improvement: (1) achieving clarity of purpose amongst site leads and key stakeholders; (2) capacity to lead and effective project support; (3) ideas to action; (4) learning from own and others' experience; (5) creating additional capacity to do emergency cholecystectomies; and (6) coordinating/managing the patient pathway.

    CONCLUSION: Collaborative-based quality improvement is a viable strategy for emergency surgery but success requires the deployment of effective clinical strategies in conjunction with improvement strategies. In particular, achieving clarity of purpose about proposed changes amongst key stakeholders was a vital precursor to improvement, enabling the creation of additional surgical capacity and new pathways to be implemented effectively. Protected time, testing ideas, and the ability to learn quickly from data and experience were associated with greater impact within this cohort.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration*; Emergency Service, Hospital/standards
  19. Jatau AI, Shitu Z, Khalid GM, Yunusa I, Awaisu A
    Ther Adv Drug Saf, 2019;10:2042098619852552.
    PMID: 31258886 DOI: 10.1177/2042098619852552
    Background: The burden of adverse drug event (ADE)-related emergency department (ED) visits is increasing despite several preventive measures. The objective of this paper was to develop and validate a conceptual model for a better understanding of ADE-related ED visits and to guide the design and implementation of effective interventions.

    Methods: The development of the model involved a systematic review of the literature using PubMed and Embase databases. Studies reporting the risk factors associated with ADE-related ED visits were included. The methodological qualities of the included studies were assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The model was mapped and validated using face and content validity by an expert panel. Deficiencies and targeted interventions were identified, and steps for the design and implementation were recommended.

    Results: The literature search generated 1361 articles, of which 38 were included in the review; 41 risk factors associated with ADE-related ED visits were identified. All factors were mapped, and the model was validated through face and content validity. The model consisted of six concepts related to sociodemographic factors, clinical factors, ADE-related to ED visits, ADE while in the ED, outcomes, and consequences. Interventions could be targeted at the factors identified in each concept to prevent ADE-related ED burden.

    Conclusion: A conceptual model to guide the successful design and implementation of strategies to prevent ADE-related ED visits and the occurrence of ADE at ED was developed. Clinicians should take these factors into consideration to prevent untoward events, especially when treating high-risk patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
  20. Osman A, Wan Chuan T, Ab Rahman J, Via G, Tavazzi G
    Eur J Emerg Med, 2018 Oct;25(5):322-327.
    PMID: 28509710 DOI: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000471
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel pericardiocentesis technique using an in-plane parasternal medial-to-lateral approach with the use of a high-frequency probe in patients with cardiac tamponade.

    BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion and tamponade physiology. Ultrasound guidance for pericardiocentesis is currently considered the standard of care. Several approaches have been described recently, which differ mainly on the site of puncture (subxiphoid, apical, or parasternal). Although they share the use of low-frequency probes, there is absence of complete control of needle trajectory and real-time needle visualization. An in-plane and real-time technique has only been described anecdotally.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective analysis of 11 patients (63% men, mean age: 37.7±21.2 years) presenting with cardiac tamponade admitted to the tertiary-care emergency department and treated with parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis was carried out. The underlying causes of cardiac tamponade were different among the population. All the pericardiocentesis were successfully performed in the emergency department, without complications, relieving the hemodynamic instability. The mean time taken to perform the eight-step procedure was 309±76.4 s, with no procedure-related complications.

    CONCLUSION: The parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis is a new technique theoretically free of complications and it enables real-time monitoring of needle trajectory. For the first time, a pericardiocentesis approach with a medial-to-lateral needle trajectory and real-time, in-plane, needle visualization was performed in a tamponade patient population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emergency Service, Hospital
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