Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 100 in total

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  1. Thambyrajah V, Karunairatnam MC
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Sep;27(1):33-9.
    PMID: 4345646
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  2. Sivanaesan L, Kwan TK, Perumal R
    Biochem. Int., 1991 Oct;25(3):561-70.
    PMID: 1666829
    Calmodulin, an activator protein in most calcium-dependent processes, was isolated to apparent homogeneity from the femurs of 1-day old chicks using phenyl-Sepharose and high performance liquid chromatography. The purified calmodulin was found to produce a 6-fold increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase isolated from the same source. A Ca2+ concentration of 10(-5) M was required for the activation. Purification of alkaline phosphatase involved acetone precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The enzyme was purified to 540-fold and had a specific activity of 10.75 U/mg protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/physiology
  3. Inayat-Hussain SH, Osman AB, Din LB, Ali AM, Snowden RT, MacFarlane M, et al.
    FEBS Lett., 1999 Aug 13;456(3):379-83.
    PMID: 10462048
    Goniothalamin, a plant styrylpyrone derivative isolated from Goniothalamus andersonii, induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells as assessed by the externalisation of phosphatidylserine. Immunoblotting showed processing of caspases-3 and -7 with the appearance of their catalytically active large subunits of 17 and 19 kDa, respectively. Activation of these caspases was further evidenced by detection of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage (PARP). Pre-treatment with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) blocked apoptosis and the resultant cleavage of these caspases and PARP. Our results demonstrate that activation of at least two effector caspases is a key feature of goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  4. Inayat-Hussain SH, McGuinness SM, Johansson R, Lundstrom J, Ross D
    Chem Biol Interact, 2000 Aug 15;128(1):51-63.
    PMID: 10996300
    The hydroquinone and catechol like metabolites, NCQ344 and NCQ436 respectively, of the antipsychotic remoxipride have recently been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in myeloperoxidase (MPO)-rich human bone marrow progenitor and HL-60 cells [S.M. McGuinness, R. Johansson, J. Lundstrom, D. Ross, Induction of apoptosis by remoxipride metabolites in HL-60 and CD34+/CD19- human bone marrow progenitor cells: potential relevance to remoxipride-induced aplastic anemia, Chem. Biol. Interact. 121 (1999) 253-265]. In the present study, we determined the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by these remoxipride metabolites in HL-60 cells. Our results show that apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, activation of caspases-9, -3, -7 and DNA cleavage. In HL-60 cells treated with the hydroquinone NCQ344 and catechol NCQ436, the general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp. fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) blocked DNA cleavage and activation of caspases-9, -3/-7. In addition, PS exposure was significantly but not completely inhibited by Z-VAD.FMK. These results demonstrate that although Z-VAD.FMK inhibitable caspases are necessary for maximal apoptosis induced by NCQ344 and NCQ436, additional caspase-independent processes may orchestrate changes leading to PS exposure during apoptosis induced by the remoxipride polyphenolic metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  5. Onsa GH, bin Saari N, Selamat J, Bakar J
    J Agric Food Chem, 2000 Oct;48(10):5041-5.
    PMID: 11052775
    Latent polyphenol oxidase (LPPO), an enzyme responsible for the browning reaction of sago starches during processing and storage, was investigated. The enzyme was effectively extracted and partially purified from the pith using combinations of nonionic detergents. With Triton X-114 and a temperature-induced phase partitioning method, the enzyme showed a recovery of 70% and purification of 4. 1-fold. Native PAGE analysis of the partially purified LPPO revealed three activity bands when stained with catechol and two bands with pyrogallol. The molecular masses of the enzymes were estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 37, 45, and 53 kDa. The enzyme showed optimum pH values of 4.5 with 4-methylcatechol as a substrate and 7.5 with pyrogallol. The LPPO was highly reactive toward diphenols and triphenols. The activity of the enzyme was greatly enhanced in the presence of trypsin, SDS, ethanol, and linoleic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  6. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Ng MH, Sivanesaratnam V
    J Clin Pathol, 2002 Jan;55(1):22-6.
