Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 520 in total

  1. A Samad NS, Abdul-Rahim AS, Mohd Yusof MJ, Tanaka K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Apr;27(10):10367-10390.
    PMID: 31939016 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-07593-7
    This study assessed the economic value of public urban green spaces (UGSs) in Kuala Lumpur (KL) city by using the hedonic price method (HPM). It involves 1269 house units from eight sub-districts in KL city. Based on the hedonic price method, this study formulates a global and local model. The global model and local model are analyzed using ordinary least square (OLS) regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR). By using the hedonic price method, the house price serves as a proxy for public urban green spaces' economic value. The house price is regressed against the set of three variables which are structural characteristics, neighborhood attributes, and environmental attributes. Measurements of interest in this study are environmental characteristics, including distance to public UGSs and size of public UGSs. The results of the OLS regression illustrated that Taman Rimba Kiara and Taman Tasik Titiwangsa provide the maximum economic value. On average, reducing the distance of the house location to Taman Rimba Kiara by 10 m increased the house price by RM1700. Similarly, increasing the size of the Taman Tasik Titiwangsa by 1000 m2 increases the house price by RM60,000. The advantage of the GWR result is the economic value of public UGSs which can be analyzed by the specific location according to sub-district. From this study, the GWR result exposed that the economic values of Taman Rimba Bukit Kiara and Taman Tasik Titiwangsa were not significant in each of the sub-district within KL city. Taman Rimba Bukit Kiara was negatively significant at all sub-districts except Setapak and certain house locations located at the sub-district of KL. In contrast, Taman Tasik Titiwangsa was positively significant at all sub-districts except certain house locations at the sub-districts of Batu, KL, Setapak, and KL city center. In conclusion, results show that the house price is influenced by the environmental attribute. However, even though both of these public UGSs generate the highest economic value based on distance and size, its significant values with an expected sign are only obtained based on the specific house location as verified by the local model. In terms of model comparison, the local model was better compared with the global model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  2. Abd Samad NA, Said I, Abdul Rahim A
    Stud Health Technol Inform, 2018;256:367-377.
    PMID: 30371497
    Access to our buildings relies to the accessibility of its external environment and the route taken. Developments and planning in urban areas has many several requirements and restrictions. Planning accessibility for Malaysian built environment is achievable by designing in compliance to the requirements enforced by authorities. Accessible design is commonly associated with providing facilities for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs), the issue that is often brought up is the inaccessibility of the external environment and lacking of seamless connectivity between buildings and the outdoor. The intention is to formulate accessibility strategies and work out planning process on how accessibility can be achieved. Universal Design will be the basis for the design and planning concept to accommodate all users to enjoy our urban built environment. It is notable that developed countries advances more in terms of implementing and enforcing accessibility measures via legislative and regulatory documents, government strategies and initiatives within its planning approach than the developing nations. The methodology will be looking into the establishment of strategies and measures of international and local planning policy, local and action plans of City of London as selected Local Authority to be analyzed its inclusive policy has been successfully implemented in their jurisdiction. The findings, discussions and result will be an outcome of generating a framework of accessibility strategies that is derived from interviews and government documents accordingly to targeted Malaysian urban areas focusing the City of Petaling Jaya and Putrajaya and how it can be improvised. Therefore, an interpretation of adopting accessibility planning strategies of developed country, to be adapted locally according to Malaysian legislation, culture and lifestyles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  3. Abdul Manan MM
    Accid Anal Prev, 2014 Sep;70:301-13.
    PMID: 24831271 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.009
    This paper uses data from an observational study, conducted at access points in straight sections of primary roads in Malaysia in 2012, to investigate the effects of motorcyclists' behavior and road environment attributes on the occurrence of serious traffic conflicts involving motorcyclists entering primary roads via access points. In order to handle the unobserved heterogeneity in the small sample data size, this study applies mixed effects logistic regression with multilevel bootstrapping. Two statistically significant models (Model 2 and Model 3) are produced, with 2 levels of random effect parameters, i.e. motorcyclists' attributes and behavior at Level 1, and road environment attributes at Level 2. Among all the road environment attributes tested, the traffic volume and the speed limit are found to be statistically significant, only contributing to 26-29% of the variations affecting the traffic conflict outcome. The implication is that 71-74% of the unmeasured or undescribed attributes and behavior of motorcyclists still have an importance in predicting the outcome: a serious traffic conflict. As for the fixed effect parameters, both models show that the risk of motorcyclists being involved in a serious traffic conflict is 2-4 times more likely if they accept a shorter gap to a single approaching vehicle (time lag <4s) and in between two vehicles (time gap <4s) when entering the primary road from the access point. A road environment factor, such as a narrow lane (seen in Model 2), and a behavioral factor, such as stopping at the stop line (seen in Model 3), also influence the occurrence of a serious traffic conflict compared to those entering into a wider lane road and without stopping at the stop line, respectively. A discussion of the possible reasons for this seemingly strange result, including a recommendation for further research, concludes the paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  4. Abdullah F, Sina I, Fauzee F
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Nov 01;11(21):2478-83.
