Nanomedicine is a rapidly emerging field and is reported to be a promising tool for treating various diseases. Green synthesized nanoparticles are documented to possess a potent anticancer effect. Rabdosia rubescens is a Chinese plant which is also one of the components of PC-SPES and used to treat prostate cancer. In the present study, we synthesized the gold nanoparticles from R. rubescens (RR-AuNP) and analyzed its anticancer activity against the lung carcinoma A549 cell lines. Since lung cancer is reported to be with increased morbidity and decreased survival rate. The biosynthesized RR-AuNP were confirmed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer, size and shape of RR-AuNP were assessed by DLS, TEM and EDX. The biomolecules present in RR-AuNP and its topographical structure were detected using FTIR, SAED and AFM analysis. MTT assay was performed to detect the IC50 dose of RR-AuNP and its apoptotic effect was assessed by detecting the caspases activation, ROS generation. The anticancer effect of RR-AuNP was confirmed by DAPI staining, TUNEL assay and its molecular mechanism were confirmed by assessing the apoptotic signalling molecules protein expression. Our results illustrate that RR-AuNP showed a strong absorption peak at 550 nm and the RRAuNP were polydispersed nanospheres with size of 130 nm. RR-AuNP IC50 dose against A549 lung carcinoma cell line was detected to be at 25 µg/ml. The results of DAPI staining, TUNEL and immunoblotting analysis confirms both the 25 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of RR-AuNP possess potent anticancer and apoptotic effect, suggesting that RR-AuNP that it may be a persuasive molecule to treat lung cancer.
Dysregulation of E-cadherin and β-catenin function in cell-cell adhesion is common in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and correlates with metastatic disease. In this study, we examined the role of EGF-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling in E-cadherin and β-catenin regulation. We found that reduced membranous E-cadherin and β-catenin expression was positively correlated with Akt phosphorylation in NPC tissues. EGF treatment disrupted cell-cell adhesion and resulted in mesenchymal morphological features in NPC cell lines (TW01, TW04, and TW06). Western blot analysis showed that the E-cadherin protein level was partially reduced in TW04 cells only and the β-catenin levels were not considerably affected upon EGF treatment. In contrast, quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that the E-cadherin, but not β-catenin, mRNA levels were markedly reduced by EGF in all cell lines. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that E-cadherin and β-catenin appeared to be markedly reduced on the cell surface and more localized in the cytoplasm. Inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 did not abolish the EGF-induced downregulation of E-cadherin protein or mRNA in TW04 cells but moderately increased the β-catenin protein level in TW01 cells and mRNA level in TW06 cells. However, LY294002 substantially restored or increased cell surface E-cadherin and β-catenin in all EGF-treated cell lines, in concordance with the inhibition of cell morphological changes. Moreover, LY294002 significantly blocked EGF-driven cell invasion, correlating with the elevation of membranous E-cadherin and β-catenin levels. In conclusion, EGF-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition may not be only dependent on downregulation of E-cadherin protein/mRNA but also on mislocalization of E-cadherin and β-catenin. The mechanisms involved may be related, at least in part, to the PI3K-Akt pathway.
The utilization of cold active lipases in organic solvents proves an excellent approach for chiral synthesis and modification of fats and oil due to the inherent flexibility of lipases under low water conditions. In order to verify whether this lipase can function as a valuable synthetic catalyst, the mechanism concerning activation of the lid and interacting solvent residues in the presence of organic solvent must be well understood. A new alkaline cold-adapted lipase, AMS8, from Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied for its structural adaptation and flexibility prior to its exposure to non-polar, polar aprotic and protic solvents. Solvents such as ethanol, toluene, DMSO and 2-propanol showed to have good interactions with active sites. Asparagine (Asn) and tyrosine (Tyr) were key residues attracted to solvents because they could form hydrogen bonds. Unlike in other solvents, Phe-18, Tyr-236 and Tyr-318 were predicted to have aromatic-aromatic side-chain interactions with toluene. Non-polar solvent also was found to possess highest energy binding compared to polar solvents. Due to this circumstance, the interaction of toluene and AMS8 lipase was primarily based on hydrophobicity and molecular recognition. The molecular dynamic simulation showed that lid 2 (residues 148-167) was very flexible in toluene and Ca(2+). As a result, lid 2 moves away from the catalytic areas, leaving an opening for better substrate accessibility which promotes protein activation. Only a single lid (lid 2) showed the movement following interactions with toluene, although AMS8 lipase displayed double lids. The secondary conformation of AMS8 lipase that was affected by toluene observed a reduction of helical strands and increased coil structure. Overall, this work shows that cold active lipase, AMS8 exhibits distinguish interfacial activation and stability in the presence of polar and non-polar solvents.
Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets) and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants.
While the capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis has been elucidated in vertebrates and several invertebrate phyla, the comparative knowledge in crustaceans remains vague. A key obstacle in mapping the full spectrum of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in crustacean is the limited evidence of the functional activities of enzymes involved in desaturation or elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates. In this present study, we report on the cloning and functional characterization of two Elovl elongases from the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggest these two Elovl as putative Elovl4 and Elovl6, respectively. Using the recombinant expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate the elongation capacity for C18-C22 PUFA substrates in the S. olivacea Elovl4. The S. olivacea Elovl6 elongated saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and interestingly, C18-C20 PUFA. Taken together, both Elovl fulfill the elongation steps required for conversion of C18 PUFA to their respective LC-PUFA products. Elovl4 is expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas and gill tissues, while Elovl6 is predominant in digestive tissues. The mRNA expression of both enzymes was higher in mud crabs fed with vegetable oil-based diets. Tissue fatty acid composition also showed the existence of LC-PUFA biosynthesis intermediate products in tissues expressing these two elongases. In summary, we report here two novel Elovl with PUFA elongating activities in a marine brachyuran. This will contribute significantly to the understanding of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway in crustaceans and advance the development of aquafeed for intensive farming of the mud crab.
Besides acting as potent free radical scavengers, tocopherols and tocotrienols have been known to have non-antioxidant properties such as the involvement of alpha-tocopherol (alphaT) in PKC pathway and the anti-cancer properties of gamma-tocotrienol (gammaT3). This study aims to elucidate whether protective effects shown by alphaT and gammaT3 in H(2)O(2)-induced neuron cultures have anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic tendency toward the initiation of neuronal apoptosis. H(2)O(2) is used to induce apoptosis in primary cerebellar neuron cultures which is attenuated by pretreatment of alphaT or gammaT3 at concentrations < or =10 microM. Similar to our previous work, gammaT3 was found to be neurotoxic at concentrations > or =100 microM, whereas alphaT showed no neurotoxicity. Cellular uptake of gammaT3 was higher than that of alphaT. Treating cells simultaneously with either gammaT3 or alphaT and with then H(2)O(2) led to higher expression of Bax and Bcl-2 than in neurons exposed to H(2)O(2) alone. Analysis of Bcl-2/Bax ratio as 'survival index' showed that both pretreatment of gammaT3 and alphaT followed by H(2)O(2) increase the 'survival index' of Bcl-2/Bax ratio compared to H(2)O(2)-treated cells, while treatment of gammaT3 alone decrease the ratio compared to unchanged Bcl2/Bax ratio of similar treatment with alphaT alone. Similar treatment of gammaT3 decreased p53 expression and activates p38 MAPK phosphorylation, whereas alphaT did not alter its expression compared to H(2)O(2)-treated cells. Treating neurons with only gammaT3 or alphaT increased the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, and p38 MAPK compared to control with gammaT3 exerting stronger expression for proteins involved than alphaT. In conclusion, low doses of gammaT3 and alphaT confer neuroprotection to H(2)O(2)-treated neurons via their antioxidant mechanism but gammaT3 has stronger pro-apoptosis tendency than alphaT by activating molecules involved in the neuronal apoptotic pathway in the absence of H(2)O(2).
This study aims to investigate the mechanisms associated with the antiproliferation effect of guanosine on human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells. In this study, guanosine induced more drastic cell cycle arrest effect than cell death effect on HCT 116 cells. The cell cycle arrest effect of guanosine on HCT 116 cells appeared to be associated with the increased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. The decrease of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and cyclin D1 expression was also involved. Thus, the antiproliferation of colon cancer cells of guanosine could be mediated by the disruption of MAPK and AMPK pathways.
