Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 445 in total

  1. Abnisa F, Anuar Sharuddin SD, Bin Zanil MF, Wan Daud WMA, Indra Mahlia TM
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Nov 10;11(11).
    PMID: 31717695 DOI: 10.3390/polym11111853
    The conversion of plastic waste into fuel by pyrolysis has been recognized as a potential strategy for commercialization. The amount of plastic waste is basically different for each country which normally refers to non-recycled plastics data; consequently, the production target will also be different. This study attempted to build a model to predict fuel production from different non-recycled plastics data. The predictive model was developed via Levenberg-Marquardt approach in feed-forward neural networks model. The optimal number of hidden neurons was selected based on the lowest total of the mean square error. The proposed model was evaluated using the statistical analysis and graphical presentation for its accuracy and reliability. The results showed that the model was capable to predict product yields from pyrolysis of non-recycled plastics with high accuracy and the output values were strongly correlated with the values in literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  2. Marshall J, Doone E, Price M
    Disabil Rehabil, 2019 Nov;41(22):2653-2662.
    PMID: 29779396 DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2018.1474497
    Background: This study examined parents' developmental concerns for their children within the context of systems of care in Malaysia. Methods: Focus groups and interviews were conducted in peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Results: Parents' perceptions of developmental delay stemmed from three sources: the cultural, resource, and the social environments. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a medical support system in Malaysia that considers a life-course perspective, including prenatal care, screening/diagnosis, and services. This system should embrace a family-centered approach to diagnosis, referral, intervention, and support with sensitivity to cultural beliefs, family preferences, and barriers to care. Implications for Rehabilitation Parental perceptions of disability affect the strategies they use to cope. This research found that cultural conceptions of disability, available resources, and social support affect parental perceptions of disability. The resource environment in Malaysia significantly restricts parents' ability to cope with their child's disability. This research recommended that the medical system of Malaysia develops a life-course perspective to disability to provide a range of care for children with disabilities including prenatal care, screening and rehabilitation or coping services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  3. Al-Mulali U, Solarin SA, Ozturk I
    PMID: 31664668 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06710-w
    The objective of this research is to examine the effects of stock market on air pollution in Malaysia during the period 1980-2017. To realize this aim, a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is constructed. The short results in general revealed that the increase in stock markets will increase CO2 emissions and its significance increases in the long run. Moreover, the decline in stock market will reduce Malaysia's CO2 emissions but only in the long run. From the outcomes obtained, a number of policy recommendations were provided for the investigated country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  4. Gill AR, Hassan S, Haseeb M
    PMID: 31642017 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06565-1
    This research article aims to investigate the moderating role of financial development in Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in the context of Malaysia for the period 1970-2016. As the time series variables are integrated of different order therefore, Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model has been employed to estimate the long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The results indicate that EKC does exist for Malaysia and financial development has negative impact on carbon emission. Moreover, financial development is found to have significant moderating impact on income environment relation. More financial development brings early turning point of the EKC. The results recommend that financial development can be used as one of the policy measures to reduce the environmental cost of economic growth in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  5. Dasan YK, Lam MK, Yusup S, Lim JW, Lee KT
    Sci. Total Environ., 2019 Oct 20;688:112-128.
    PMID: 31229809 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.181
    The rapid depletion of fossil fuels and ever-increasing environmental pollution have forced humankind to look for a renewable energy source. Microalgae, a renewable biomass source, has been proposed as a promising feedstock to generate biofuels due to their fast growth rate with high lipid content. However, literatures have indicated that sustainable production of microalgae biofuels are only viable with a highly optimized production system. In the present study, a cradle-to-gate approach was used to provide expedient insights on the effect of different cultivation systems and biomass productivity toward life cycle energy (LCEA), carbon balance (LCCO2) and economic (LCC) of microalgae biodiesel production pathways. In addition, a co-production of bioethanol from microalgae residue was proposed in order to improve the economic sustainability of the overall system. The results attained in the present work indicated that traditional microalgae biofuels processing pathways resulted to several shortcomings, such as dehydration and lipid extraction of microalgae biomass required high energy input and contributed nearly 21 to 30% and 39 to 57% of the total energy requirement, respectively. Besides, the microalgae biofuels production system also required a high capital investment, which accounted for 47 to 86% of total production costs that subsequently resulted to poor techno-economic performances. Moreover, current analysis of environmental aspects of microalgae biorefinery had revealed negative CO2 balance in producing microalgae biofuels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Pollution
  6. Hulbert D, Raja Jamil RZ, Isaacs R, Vandervoort C, Erhardt S, Wise J
    Chemosphere, 2019 Oct 09;241:125091.
