Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 445 in total

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  1. Aburas, Maher Milad, Sabrina Ho Abdullah, Mohammad Firuz Ramli, Zulfa Hanan Ash'aari
    MyJurnal
    Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques are significant and popular approaches that have been used in recent years to measure and map urban growth patterns. This paper primarily aims to provide a basis for a literature review of urban growth measurement and mapping by using different methods. For this purpose, the general characteristics of measuring and mapping urban growth patterns are described and classified. The strengths and weaknesses of the various methods have been identified from an analysis and discussion of the characteristics of the techniques. Results of reviews confirm that combining quantitative and qualitative techniques, such as Shannon approach and change detection, to measure and map urban growth patterns will improve understanding of the phenomenon of urban growth. Moreover, using social and economic data such as population and income data will improve understanding of the relationships between causes and effects. The integration of social and economic factors with quantitative and qualitative techniques will contribute to a perfect evaluation of urban growth patterns and land use changes, taking technical, social, economic, spatial, and temporal factors into account.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  2. Henriksson PJG, Rico A, Troell M, Klinger DH, Buschmann AH, Saksida S, et al.
    Sustain Sci, 2018;13(4):1105-1120.
    PMID: 30147798 DOI: 10.1007/s11625-017-0511-8
    Global seafood provides almost 20% of all animal protein in diets, and aquaculture is, despite weakening trends, the fastest growing food sector worldwide. Recent increases in production have largely been achieved through intensification of existing farming systems, resulting in higher risks of disease outbreaks. This has led to increased use of antimicrobials (AMs) and consequent antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in many farming sectors, which may compromise the treatment of bacterial infections in the aquaculture species itself and increase the risks of AMR in humans through zoonotic diseases or through the transfer of AMR genes to human bacteria. Multiple stakeholders have, as a result, criticized the aquaculture industry, resulting in consequent regulations in some countries. AM use in aquaculture differs from that in livestock farming due to aquaculture's greater diversity of species and farming systems, alternative means of AM application, and less consolidated farming practices in many regions. This, together with less research on AM use in aquaculture in general, suggests that large data gaps persist with regards to its overall use, breakdowns by species and system, and how AMs become distributed in, and impact on, the overall social-ecological systems in which they are embedded. This paper identifies the main factors (and challenges) behind application rates, which enables discussion of mitigation pathways. From a set of identified key mechanisms for AM usage, six proximate factors are identified: vulnerability to bacterial disease, AM access, disease diagnostic capacity, AMR, target markets and food safety regulations, and certification. Building upon these can enable local governments to reduce AM use through farmer training, spatial planning, assistance with disease identification, and stricter regulations. National governments and international organizations could, in turn, assist with disease-free juveniles and vaccines, enforce rigid monitoring of the quantity and quality of AMs used by farmers and the AM residues in the farmed species and in the environment, and promote measures to reduce potential human health risks associated with AMR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  3. Qureshi MI, Khan NU, Rasli AM, Zaman K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Aug;22(15):11708-15.
    PMID: 25854212 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4440-8
    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental indicators and health expenditures in the panel of five selected Asian countries, over the period of 2000-2013. The study used panel cointegration technique for evaluating the nexus between environment and health in the region. The results show that energy demand, forest area, and GDP per unit use of energy have a significant and positive impact on increasing health expenditures in the region. These results have been confirmed by single equation panel cointegration estimators, i.e., fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic OLS (DOLS), and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) estimators. In addition, the study used robust least squares regression to confirm the generalizability of the results in Asian context. All these estimators indicate that environmental indicators escalate the health expenditures per capita in a region; therefore, Asian countries should have to upsurge health expenditures for safeguard from environmental evils in a region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*; Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
  4. Alam A, Azam M, Abdullah AB, Malik IA, Khan A, Hamzah TA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Jun;22(11):8392-404.