F16 is a plant-derived pharmacologically active fraction extracted from Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previously, we have reported that F16 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death while having some degree of cytoselectivity on a normal human breast cell line, MCF-10A. In this study, we attempted to further elucidate the mode of action of F16. We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the reduction of Bcl-2 protein. Then, executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to F16 treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis in the MCF- 7 cells was accompanied by the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Surprisingly, caspase-9 and p53 were unchanged with F16 treatment. We believe that the F16-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurs independently of caspase-9 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that F16 from E. longifolia exerts anti-proliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties.
Comparative proteomic profiling between 2 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains, Mu50Ω-vraSm and Mu50Ω-vraSm-graRm, and vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) strain Mu50Ω revealed upregulated levels of catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB) of the arginine catabolism pathway in VISA strains. Subsequent analyses showed that the VISA strains have higher levels of cellular ATP and ammonia, which are by-products of arginine catabolism, and displayed thicker cell walls. We postulate that elevated cytoplasmic ammonia and ATP molecules, resulting from activated arginine catabolism upon acquisition of vraS and graR mutations, are important requirements facilitating cell wall biosynthesis, thereby contributing to thickened cell wall and consequently reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA strains.
Among the various types of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] has a high potential to serve as commercial bioplastic due to its striking resemblance to petroleum-based plastics. In this study, five different genotypes of Cupriavidusnecator transformants harbouring the phaCBP-M-CPF4 gene (including PHB¯4/pBBR1-CBP-M-CPF4) were developed to evaluate the efficiency of 3HHx monomer incorporation. The fraction of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) monomer that was incorporated into the PHA synthesized by these C. necator transformants using palm oil as the sole carbon source, was examined. Overall, co-expression of enoyl-CoA hydratase gene (phaJ1) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, along with PHA synthase (PhaC), increased the 3HHx composition in the PHA copolymer. The differences in the enzyme activities of β-ketothiolase (PhaACn) and NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (PhaBCn) of the C. necator mutant hosts used in this study, were observed to alter the 3HHx composition and molecular weight of the PHA copolymer produced. The 3HHx fractions in the P(3HB-co-3HHx) produced by these C. necator transformants ranged between 1 and 18 mol%, while the weight-average molecular weight ranged from 0.7 × 106 to 1.8 × 106 Da. PhaCBP-M-CPF4 displayed a typical initial lag-phase and a relatively low synthase activity in the in vitro enzyme assay, which is thought to be the reason for the higher molecular weights of PHA obtained in this study.
6-Shogaol has been shown to possess many antitumor properties including inhibition of cancer cell growth, inhibition of cancer metastasis, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and induction of cancer cell differentiation. Despite its prominent antitumor effects, the direct molecular target of 6-shogaol has remained elusive. To identify the direct targets of 6-shogaol, a comprehensive antitumor profile of 6-shogaol (NSC752389) was tested in the NCI-60 cell line in an in vitro screen. The results show that 6-shogaol is COMPARE negative suggesting that it functions via a mechanism of action distinct from existing classes of therapeutic agents. Further analysis using microarray gene profiling and Connectivity Map analysis showed that MCF-7 cells treated with 6-shogaol display gene expression signatures characteristic of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, suggesting that 6-shogaol may activate the PPARγ signaling pathway for its antitumor effects. Indeed, treatment of MCF-7 and HT29 cells with 6-shogaol induced PPARγ transcriptional activity, suppressed NFκB activity, and induced apoptosis in breast and colon cancer cells in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Furthermore, 6-shogaol is capable of binding to PPARγ with a binding affinity comparable to 15-delta prostaglandin J2, a natural ligand for PPARγ. Together, our findings suggest that the antitumor effects of 6-shogaol are mediated through activation of PPARγ and imply that activation of PPARγ might be beneficial for breast and colon cancer treatment.
We synthesized a series of novel 5-24 derivatives of oxindole. The synthesis started from 5-chlorooxindole, which was condensed with methyl 4-carboxybezoate and result in the formation of benzolyester derivatives of oxindole which was then treated with hydrazine hydrate. The oxindole benzoylhydrazide was treated with aryl acetophenones and aldehydes to get target compounds 5-24. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for urease inhibition; the compound 5 (IC50 = 13.00 ± 0.35 μM) and 11 (IC50 = 19.20 ± 0.50 μM) showed potent activity as compared to the standard drug thiourea (IC50 = 21.00 ± 0.01 μM). Other compounds showed moderate to weak activity. All synthetic compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and EI MS. The molecular interactions of the active compounds within the binding site of urease enzyme were studied through molecular docking simulations.