    PMID: 31683442 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125091
    Soil columns were collected from a blueberry field, and insecticide solutions were allowed to leach through these columns. Insecticides from four different chemical classes were applied at two different rates: the concentration at which the insecticides wash off blueberries under rainfall conditions and the labeled field rate at which they are sprayed. The soil columns were divided into thirds; top, middle and bottom. Soil bioassays using Eisenia foetida Savigny, as an indicator species, were set up to determine the toxicity of the insecticides at a top, middle and bottom layer of the soil column. The mass of E. foetida was also measured after the bioassay experiment was completed. The concentrations at which insecticides wash-off of blueberries from rainfall were not lethal to E. foetida. In order to support mortality data, insecticide residues were quantified in the soil layers for each insecticide. Under field rate leaching conditions, carbaryl showed the high levels of toxicity in the top and middle layers of soil suggesting that it has the highest risk to organisms from leaching. This study will help blueberry growers make informed decisions about insecticide use, which can help minimize contamination of the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  7. Faris MAE, Jahrami HA, Alsibai J, Obaideen AA
    Br. J. Nutr., 2019 Oct 04.
    PMID: 31581955 DOI: 10.1017/S000711451900254X
    Studies on the impact of Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting (RDIF) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) components among healthy Muslims observing Ramadan month have yielded contradictory results. This comprehensive meta-analysis aimed to obtain a more stable estimate of the effect size of fasting during Ramadan on MetS components, examine variability among studies, assess the generalizability of reported results, and perform subgroup analyses for associated factors. We searched the CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, ProQuest Medical, PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for relevant studies published from 1950 to March, 2019. The MetS components analyzed were: waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma/serum glucose (FG), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. We identified 85 studies (4,326 participants in total) that were conducted in 23 countries between 1982 and 2019. RDIF-induced effect sizes for MetS components were: small reductions in WC (no. of studies K=24, N=1,557, Hedge's g=-0.312, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.387 to -0.236), SBP (K=22, N=1,172, Hedge's g=-0.239, 95% CI: -0.372 to -0.106), FG (K=51, N=2,318, Hedge's g=-0.101, 95% CI: -0.260 to 0.004), and TG (K=63, N=2,862, Hedge's g=-0.088, 95% CI: -0.171 to -0.004), and a small increase in HDL cholesterol (K=57, N=2,771, Hedge's g=0.150, 95% CI: 0.064 to 0.236). We concluded that among healthy people, RDIF shows small improvement in the five MetS components: WC, SBP, TG, FG and HDL..
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  8. Ariffin M, Zakili TST
    Environ Manage, 2019 Oct;64(4):509-519.
    PMID: 31399770 DOI: 10.1007/s00267-019-01199-y
    Although pharmaceuticals treat illnesses and prevent diseases in humans and animals, ironically, they are now among the emerging pollutants in the environment. As individuals continue to consume medicines, households can become a primary source of pharmaceutical pollutants. This paper explains relevant Malaysian law and policy on the issue. Using a questionnaire survey, it also assesses public perception concerning the environmental impact of pharmaceutical waste and the current methods of disposal that are practiced in Selangor. The survey used a convenience sampling and the data collected were analysed using statistical descriptive analysis. Most of the participants were aware that pharmaceutical waste can have an adverse impact on the environment and public health. Half of the participants disposed of their pharmaceutical waste in trash bins. About 2.9% of the respondents poured their household pharmaceutical waste (HPW) directly down the drain, while 8.8% poured them down the sink in the kitchen or toilet. The study also discovered that while 73.8% of the respondents felt that HPW should be separated from other household solid waste, only 25.2% returned their medicinal waste through the medicine return-back programme. The majority of the respondents (82.5%) agreed that information concerning the proper disposal of HPW is insufficient. The study concludes that while the respondents were aware of the adverse impact of HPW, their practices to ensure proper disposal is discouraging. There is a need for effective unwanted medicines return-back programme as a more prudent disposal method of HPW to avoid any risk to the environment or human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  9. Shafii NZ, Saudi ASM, Pang JC, Abu IF, Sapawe N, Kamarudin MKA, et al.