    PMID: 19205267
    An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  5. Abdullah HSTSH, Chia PW, Omar D, Chuah TS
    Sci Rep, 2021 07 09;11(1):14227.
    PMID: 34244589 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-93662-2
    Herbicide resistance is a worldwide problem in weed control. This prompts researchers to look for new modes of action to slow down the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds. This research aims to determine the herbicidal action of thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidines derivatives, which are well known as antihypertensive drugs. The phytotoxic effects of ten compounds were investigated using leaf disc discoloration test and seed germination bioassay. At concentrations of 125 to 250 mg/L, the 5-(3-Fluoro-phenyl)-7-methyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (c) was highly active against Oldenlandia verticillata and Eleusine indica. At application rates of 1.25 to 2.5 kg ai/ha, formulated c demonstrated selective post-emergence and pre-emergence herbicidal activity against O. verticillata, E. indica and Cyperus iria. In the crop tolerance test, formulated c outperformed the commercial herbicide diuron, with aerobic Oryza sativa being the most tolerant, followed by Zea mays, and Brassica rapa. The addition of calcium chloride partially nullified compound c's inhibitory effects on weed shoot growth, indicating that it has potential as a calcium channel blocker. Compound c acted by triggering electrolyte leakage without affecting photosystem II. These findings imply that c could be explored further as a template for developing new herbicides with novel modes of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  6. Abdullah JM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 May;26(3):1-23.
    PMID: 31303847 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.3.1
    The combined effort of the neuroscience and psychology cluster at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)-fundamental, applied and clinical-has moved the institution to the number two position in the country, behind Universiti Malaya. The strategy to join the Global Brain Consortium (GBC) and put Malaysia on the map to address the GBC mission, vision, focus areas and outcomes began recently, in May 2019.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  7. Abdullah N, Abdul Murad NA, Mohd Haniff EA, Syafruddin SE, Attia J, Oldmeadow C, et al.
    Public Health, 2017 Aug;149:31-38.
    PMID: 28528225 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2017.04.003
    OBJECTIVE: Malaysia has a high and rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). While environmental (non-genetic) risk factors for the disease are well established, the role of genetic variations and gene-environment interactions remain understudied in this population. This study aimed to estimate the relative contributions of environmental and genetic risk factors to T2D in Malaysia and also to assess evidence for gene-environment interactions that may explain additional risk variation.
    STUDY DESIGN: This was a case-control study including 1604 Malays, 1654 Chinese and 1728 Indians from the Malaysian Cohort Project.
    METHODS: The proportion of T2D risk variance explained by known genetic and environmental factors was assessed by fitting multivariable logistic regression models and evaluating McFadden's pseudo R(2) and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Models with and without the genetic risk score (GRS) were compared using the log likelihood ratio Chi-squared test and AUCs. Multiplicative interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors was assessed via logistic regression within and across ancestral groups. Interactions were assessed for the GRS and its 62 constituent variants.
    RESULTS: The models including environmental risk factors only had pseudo R(2) values of 16.5-28.3% and AUC of 0.75-0.83. Incorporating a genetic score aggregating 62 T2D-associated risk variants significantly increased the model fit (likelihood ratio P-value of 2.50 × 10(-4)-4.83 × 10(-12)) and increased the pseudo R(2) by about 1-2% and AUC by 1-3%. None of the gene-environment interactions reached significance after multiple testing adjustment, either for the GRS or individual variants. For individual variants, 33 out of 310 tested associations showed nominal statistical significance with 0.001 
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction
  8. Abdullah NH, Mohamed N, Sulaiman LH, Zakaria TA, Rahim DA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 May;23(3):1-8.
    PMID: 27418864
    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Pollution
  9. Abraham, Martin
    ASM Science Journal, 2012;6(1):67-70.