    PMID: 11825919
    AIM: Telomerase activity was studied in invasive uterine cervical carcinoma to assess whether it was activated during cervical malignant transformation and to look for a possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a set of Malaysian patients.

    METHODS: Histologically confirmed invasive cervical carcinoma and benign cervices were assayed for telomerase activity using a commercial telomerase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The same cases were subjected to PCR detection of HPV using type specific (HPV types 6b, 11, 16, and 18) followed by L1 open reading frame (ORF) consensus primers.

    RESULTS: HPV was detected in 18 (13 HPV-16, one HPV-6b, four only L1 ORF) of 20 invasive cervical carcinoma and one (only L1 ORF) of 19 benign cervices. Raised telomerase activity (A(450 nm) > 0.215) was detected in 11 cervical carcinomas, with A(450 nm) ranging between 0.238 and 21.790 (mean, 3.952) in positive squamous carcinomas, whereas A(450 nm) was only 0.222 in the one positive adenosquamous carcinoma. Five of 11 cervical carcinomas in stage I, three of six in stage II, both in stage III, and the only case in stage IV showed telomerase activation. Increased telomerase activity was noted in five of the 12 lymph node negative, five of the seven lymph node status unknown cases, and the one case with presumed lymph node metastasis. Ten of 18 HPV positive and one of two HPV negative cervical carcinomas showed telomerase upregulation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Telomerase is activated in invasive cervical carcinoma. Although larger studies are needed, there seems to be no clear association between telomerase upregulation and HPV status, although there is a suggestion of increased telomerase activity in squamous carcinomas and late stage disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  7. Ling SK, Tanaka T, Kouno I
    Biol Pharm Bull, 2003 Mar;26(3):352-6.
    PMID: 12612446
    Enzyme inhibitory activities of 14 iridoids previously obtained from two Malaysian medicinal plants, Saprosma scortechinii and Rothmannia macrophylla, were evaluated in vitro using soybean lipoxygenase and bovine testis hyaluronidase. Most of the iridoids, including asperulosidic acid, paederosidic acid, and an epimeric mixture of gardenogenins A and B, did not show any effect on the enzyme activities, except for the bis-iridoids, which inhibited the lipoxygenase activity with their IC(50) values of approximately 1.3 times that of a known inhibitor, fisetin. Structural modification of asperulosidic acid and paederosidic acid through enzymatic hydrolysis by beta-glucosidase resulted in their inhibition towards the enzyme activities, and these activities were enhanced by the presence of some amino acids (lysine, leucine or glutamic acid) or ammonium acetate. Mixtures of gardenogenins A and B; isomers of non-glucosidic iridoids, incubated with amino acid or ammonium acetate did not show any inhibitory effect on the enzyme activities during the 6 h incubation period, except for lysine where spontaneous reaction between the iridoids and amino acid resulted in the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity. The results from these biomimetic reactions suggested that the iridoid aglycons and the intermediates formed by these reactive species could inhibit the enzyme activities, and thus substantiate previous reports that the formation of iridoidal aglycons is a prerequisite for the iridoid glycosides to demonstrate some of the biological activities. In addition, the results also indicated that it is worthwhile to further explore these intermediates as potential anti-inflammatory agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  8. Inayat-Hussain SH, Annuar BO, Din LB, Ali AM, Ross D
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2003 Aug;17(4):433-9.
    PMID: 12849726
    Styryl-lactones such as goniothalamin represent a new class of compounds with potential anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of goniothalamin (GTN), a plant styryl-lactone induced apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. This plant extract resulted in apoptosis in HL-60 cells as assessed by the externalisation of phosphatidylserine. Using the mitochondrial membrane dye (DIOC(6)) in conjunction with flow cytometry, we found that GTN treated HL-60 cells demonstrated a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)). Further immunoblotting on these cells showed activation of initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3 and -7. Pretreatment with the pharmacological caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) abrogated apoptosis as assessed by all of the apoptotic features in this study. In summary, our results demonstrate that goniothalamin-induced apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway in a caspase dependent manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  9. Awang R, Basri M, Ahmad S, Salleh AB
    Biotechnol Lett, 2004 Jan;26(1):11-4.