    Heliyon, 2019 Oct;5(10):e02534.
    PMID: 31667387 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02534
    There has been a growing concern on the rising of environmental issues in Malaysia over the last decade. Many environmental studies conducted in this country began to utilise the chemometrics techniques to overcome the limitation in the environmental monitoring studies. Chemometrics becomes an important tool in environmental fields to evaluate the relationship of various environmental variables particularly in a large and complex database. The review aimed to analyse and summarize the current evidences and limitations on the application of chemometrics techniques in the environmental studies in Malaysia. The study performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journals concerning on the major environmental issues in the country, published between 2013 and 2017. A total of 29 papers which focused on the environmental issues were reviewed. Available evidences suggested that chemometrics techniques have a greater accuracy, flexibility and efficiency to be applied in environmental modelling. It also reported that chemometrics techniques are more practical for cost effective and time management in sampling and monitoring purposes. However, chemometrics is relatively new in environmental field in Malaysia and various scopes need to be considered in the future as the current studies focused on very limited number of major environmental issues. Overall, chemometrics techniques have a lot of advantages in solving environmental problems. The development of chemometrics in environmental studies in the country is necessary to advance understanding, thus able to produce more significant impacts towards the effective environmental management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Monitoring; Gene-Environment Interaction
  10. Thomas AG, Jonason PK, Blackburn JD, Kennair LEO, Lowe R, Malouff J, et al.
    J Pers, 2019 Sep 08.
    PMID: 31494937 DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12514
    OBJECTIVE: Mate choice involves trading-off several preferences. Research on this process tends to examine mate preference prioritization in homogenous samples using a small number of traits and thus provide little insight into whether prioritization patterns reflect a universal human nature. This study examined whether prioritization patterns, and their accompanying sex differences, are consistent across Eastern and Western cultures.

    METHOD: In the largest test of the mate preference priority model to date, we asked an international sample of participants (N = 2,477) to design an ideal long-term partner by allocating mate dollars to eight traits using three budgets. Unlike previous versions of the task, we included traits known to vary in importance by culture (e.g., religiosity and chastity).

    RESULTS: Under low budget conditions, Eastern and Western participants differed in their mate dollar allocation for almost every trait (average d = 0.42), indicating that culture influences prioritization. Despite these differences, traits fundamental for the reproductive success of each sex in the ancestral environment were prioritized by both Eastern and Western participants.

    CONCLUSION: The tendency to prioritize reproductively fundamental traits is present in both Eastern and Western cultures. The psychological mechanisms responsible for this process produce similar prioritization patterns despite cross-cultural variation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  11. Chua RY, Kadirvelu A, Yasin S, Choudhry FR, Park MS
    J Community Psychol, 2019 Sep;47(7):1750-1771.
    PMID: 31374592 DOI: 10.1002/jcop.22224
    Although faced with historical and ongoing hardships, many indigenous communities in Southeast Asia have managed to survive and thrive. The identification of factors that assist these communities in coping with the challenges experienced would help enhance their overall psychological well-being and resilience. The current review outlines types of protective factors for the indigenous communities in Southeast Asia focusing on the cultural, family and community elements linked to their psychological well-being. Four themes of protective factors were identified strong connection to the land and the environment, embracing cultural norms and traditions, passing down and keeping indigenous knowledge across generations, and emphasis on community and social cohesion. Findings suggest that the value of interconnectedness serves as an overarching theme that forms the worldview of the indigenous communities in Southeast Asia. Interconnectedness was important to the indigenous peoples as they considered themselves to be extensions of their family, community, ancestors, future descendants, the land and to all living things and creations that reside on their lands. Future intervention attempts to promote resilience among these communities should take these factors into account, and pay closer attention to community-level factors that seem to have a profound impact on the indigenous construction of resilience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  12. Al-Amin AQ, Doberstein B
    PMID: 31456153 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06128-4
    Alternative energy policies targeting the adoption of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) could have significant positive impacts on Malaysia's ability to meet both its carbon reduction goal and its energy security needs. The transport sector generally contributes heavily to carbon emissions, and is also difficult to decarbonize because of the costs associated with many greener options. This study explores the possibility of decarbonizing the Malaysian transport sector by promoting the use of hydrogen vehicles, and analyzes the adoption challenges and economic obstacles (especially public acceptance) associated with introducing HFCVs. This study contends that the adoption challenges of this new technology can be overcome through the use of development strategies outlined. This study also addresses the regulatory framework that Malaysia (and other countries) might use to overcome common policy adoption challenges of HFCVs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  13. Karbalaei S, Golieskardi A, Hamzah HB, Abdulwahid S, Hanachi P, Walker TR, et al.