    The pursuit, initiation and establishment of multi-stakeholder partnerships, including with the private sector, is often a critical component of attaining and achieving the success and sustainability of many projects the world over. However, the soliciting and securing of socially, economically and environmentally constructive engagements between the private sector on the one hand, and the NGOs, CBOs and local communities on the other hand, is in reality much easier said than done. Notably, since most private sector corporations undoubtedly tend to leave behind various "ecological footprints", differing only in their size and depth, stemming from their respective forms and functions, and their ensuing impacts and implications. The interplay between the civil society and the private sector, especially for resource mobilization. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  10. Abu Hassan Shaari, Mohamed Sapian Mohamed, Jamalludin Ab Rahman
    The incidence of dengue in Malaysia has increased from 15.2 per 100,000 in 1973 to 361.0 per 100,000 population by the year 2014. The same trend was seen in case fatality rates that went up from 0.16% to 0.62% between 2000 to 2013.1,2 More than 60% of the cases were from the Klang Valley region. In Pahang the dengue incidence rates from 2004 to 2014 showed a similar increase from 40.9 to 193.8 per 100,000 population and an increase in case fatality rates from 0.07% to 0.3% too was observed between 2000-2014. Fortunately these figures were below the national average.3
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  11. Aburas MM, Ahamad MSS, Omar NQ
    Environ Monit Assess, 2019 Mar 05;191(4):205.
    PMID: 30834982 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7330-6
    Spatio-temporal land-use change modeling, simulation, and prediction have become one of the critical issues in the last three decades due to uncertainty, structure, flexibility, accuracy, the ability for improvement, and the capability for integration of available models. Therefore, many types of models such as dynamic, statistical, and machine learning (ML) models have been used in the geographic information system (GIS) environment to fulfill the high-performance requirements of land-use modeling. This paper provides a literature review on models for modeling, simulating, and predicting land-use change to determine the best approach that can realistically simulate land-use changes. Therefore, the general characteristics of conventional and ML models for land-use change are described, and the different techniques used in the design of these models are classified. The strengths and weaknesses of the various dynamic, statistical, and ML models are determined according to the analysis and discussion of the characteristics of these models. The results of the review confirm that ML models are the most powerful models for simulating land-use change because they can include all driving forces of land-use change in the simulation process and simulate linear and non-linear phenomena, which dynamic models and statistical models are unable to do. However, ML models also have limitations. For instance, some ML models are complex, the simulation rules cannot be changed, and it is difficult to understand how ML models work in a system. However, this can be solved via the use of programming languages such as Python, which in turn improve the simulation capabilities of the ML models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  12. Aburas, Maher Milad, Sabrina Ho Abdullah, Mohammad Firuz Ramli, Zulfa Hanan Ash'aari
    Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques are significant and popular approaches that have been used in recent years to measure and map urban growth patterns. This paper primarily aims to provide a basis for a literature review of urban growth measurement and mapping by using different methods. For this purpose, the general characteristics of measuring and mapping urban growth patterns are described and classified. The strengths and weaknesses of the various methods have been identified from an analysis and discussion of the characteristics of the techniques. Results of reviews confirm that combining quantitative and qualitative techniques, such as Shannon approach and change detection, to measure and map urban growth patterns will improve understanding of the phenomenon of urban growth. Moreover, using social and economic data such as population and income data will improve understanding of the relationships between causes and effects. The integration of social and economic factors with quantitative and qualitative techniques will contribute to a perfect evaluation of urban growth patterns and land use changes, taking technical, social, economic, spatial, and temporal factors into account.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  13. Adam, M.B., Norazman, N., Mohamad Kasim, M.R.
    MATEMATIKA, 2018;34(1):113-123.
    Logging activity is one of the most important activities for tropical countries
    including Malaysia, as it produces quality trees for papers. One of the important tree
    species is the Acacia Mangium which it produces a soft tree for papermaking enterprises.
    The papers are exported to Europe and countries which have high demand for paper
    due to the rapid development of the printing industry. Thus we analyzed the height for
    individual trees. We investigate the maximum height of the trees from 1990 to 2006
    and we fit the data using extreme value model. Some of the data are missing and three
    imputation methods we used to solve this problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  14. Adnan N, Nordin SM, Rasli AM
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Sep;26(26):27198-27224.