    PMID: 25537287 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3982-5
    Environmental quality indicators are crucial for responsive and cost-effective policies. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia. For this purpose, the number of environmental quality indicators has been used, i.e., air pollution measured by carbon dioxide emissions, population density per square kilometer of land area, agricultural production measured by cereal production and livestock production, and energy resources considered by energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, which placed an impact on the financial development of the country. The study used four main financial indicators, i.e., broad money supply (M2), domestic credit provided by the financial sector (DCFS), domestic credit to the private sector (DCPC), and inflation (CPI), which each financial indicator separately estimated with the environmental quality indicators, over a period of 1975-2013. The study used the generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to minimize the simultaneity from the model. The results show that carbon dioxide emissions exert the positive correlation with the M2, DCFC, and DCPC, while there is a negative correlation with the CPI. However, these results have been evaporated from the GMM estimates, where carbon emissions have no significant relationship with any of the four financial indicators in Malaysia. The GMM results show that population density has a negative relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, in case of M2, this relationship is insignificant to explain their result. Cereal production has a positive relationship with the DCPC, while there is a negative relationship with the CPI. Livestock production exerts the positive relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, this relationship with the CPI has a more elastic relationship, while the remaining relationship is less elastic with the three financial indicators in a country. Energy resources comprise energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, both have distinct results with the financial indicators, as energy demand have a positive and significant relationship with the DCFC, DCPC, and CPI, while fossil fuel energy consumption have a negative relationship with these three financial indicators. The results of the study are of value to both environmentalists and policy makers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
  5. Asadi-Shekari Z, Moeinaddini M, Zaly Shah M
    Traffic Inj Prev, 2015;16:283-8.
    PMID: 24983474 DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2014.936010
    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/standards*
  6. Ariffin M, Zakili TST
    Environ Manage, 2019 Oct;64(4):509-519.
    PMID: 31399770 DOI: 10.1007/s00267-019-01199-y
    Although pharmaceuticals treat illnesses and prevent diseases in humans and animals, ironically, they are now among the emerging pollutants in the environment. As individuals continue to consume medicines, households can become a primary source of pharmaceutical pollutants. This paper explains relevant Malaysian law and policy on the issue. Using a questionnaire survey, it also assesses public perception concerning the environmental impact of pharmaceutical waste and the current methods of disposal that are practiced in Selangor. The survey used a convenience sampling and the data collected were analysed using statistical descriptive analysis. Most of the participants were aware that pharmaceutical waste can have an adverse impact on the environment and public health. Half of the participants disposed of their pharmaceutical waste in trash bins. About 2.9% of the respondents poured their household pharmaceutical waste (HPW) directly down the drain, while 8.8% poured them down the sink in the kitchen or toilet. The study also discovered that while 73.8% of the respondents felt that HPW should be separated from other household solid waste, only 25.2% returned their medicinal waste through the medicine return-back programme. The majority of the respondents (82.5%) agreed that information concerning the proper disposal of HPW is insufficient. The study concludes that while the respondents were aware of the adverse impact of HPW, their practices to ensure proper disposal is discouraging. There is a need for effective unwanted medicines return-back programme as a more prudent disposal method of HPW to avoid any risk to the environment or human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  7. Sharip Z, Zaki AT
    Environ Monit Assess, 2014 Aug;186(8):4959-69.
    PMID: 24696283 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-3751-4
    Thermal structure and water quality in a large and shallow lake in Malaysia were studied between January 2012 and June 2013 in order to understand variations in relation to water level fluctuations and in-stream mining activities. Environmental variables, namely temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, chlorophyll-A and transparency, were measured using a multi-parameter probe and a Secchi disk. Measurements of environmental variables were performed at 0.1 m intervals from the surface to the bottom of the lake during the dry and wet seasons. High water level and strong solar radiation increased temperature stratification. River discharges during the wet season, and unsustainable sand mining activities led to an increased turbidity exceeding 100 NTU, and reduced transparency, which changed the temperature variation and subsequently altered the water quality pattern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Monitoring
  8. Lalang Buana, Ahmad Mahir Razali, Zainodin Haji Jubok
    The changes on the vegetables oil trading environment might change the foundation of palm oil pricing and induce a structural change to the price model. Failing to take it account the structural change in a data series might lead to misspecification of the actual model. This study, however, showed that structural change was not present in the monthly, January 1983 to July 1995, palm oil price, but it was present on the unconditional variance. The underlying model of this series was ARIMA (3, 1, 0) with ARCH (1). The critical change of the unconditional variance took place in April 1989.
    Perubahan dalam suasana perdagangan minyak sayuran boleh mengubah asas harga minyak kelapa sawit. Seterusnya ia merangsang perubahan dalam struktur model harga minyak tersebut. Kegagalan untuk mengambil kira perubahan struktur dalam siri data menjadikan model itu tidak menepati spesifikasi daripada model sebenar. Kajian ini mendapati bahawa perubahan struktur tidak berlaku bagi data harga minyak sawit dari Januari 1983 hingga Julai 1995. Tetapi perubahan berlaku pada varians tidak bersyaratnya. Model asas bagi siri ini adalah ARIMA (3,1,0) dengan ARCH(1). Didapati juga bahawa perubahan yang kritikal bagi varians tidak bersyarat berlaku pada bulan April 1989.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  9. Chow CK, Corsi DJ, Gilmore AB, Kruger A, Igumbor E, Chifamba J, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 03 31;7(3):e013817.