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2019 Aug 02;148:5-15.
    PMID: 31422303 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.07.072
    Plastic debris is widespread and ubiquitous in the marine environment and ingestion of plastic debris by marine organisms is well-documented. Viscera and gills of 110 individual marine fish from 11 commercial fish species collected from the marine fish market were examined for presence of plastic debris. Isolated particles were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, and elemental analysis was assessed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Nine (of 11) species contained plastic debris. Out of 56 isolated particles, 76.8% were plastic polymers, 5.4% were pigments, and 17.8% were unidentified. Extracted plastic particle sizes ranged from 200 to 34,900 μm (mean = 2600 μm ±7.0 SD). Hazardous material was undetected using inorganic elemental analysis of extracted plastic debris and pigment particles. The highest number of ingested microplastics was measured in Eleutheronema tridactylum and Clarias gariepinus, suggesting their potential as indicator species to monitor and study trends of ingested marine litter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  14. Em PP, Hossen J, Fitrian I, Wong EK
    Heliyon, 2019 Aug;5(8):e02169.
    PMID: 31440587 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02169
    Collisions arising from lane departures have contributed to traffic accidents causing millions of injuries and tens of thousands of casualties per year worldwide. Many related studies had shown that single vehicle lane departure crashes accounted largely in road traffic deaths that results from drifting out of the roadway. Hence, automotive safety has becoming a concern for the road users as most of the road casualties occurred due to driver's fallacious judgement of vehicle path. This paper proposes a vision-based lane departure warning framework for lane departure detection under daytime and night-time driving environments. The traffic flow and conditions of the road surface for both urban roads and highways in the city of Malacca are analysed in terms of lane detection rate and false positive rate. The proposed vision-based lane departure warning framework includes lane detection followed by a computation of a lateral offset ratio. The lane detection is composed of two stages: pre-processing and detection. In the pre-processing, a colour space conversion, region of interest extraction, and lane marking segmentation are carried out. In the subsequent detection stage, Hough transform is used to detect lanes. Lastly, the lateral offset ratio is computed to yield a lane departure warning based on the detected X-coordinates of the bottom end-points of each lane boundary in the image plane. For lane detection and lane departure detection performance evaluation, real-life datasets for both urban roads and highways in daytime and night-time driving environments, traffic flows, and road surface conditions are considered. The experimental results show that the proposed framework yields satisfactory results. On average, detection rates of 94.71% for lane detection rate and 81.18% for lane departure detection rate were achieved using the proposed frameworks. In addition, benchmark lane marking segmentation methods and Caltech lanes dataset were also considered for comparison evaluation in lane detection. Challenges to lane detection and lane departure detection such as worn lane markings, low illumination, arrow signs, and occluded lane markings are highlighted as the contributors to the false positive rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  15. Batool R, Sharif A, Islam T, Zaman K, Shoukry AM, Sharkawy MA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Aug;26(24):25341-25358.
    PMID: 31256396 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05748-0
    It is well documented that carbon emissions can be reduced by replacing conventional energy resources with renewable energy resources; thereby, the role of green technology is essential as it protect natural environment. Given that, the United Nations' agenda of "green is clean" may be achievable by adoption of green technologies. The objective of the study is to examine the link between information and communication technology (ICT), economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the context of South Korean economy, by using a novel Morlet wavelet approach. The study applies continuous wavelet power spectrum, the wavelet coherency, and the partial and the multiple wavelet coherency to the year during 1973-2016. The outcomes reveal that the connections among the stated variables progress over frequency and time domain. From the frequency domain point of view, the current study discovers noteworthy wavelet coherence and robust lead and lag linkages. From the time-domain sight, the results display robust but not consistent associations among the considered variables. From an economic point sight, the wavelet method displays that ICT helps to reduce environmental degradation in a medium and long run in the South Korean economy. This emphasizes the significance of having organized strategies by the policymakers to cope up with 2 to 3 years of the occurrence of the huge environmental degradation in South Korea.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  16. Ehigiamusoe KU, Lean HH
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Aug;26(22):22611-22624.