    PMID: 15005144
    The esterification of palm-based 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) and 1-octanol in hexane as catalyzed by lipase from Rhizomucor meihei (Lipozyme IM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The esterification reaction follows a Ping-Pong, Bi-Bi mechanism. The maximum rate was estimated to be 1 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) catalyst in hexane at 50 degrees C, and the Michaelis-Menten constants for DHSA and 1-octanol were 1.3 M and 0.7 M, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  10. Jafri AM, Sarina S, George PJ, Nizam IM
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Oct;59(4):480-5.
    PMID: 15779580 MyJurnal
    Recent study has shown that activation of the telomerase and p16 gene mutation are both necessary for tumorigenesis. Our objectives were to detect telomerase activity and investigate the possibility of p16 gene mutations in various types of brain tumor. We analyzed 23 tumor tissues collected in 2000 to 2002. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay using a TRAPEZE Telomerase Detection Kit (Intergen, Co). PCR-SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism) analysis was performed to screen for p16 gene mutation at exon 1 and 2. The activity was detected in 26.1% of the brain tumor samples and mostly present in high-grade tumors. There was a significant association between telomerase activity status and tumor grade but not with patient criteria. Telomerase activity was detected in the analyzed tumors, supporting the fact that activation of telomerase is an important feature for tumorigenesis. There was no mobility shift of p16 gene using SSCP and suggested no mutation at exon 1 and 2 occurred in all samples. These results suggest that another mechanism of p16 gene alterations could be involved and associated with detectable telomerase activity in the progression of tumors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  11. Rahman RN, Geok LP, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2005 Mar;96(4):429-36.
    PMID: 15491823
    The physical factors affecting the production of an organic solvent-tolerant protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K was investigated. Growth and protease production were detected from 37 to 45 degrees C with 37 degrees C being the optimum temperature for P. aeruginosa. Maximum enzyme activity was achieved at static conditions with 4.0% (v/v) inoculum. Shifting the culture from stationary to shaking condition decreased the protease production (6.0-10.0% v/v). Extracellular organic solvent-tolerant protease was detected over a broad pH range from 6.0 to 9.0. However, the highest yield of protease was observed at pH 7.0. Neutral media increased the protease production compared to acidic or alkaline media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  12. Har CH, Keong CK
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2005;14(4):374-80.
    PMID: 16326644
    The effects of tocotrienols on murine liver cell viability and their apoptotic events were studied over a dose range of 0-32 microg mL(-1). Normal murine liver cells (BNL CL.2) and murine liver cancer cells (BNL 1ME A.7R.1) were treated with tocotrienols (T(3)), alpha tocopherol (alpha-T) and the chemo drug, Doxorubicin (Doxo, as a positive control). Cell viability assay showed that T(3) significantly (P < or = 0.05) lowered the percentage of BNL 1ME A.7R.1 cell viability in a dose-responsive manner (8-16 microg mL(-1)), whereas T did not show any significant (P>0.05) inhibition in cell viability with increasing treatment doses of 0-16 microg mL(-1). The IC(50) for tocotrienols were 9.8, 8.9, 8.1, 9.7, 8.1 and 9.3 microg mL(-1) at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours respectively. Early apoptosis was detected 6 hours following T(3) treatment of BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells, using Annexin V-FITC fluorescence microscopy assay for apoptosis, but none were observed for the non-treated liver cancer cells at the average IC(50) of 8.98 microg mL(-1) tocotrienols for liver cancer cells. Several apoptotic bodies were detected in BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells at 6 hours post-treatment with tocotrienols (8.98 microg mL(-1)) using Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide fluorescence assay. However, only a couple of apoptotic bodies were seen in the non-treated liver cancer cells and the BNL CL.2 normal liver cells. Some mitotic bodies were also observed in the T(3)-treated BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells but were not seen in the untreated BNL 1ME A.7R.1 cells and the BNL CL.2 liver cells. Following T(3)-treatment (8.98 microg mL(-1)) of the BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells, 24.62%, 25.53% and 44.90% of the cells showed elevated active caspase 3 activity at 9, 12 and 24 hours treatment period, respectively. DNA laddering studies indicated DNA fragmentation occurred in the T(3)-treated liver cancer cells, BNL 1ME A.7R.1 but not in non-treated liver cancer cells and the T(3)-treated and non-treated normal liver cells. These results suggest that tocotrienols were able to reduce the cell viability in the murine liver cancer cells at a dose of 8-32 microg mL(-1) and that this decrease in percentage cell viability may be due to apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  13. Al-Zuhair S
    Biotechnol Prog, 2005 Sep-Oct;21(5):1442-8.