    PMID: 31321721 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05650-9
    One of the innovations introduced toward tackling the heightening of environmental impact is green technology. In the agricultural industry, the implementation of green fertilizer technology (GFT) for the modern development of environmentally friendly technology is a necessity. Within the Malaysian agriculture sector, the GFT application is needed to increase production levels among all crops. One of the essential commodities of all crops has always been paddy, given its status as the staple food among the country's population. Paddy production with the adoption of GFT potentially opens the path toward sustainable development in the industry as well as it also provides the food safety aspect. Moreover, this helps farmers to improve their productivity on paddy production in Malaysia. This paper attempts to evaluate the contributing socio-psychological factors, innovation attributes of environmental factors, and channels of communication to decision-making among farmers in Malaysia on GFT. Furthermore, this research also aims to assess the moderating role of cost between the farmer's behavioral intention and the adoption of GFT. The sampling process followed the stratified sampling technique-overall, 600 survey questionnaires were dispersed and 437 effective responses were received. The structural analysis results obtained have revealed significant positive effect for perceived awareness, attitude, group norm, perceived behavioral control, environmental concern, agro-environmental regulations, relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, and observability, and on farmer's behavioral intention, a significant effect for paddy farmer's behavioral intention in order to adopt of GFT. Further, the interaction effects of cost on the link between farmer's behavioral intention and adoption of GFT are statistically significant. Though, the finding could not back an outcome for the subjective norm, complexity, and mass media on farmer's behavioral intention. Finally, critical outcomes obtained in this research contribute to deepening the thoughtfulness of paddy farmers' adoption of GFT. This study concludes with policy recommendations and future directions of the research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  15. Adole, Adole Michael, Jamaludin Mohamad Yatim, Suhaimi Abubakar Ramli, Athirah Othman, Norazura Azzmi Mizal
    (Kenaf fibre is a good reinforcement in fibre polymer composites due to its high strength
    and elastic modulus, high stiffness, low density, low cost and eco-efficient, less health
    hazards, renewability, good mechanical and thermal properties, and biodegradability. It is
    traditionally used for rope, twine, fish net and sacking materials. Recently, it was observed
    that kenaf fibre had huge potentials to replacing synthetic fibre in composites due to the
    rising environmental and ecological issues, thus this awareness has motivated efforts for
    the advancement of new innovative bio-based composites incorporating kenaf fibre for
    various end-use structural applications. This paper presents an overview of the development
    made so far in the area of kenaf fibre and its composites in terms of chemical and microstructural
    properties, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, thermal stability, product
    development and application. Some fundamental issues and suggestions for further research
    in this area are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  16. Agbede EA, Bani Y, Azman-Saini WNW, Naseem NAM
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Oct;28(38):54117-54136.
    PMID: 34043174 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14407-2
    Rapid increases in energy consumption and economic growth over the past three decades are considered the driving force behind rising environmental degradation, which remain a threat to people and healthy environment. This study investigates the impact of energy consumption on environmental quality in the MINT countries using a panel PMG/ARDL modelling technique, and the Granger causality test spanning from 1971 to 2017. The empirical results confirm the existence of long-run nexus among the variables employed. The results also reveal that economic growth, energy consumption and bio-capacity have a positive and statistically significant effect on environmental degradation during the long run period. We find that a 1% increase in primary energy consumption leads to 0.4172% increase in environmental deterioration in the long-run period, but it is insignificant in the short run. This implies that energy consumption deteriorates environmental quality through a negative effect of ecological footprint. The result also suggests that as MINT countries increase the use of energy to accelerate pace of economic growth, environmental quality would deteriorate through increased ecological footprints. The coefficient of the error correction term (ect) is negative and significant (- 0.2306), suggesting that ecological footprint, a measure of environmental degradation would converge to its long-run equilibrium in the MINT region by 23.06% speed of adjustment every year due to contribution of economic growth, energy consumption, urbanization and biocapacity. The Granger non-causality test results reveal a unidirectional causal relationship from economic growth, energy consumption, and urbanization to ecological footprint and from economic growth to biocapacity. The results further show bi-directional causality between biocapacity and ecological footprint as well as between biocapacity and economic growth. Moreover, urbanization causes economic growth and biocapacity Granger-causes urbanization. Based on these findings, policy implications are adequately discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  17. Agha S, Mekkawy W, Ibanez-Escriche N, Lind CE, Kumar J, Mandal A, et al.
    Anim. Genet., 2018 Oct;49(5):421-427.