The current study describes synthesis of diindolylmethane (DIM) derivatives based-thiadiazole as a new class of urease inhibitors. Diindolylmethane is natural product alkaloid reported to use in medicinal chemistry extensively. Diindolylmethane-based-thiadiazole analogs (1-18) were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques 1HNMR, 13C-NMR, EI-MS and evaluated for urease (jack bean urease) inhibitory potential. All compounds showed excellent to moderate inhibitory potential having IC50 value within the range of 0.50 ± 0.01 to 33.20 ± 1.20 µM compared with the standard thiourea (21.60 ± 0.70 µM). Compound 8 (IC50 = 0.50 ± 0.01 µM) was the most potent inhibitor amongst all derivatives. Structure-activity relationships have been established for all compounds. The key binding interactions of most active compounds with enzyme were confirmed through molecular docking studies.
Several chalcones were synthesized and their in vitro cytotoxicity against various human cell lines, including human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human prostate cancer cell line PC3, human adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 (colorectal cancer) and human normal liver cell line WRL-68 was evaluated. Most of the compounds being active cytotoxic agents, four of them with minimal IC₅₀ values were chosen and studied in detail with MCF-7 cells. The compounds 1, 5, 23, and 25 were capable in eliciting apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as shown by multiparameter cytotoxicity assay and caspase-3/7, -8, and -9 activities (p < 0.05). The ROS level showed 1.3-fold increase (p < 0.05) at the low concentrations used and thus it was concluded that the compounds increased the ROS level eventually leading to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through intrinsic as well as extrinsic pathways.
A series of 2'-hydroxy- and 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcones was synthesised and evaluated as inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The majority of the compounds were found to show some activity, with the most active compounds having IC50 values of 40-85 µM. Higher activities were generally observed for compounds with methoxy substituents in the A ring and halogen substituents in the B ring. Kinetic studies on the most active compounds showed that they act as mixed-type inhibitors, in agreement with the results of molecular modelling studies, which suggested that they interact with residues in the peripheral anionic site and the gorge region of AChE.
Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy worldwide; yet the tumor microenvironment, especially the fibroblast cells surrounding the cancer cells, is poorly understood. We established four primary cultures of fibroblasts from human endometrial cancer tissues (cancer-associated fibroblasts, CAFs) using antibody-conjugated magnetic bead isolation. These relatively homogenous fibroblast cultures expressed fibroblast markers (CD90, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin) and hormonal (estrogen and progesterone) receptors. Conditioned media collected from CAFs induced a dose-dependent proliferation of both primary cultures and cell lines of endometrial cancer in vitro (175%) when compared to non-treated cells, in contrast to those from normal endometrial fibroblast cell line (51%) (P<0.0001). These effects were not observed in fibroblast culture derived from benign endometrial hyperplasia tissues, indicating the specificity of CAFs in affecting endometrial cancer cell proliferation. To determine the mechanism underlying the differential fibroblast effects, we compared the activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathways in endometrial cancer cells following treatment with normal fibroblasts- and CAFs-conditioned media. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of both phosphorylated forms of Akt and Erk were significantly down-regulated in normal fibroblasts-treated cells, but were up-regulated/maintained in CAFs-treated cells. Treatment with specific inhibitors LY294002 and U0126 reversed the CAFs-mediated cell proliferation (P<0.0001), suggesting for a role of these pathways in modulating endometrial cancer cell proliferation. Rapamycin, which targets a downstream molecule in PI3K pathway (mTOR), also suppressed CAFs-induced cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Cytokine profiling analysis revealed that CAFs secrete higher levels of macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, RANTES and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than normal fibroblasts. Our data suggests that in contrast to normal fibroblasts, CAFs may exhibit a pro-tumorigenic effect in the progression of endometrial cancer, and PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk signaling may represent critical regulators in how endometrial cancer cells respond to their microenvironment.
The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on arginase activity in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans could stimulate arginase activity in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells).
Calmodulin, an activator protein in most calcium-dependent processes, was isolated to apparent homogeneity from the femurs of 1-day old chicks using phenyl-Sepharose and high performance liquid chromatography. The purified calmodulin was found to produce a 6-fold increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase isolated from the same source. A Ca2+ concentration of 10(-5) M was required for the activation. Purification of alkaline phosphatase involved acetone precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The enzyme was purified to 540-fold and had a specific activity of 10.75 U/mg protein.