    PMID: 28363924 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013817
    OBJECTIVES: This study examines in a cross-sectional study 'the tobacco control environment' including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio.

    SETTING: 545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014.

    PARTICIPANTS: Community audits and surveys of adults (35-70 years, n=12 953).

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Summary scores of tobacco policy implementation (cost and availability of cigarettes, tobacco advertising, antismoking signage), social unacceptability and knowledge were associated with quit ratios (former vs ever smokers) using multilevel logistic regression models.

    RESULTS: Average tobacco control policy score was greater in communities from HIC. Overall 56.1% (306/545) of communities had >2 outlets selling cigarettes and in 28.6% (154/539) there was access to cheap cigarettes (<5cents/cigarette) (3.2% (3/93) in HIC, 0% UMIC, 52.6% (90/171) LMIC and 40.4% (61/151) in LIC). Effective bans (no tobacco advertisements) were in 63.0% (341/541) of communities (81.7% HIC, 52.8% UMIC, 65.1% LMIC and 57.6% LIC). In 70.4% (379/538) of communities, >80% of participants disapproved youth smoking (95.7% HIC, 57.6% UMIC, 76.3% LMIC and 58.9% LIC). The average knowledge score was >80% in 48.4% of communities (94.6% HIC, 53.6% UMIC, 31.8% LMIC and 35.1% LIC). Summary scores of policy implementation, social unacceptability and knowledge were positively and significantly associated with quit ratio and the associations varied by gender, for example, communities in the highest quintile of the combined scores had 5.0 times the quit ratio in men (Odds ratio (OR) 5·0, 95% CI 3.4 to 7.4) and 4.1 times the quit ratio in women (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.1).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that more focus is needed on ensuring the tobacco control policy is actually implemented, particularly in LMICs. The gender-related differences in associations of policy, social unacceptability and knowledge suggest that different strategies to promoting quitting may need to be implemented in men compared to women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  10. Ghani Z, Anuar A, Majid Z, Yoneda M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2383-2392.
    This study describes the development of a multimedia environmental fate and transport model of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) at Sungai Sayong watershed. Based on the latest estimated DDT emission, the DDT concentrations in air, soil, water and sediment as well as the transfer processes were simulated under the equilibrium and steady-state assumption. Model predictions suggested that soil and sediment was the dominant sink of DDT. The results showed that the model predicted was generally good agreement with field data. Compared with degradation reaction, advection outflow was more important processes occurred in the model. Sensitivities of the model estimates to input parameters were tested. The result showed that vapour pressure (Ps) and organic carbon water partition coefficient (KOC) were the most influential parameters for the model output. The model output-concentrations of DDT in multimedia environment is very important as it can be used in future for human exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Sungai Sayong Basin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  11. Thatcher A, Yeow PH
    Appl Ergon, 2016 May 24.
    PMID: 27234806 DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2016.05.007
    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  12. Samudhram A, Siew EG, Sinnakkannu J, Yeow PH
    Appl Ergon, 2016 Mar 27.
    PMID: 27029522 DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2016.03.004
    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Pollution
  13. Yang SR, Yeh YL
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:1677-1683.
    Countering the dangers associated the present extreme climate not only requires continuous improvement of local disaster
    prevention engineering infrastructure but also needs an enhanced understanding of the causes of the disasters. This study
    investigates the geologic hazard risk of 53 slopeland villages in Pingtung county of southern Taiwan. First, remote sensing
    (RS) techniques were utilized to interpret environmental geology and geologic hazard zonation, including dip slope, fault,
    landslide and debris flow. GIS map overlay analysis was used to further identify the extent of the geologic hazard zonation.
    As a final step, field investigation is used to comprehend geologic, topographic conditions and the geologic hazard risk
    specific to each locality. Based on data analysis and field investigation results, this study successfully integrates RS, GIS
    and GPS techniques to construct a geologic hazard risk assessment method of slopeland village. The results of this study
    can be used to promote support for future disaster prevention and disaster mitigation efforts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  14. Shepon A, Henriksson PJG, Wu T
    Front Nutr, 2018;5:104.