    PMID: 31165972 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05309-5
    This paper examines the effects of energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development on carbon emissions in a panel of 122 countries. We employ both first-generation and second-generation cointegration and estimation procedures in order to address diverse economic and econometric issues such as heterogeneity, endogeneity, and cross-sectional dependence. We find a cointegration relationship between the variables. Energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development have detrimental effects on carbon emissions in the full sample. When the sample is split into different income groups, we reveal that economic growth and financial development mitigate carbon emissions in high-income group but have the opposite effects in low-income and middle-income groups. The implication of the findings is that energy consumption increases carbon emissions. While high levels of income and financial development decrease carbon emissions, low levels of income and financial development intensify it. Based on the findings, the paper makes some policy recommendations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  17. Thomson DR, Linard C, Vanhuysse S, Steele JE, Shimoni M, Siri J, et al.
    J Urban Health, 2019 Aug;96(4):514-536.
    PMID: 31214975 DOI: 10.1007/s11524-019-00363-3
    Area-level indicators of the determinants of health are vital to plan and monitor progress toward targets such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Tools such as the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) and UN-Habitat Urban Inequities Surveys identify dozens of area-level health determinant indicators that decision-makers can use to track and attempt to address population health burdens and inequalities. However, questions remain as to how such indicators can be measured in a cost-effective way. Area-level health determinants reflect the physical, ecological, and social environments that influence health outcomes at community and societal levels, and include, among others, access to quality health facilities, safe parks, and other urban services, traffic density, level of informality, level of air pollution, degree of social exclusion, and extent of social networks. The identification and disaggregation of indicators is necessarily constrained by which datasets are available. Typically, these include household- and individual-level survey, census, administrative, and health system data. However, continued advancements in earth observation (EO), geographical information system (GIS), and mobile technologies mean that new sources of area-level health determinant indicators derived from satellite imagery, aggregated anonymized mobile phone data, and other sources are also becoming available at granular geographic scale. Not only can these data be used to directly calculate neighborhood- and city-level indicators, they can be combined with survey, census, administrative and health system data to model household- and individual-level outcomes (e.g., population density, household wealth) with tremendous detail and accuracy. WorldPop and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have already modeled dozens of household survey indicators at country or continental scales at resolutions of 1 × 1 km or even smaller. This paper aims to broaden perceptions about which types of datasets are available for health and development decision-making. For data scientists, we flag area-level indicators at city and sub-city scales identified by health decision-makers in the SDGs, Urban HEART, and other initiatives. For local health decision-makers, we summarize a menu of new datasets that can be feasibly generated from EO, mobile phone, and other spatial data-ideally to be made free and publicly available-and offer lay descriptions of some of the difficulties in generating such data products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  18. Boey K, Shiokawa K, Rajeev S
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2019 Aug;13(8):e0007499.
    PMID: 31398190 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007499
    BACKGROUND: The role of rodents in Leptospira epidemiology and transmission is well known worldwide. Rats are known to carry different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira spp. capable of causing disease in humans and animals. Wild rats (Rattus spp.), especially the Norway/brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the black rat (R. rattus), are the most important sources of Leptospira infection, as they are abundant in urban and peridomestic environments. In this study, we compiled and summarized available data in the literature on global prevalence of Leptospira exposure and infection in rats, as well as compared the global distribution of Leptospira spp. in rats with respect to prevalence, geographic location, method of detection, diversity of serogroups/serovars, and species of rat.

    METHODS: We conducted a thorough literature search using PubMed without restrictions on publication date as well as Google Scholar to manually search for other relevant articles. Abstracts were included if they described data pertaining to Leptospira spp. in rats (Rattus spp.) from any geographic region around the world, including reviews. The data extracted from the articles selected included the author(s), year of publication, geographic location, method(s) of detection used, species of rat(s), sample size, prevalence of Leptospira spp. (overall and within each rat species), and information on species, serogroups, and/or serovars of Leptospira spp. detected.