    PMID: 30058152 DOI: 10.1111/age.12680
    Robustness has become a highly desirable breeding goal in the globalized agricultural market. Both genotype-by-environment interaction (G × E) and micro-environmental sensitivity are important robustness components of aquaculture production, in which breeding stock is often disseminated to different environments. The objectives of this study were (i) to quantify the degree of G × E by assessing the growth performance of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) across three countries (Malaysia, India and China) and (ii) to quantify the genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance for body weight at harvest (BW) in GIFT as a measure of micro-environmental sensitivity. Selection for BW was carried out for 13 generations in Malaysia. Subsets of 60 full-sib families from Malaysia were sent to China and India after five and nine generations respectively. First, a multi-trait animal model was used to analyse the BW in different countries as different traits. The results indicate a strong G × E. Second, a genetically structured environmental variance model, implemented using Bayesian inference, was used to analyse micro-environmental sensitivity of BW in each country. The analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity of both BW and its environmental variance in all environments. The presence of genetic variation in residual variance of BW implies that the residual variance can be modified by selection. Incorporating both G × E and micro-environmental sensitivity information may help in selecting robust genotypes with high performance across environments and resilience to environmental fluctuations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction*
  18. Aghamohammadi N, Ramakreshnan L, Fong CS, Noor RM, Hanif NR, Sulaiman NM
    Sci Total Environ, 2022 Feb 01;806(Pt 1):150331.
    PMID: 34571225 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150331
    The stakeholders' perceptions on the impacts of Urban Heat Island (UHI) are critical for reducing exposure and influencing their response to interventions that are aimed at encouraging a behaviour change. A proper understanding of the UHI impacts on the society, economy and environment is deemed an essential motivating factor for the stakeholders to work towards UHI mitigations in the local context. This study adopted an inductive qualitative approach using Stakeholder Dialogue Sessions (SDSs) to assess the perceived impacts of UHI among various stakeholders, comprising policy makers, academicians, developers and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), in a tropical metropolitan city. The results revealed five themes such as deterioration of public health, acceleration of urban migration patterns and spending time in cooler areas, reduction of workers' productivity, increased energy consumption by the households and deterioration of environmental quality and natural resources that were categorized into social, economic and environmental impacts. Although most of the stakeholders were quite unfamiliar with the term UHI, they still display a good understanding of the potential impacts of UHI due to their posteriori knowledge and ability to rationalize the physical condition of the environment in which they live. The findings provide useful insights and valuable information to the local authorities to tailor necessary actions and educational campaigns to increase UHI awareness among the stakeholders. Being among the earlier studies to use a qualitative approach to attain the aforementioned objective, the findings are crucial to determine the level of understanding of the stakeholders on the impact of UHI. Through this study, the authors have highlighted the gaps and needs for knowledge improvements aimed at behaviour change among the stakeholders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
  19. Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad, Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad, Saharuddin Abdul Hamid
    Maritime transportation is very important for coastal state country like Malaysia. However, as having the busiest straits in the world, Malaysia is continuously exposed to the risk of marine spill. The nation had experienced around 30 marine spill incidents since 1976 to the present. The main contributor of marine spill is ship’s accident and in term of category of accident, collision had contributed the most. In term of type of substance that mostly spilled by ships is highly persistence crude oil. The management of marine spill response of Malaysia is applying the three tiers system which is base on the area and scale of the spill. The basis of establishing the marine response service is in accordance with OPRC, which incorporated into the national environmental law. With the three tiers of response system, Malaysia is equipped with arsenal of marine spill response and control equipments. However, with the present magnitude of threat, the current capacities of equipments are insufficient. Nevertheless, the possibility of full magnitude of marine spill is unlikely due to the safety features incorporated into the design of the ships and FSO/FPSO. In term of claim and compensation for marine spill incident, Malaysia is applying the two layers of compensation under the CLC 1992 Protocol and FUND 1992 Protocol. Therefore, Malaysia is ready in various aspects of marine spill response and control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  20. Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed, Thompson, Martin William
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2012;1(1):11-23.
    The combined metabolic and thermoregulatory demands experienced during exercise in the heat impose an exceptional stress on the circulatory system. To date, much of what is known about circulatory stress during exercise in the heat has focused on primarily dry environment (~ 40% rh)
    with limited studies carried in higher humidity (> 60% rh) conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of humid condition on circulatory responses during prolonged intense running exercise among elite runners. On separate days, 11 male elite runners ran for 60 minutes at
    an intensity of 70% max across three different humidity levels of HH (71% rh), NH (43% rh) and LH (26.2% rh) with the ambient temperature set at 300C. Thermal stress was found to increase during exercise in the HH condition as both Tre and Tsk steadily rise across time. Circulatory stress markedly increased during exercise in higher humidity levels. Heart rate was significantly higher in the HH condition with its level increasing to 92% of HRmax. The upwards drift in HR was significantly higher in HH within the last ten minutes of exercise. Contrary, stroke volume recorded a
    steady decline during exercise with a significantly lower SV in the HH as compared with the NH and LH. Results implicate rising humidity level will impose greater circulatory stress during prolonged intense exercise. The consequence from this circulatory stress will result in limited ability for an athlete to sustain his exercise capacity when HR reaches maximal level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
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