    PMID: 30456214 DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2018.00104
    The industrialized world has entered a new era of widespread automation, and although this may create long-term gains in economic productivity and wealth accumulation, many professions are expected to disappear during the ensuing shift, leading to potentially significant disruptions in labor markets and associated socioeconomic difficulties. Food production, like many other industrial sectors, has also undergone a century of mechanization, having moved toward increasingly large-scale monoculture production-especially in developed economies-with higher yields but detrimental environmental impacts on a global scale. Certain characteristics of the food sector and its products cast doubts on whether future automation will influence it in the same ways as in other sectors. We conceptualize a model of future food production within the socioeconomic conditions created by widespread automation. We ideate that despite immediate shocks to the economy, in the long run higher productivity can free up human activity to be channeled toward more interactive, skill-intensive food production systems, where communal efforts can reduce industrial reliance, diversify farming, and reconnect people to the biosphere-a realization of human well-being that resembles the classical philosophical ideal of Eudaimonia. We explore food production concepts, such as communal gardens and polyculture, and the economic conditions and institutions needed to underwrite them [e.g., a universal basic income (UBI)]. However, arguments can be raised as to why social-ecological systems would benefit from more labor-intensive food production. In this paper we: (1) discuss the current state of the food system and the need to reform it in light of its environmental and social impacts; (2) present automation as a lever that could move society toward more sustainable food production; (3) highlight the beneficial attributes of a Eudaimonian model; and (4) discuss the potential challenges to its implementation. Our purpose is to highlight a possible outcome that future research will need to refine and expand based on evidence and successful case studies. The ultimate aim is to promote a food system that can provide food security while staying within the safe operating space of planetary boundaries, produce more nutritious diets, enhance social capital, and reconnect communities with the biosphere.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  15. Jiang L, Yue K, Yang Y, Wu Q
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1041-1047.
    Litter decomposition is vital for carbon and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, and this process has now
    been thoroughly demonstrated to be regulated by various mechanisms. The total environment has been continuously
    changing in recent decades, especially in high-latitude regions; these alterations, however, profoundly contribute to the
    decomposition process, but a comprehensive recognition has not available. Here we reviewed the empirical observations
    and current knowledge regarding how hydrological leaching and freeze-thaw events modulate early decomposition of
    plant litter. Leaching contributes a considerable percentage of mass loss and carbon and nutrient release in early stage of
    decomposition, but the magnitudes are different between species levels depending on the chemical traits. Frequent freezing
    and thawing events could positively influence decomposition rate in cold biomes but also hamper soil decomposer and
    there is no general and predictable pattern has been emerged. Further experiments should be manipulated to estimate
    how the altered freezing and thawing effect on carbon and nutrient release from plant litter to better understanding the
    changing environment on litter decomposition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  16. Tackett S, Shochet R, Shilkofski NA, Colbert-Getz J, Rampal K, Abu Bakar H, et al.
    BMC Med Educ, 2015;15:105.
    PMID: 26081751 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-015-0388-0
    Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine (PUGSOM), the first graduate-entry medical school in Malaysia, was established in 2011 in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), an American medical school. This study compared learning environments (LE) at these two schools, which shared the same overarching curriculum, along with a comparator Malaysian medical school, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS). As a secondary aim, we compared 2 LE assessment tools - the widely-used Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) and the newer Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES).
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment*
  17. Kamaruzzaman SN, Egbu CO, Zawawi EM, Karim SB, Woon CJ
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 May;187(5):242.
    PMID: 25864077 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4447-0
    It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace's building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants' level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants' satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of "user satisfaction" and "degree of importance." The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants' satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building's appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants' satisfaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Monitoring
  18. Ambu, Stephen, Chu, Wan-Loy, Mak, Joon-Wah, Wong, Shew-Fung, Chan, Li-Li, Wong, Siew-Tung
    MyJurnal
    Malaysia has good environmental laws to protect the outdoor environment and public health. However there are no laws governing indoor air quality (IAQ) and the knowledge among the public about its importance is also lacking. Environmental professionals think it is not a priority and this influences the policy decisions in the country. Therefore there is a need to create awareness by way of research, education and other promotional activities. What is much needed at this time is the establishment of standards for the conduct of risk assessment studies. To establish standards we need reliable data which can be used to develop appropriate guidelines for the purpose of mitigation and adaptation programmes. IAQ can have significant influence on health resulting in drop in productivity and economy of a country. It has been estimated that in the US, building related illnesses (BRI) symptoms have a relationship with decrease (3 to 5%) in work performance in an affected population resulting in an annual loss of US$60 billion in revenue. However, based on efficient management programmes they have also projected that the potential annual savings can be in the region of US$10 to 30 billion. This establishes that fact that good management programmes based on efficient guidelines is of economic value to a country and wellbeing of the population. The IMU has embarked on a research programme to collect the much-needed data for the framing of a good IAQ guideline for Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
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