    FINDINGS: A thorough search on PubMed retrieved 303 titles. After screening the articles for duplicates and inclusion/exclusion criteria, as well as manual inclusion of relevant articles, 145 articles were included in this review. Leptospira prevalence in rats varied considerably based on geographic location, with some reporting zero prevalence in countries such as Madagascar, Tanzania, and the Faroe Islands, and others reporting as high as >80% prevalence in studies done in Brazil, India, and the Philippines. The top five countries that were reported based on number of articles include India (n = 13), Malaysia (n = 9), Brazil (n = 8), Thailand (n = 7), and France (n = 6). Methods of detecting or isolating Leptospira spp. also varied among studies. Studies among different Rattus species reported a higher Leptospira prevalence in R. norvegicus. The serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae was the most prevalent serovar reported in Rattus spp. worldwide. Additionally, this literature review provided evidence for Leptospira infection in laboratory rodent colonies within controlled environments, implicating the zoonotic potential to laboratory animal caretakers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Reports on global distribution of Leptospira infection in rats varies widely, with considerably high prevalence reported in many countries. This literature review emphasizes the need for enhanced surveillance programs using standardized methods for assessing Leptospira exposure or infection in rats. This review also demonstrated several weaknesses to the current methods of reporting the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in rats worldwide. As such, this necessitates a call for standardized protocols for the testing and reporting of such studies, especially pertaining to the diagnostic methods used. A deeper understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Leptospira spp. in rats in urban environments is warranted. It is also pertinent for rat control programs to be proposed in conjunction with increased efforts for public awareness and education regarding leptospirosis transmission and prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environment, Controlled
  19. Zakaria R, Zainuddin NAM, Leong TC, Rosli R, Rusdi MF, Harun SW, et al.
    Micromachines (Basel), 2019 Jul 11;10(7).
    PMID: 31336745 DOI: 10.3390/mi10070465
    In this paper, we report the effects of a side-polished fiber (SPF) coated with titanium (Ti) films in different thicknesses, namely 5 nm, 13 nm, and 36 nm, protected by a thin layer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2), which provide ultra-sensitive sensor-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) covering from the visible to mid-infrared region. The SPF deposited with Ti exhibits strong evanescent field interaction with the MoS2 and WS2, and good optical absorption, hence resulting in high-sensitivity performance. Incremental increases in the thickness of the Ti layer contribute to the enhancement of the intensity of transmission with redshift and broad spectra. The findings show that the optimum thickness of Ti with 36 nm combined with MoS2 causes weak redshifts of the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) mode, while the same thickness of Ti with WS2 causes large blueshifts. The redshifts are possibly due to a reduced plasmon-coupling effect with the excitonic region of MoS2. The observed blueshifts of the LSPR peak position are possibly due to surface modification between WS2 and Ti. Changing the relative humidity from 58% to 88% only elicited a response in Ti/MoS2. Thus, MoS2 shows more sensitivity on 36-nm thickness of Ti compared with WS2. Therefore, the proposed fiber-optic sensor with integration of 2D materials is capable of measuring humidity in any environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  20. Kamaluddin SN, Tanaka M, Wakamori H, Nishimura T, Ito T
    R Soc Open Sci, 2019 Jul;6(7):181382.
    PMID: 31417687 DOI: 10.1098/rsos.181382
    Despite the accumulating evidence suggesting the importance of phenotypic plasticity in diversification and adaptation, little is known about plastic variation in primate skulls. The present study evaluated the plastic variation of the mandible in Japanese macaques by comparing wild and captive specimens. The results showed that captive individuals are square-jawed with relatively longer tooth rows than wild individuals. We also found that this shape change resembles the sexual dimorphism, indicating that the mandibles of captive individuals are to some extent masculinized. By contrast, the mandible morphology was not clearly explained by ecogeographical factors. These findings suggest the possibility that perturbations in the social environment in captivity and resulting changes of androgenic hormones may have influenced the development of mandible shape. As the high plasticity of social properties is well known in wild primates, social environment may cause the inter- and intra-population diversity of skull morphology, even in the wild. The captive-wild morphological difference detected in this study, however, can also be possibly formed by other untested sources of variation (e.g. inter-population genetic variation), and therefore this hypothesis should be validated further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
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