    PMID: 16209548
    Kinetics of production of biodiesel by enzymatic methanolysis of vegetable oils using lipase has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of the methanolysis reaction starting from the vegetable oil as substrate, rather than the free fatty acids, has been developed. The kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the experimental data of the enzymatic reaction of sunflower oil by two types of lipases, namely, Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RM) immobilized on ion-exchange resins and Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TL) immobilized on silica gel. There was a good agreement between the experimental results of the initial rate of reaction and those predicted by the proposed model equations, for both enzymes. From the proposed model equations, the regions where the effect of alcohol inhibition fades, at different substrate concentrations, were identified. The proposed model equation can be used to predict the rate of methanolysis of vegetable oils in a batch or a continuous reactor and to determine the optimal conditions for biodiesel production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  14. Sosroseno W, Musa M, Ravichandran M, Fikri Ibrahim M, Bird PS, Seymour GJ
    Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 2006 Jun;21(3):145-50.
    PMID: 16626370
    The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans could stimulate arginase activity in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells).
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  15. Serri NA, Kamaruddin AH, Long WS
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2006 Oct;29(4):253-60.
    PMID: 16868763
    Immobilized Candida rugosa lipase was used for the synthesis of citronellyl laurate from citronellol and lauric acid. Screening of different types of support (Amberlite MB-1 and Celite) for immobilization of lipase and solvent (n-hexane, n-heptane, and iso-octane) and optimization of reaction conditions, such as catalyst loading, effect of substrates molar ratio and temperature, have been studied. The maximum enzyme activity was obtained at 310 K. The immobilized C. rugosa lipase onto Amberlite MB-1 support was found to be the best support with a conversion of 89% of citronellyl laurate ester in iso-octane compared to Celite 545. Deactivation of C. rugosa lipase at 313, 318 and 323 K were observed. Ordered bi bi mechanism with dead end complex of lauric acid was found to fit the initial rate data and the kinetic parameters were obtained by non-linear regression analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  16. Sosroseno W, Musa M, Ravichandran M, Fikri Ibrahim M, Bird PS, Seymour GJ
    Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 2006 Dec;21(6):347-52.
    PMID: 17064391
    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on arginase activity in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  17. Looi LM, Ng MH, Cheah PL
    Malays J Pathol, 2007 Jun;29(1):33-5.
    PMID: 19105326 MyJurnal
    The unique ability of tumour cells to proliferate indefinitely is crucial to neoplastic progression as it allows these cells to express the aggressive properties of cancer without the censure of physiological ageing. This is in contrast to normal somatic cells which are subject to a "mitotic clock," a phenomenon that has been linked to telomeric shortening after each round of cell replication, so that eventually the loss of genetic material reaches a critical stage and the cells undergo senescence and cell death. A study was conducted to investigate the role of telomerase, an RNA-containing enzyme that restores the telomere length, in the neoplastic cell immortalization and progression process. Fresh human tissue samples taken from excision specimens received by the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre, were investigated for telomerase activity using a commercial Telomerase PCR-ELISA kit (Boehringer Mannheim). Specimens comprised 33 breast lesions (10 infiltrating breast adenocarcinoma, 13 fibroadenoma and 10 non-neoplastic breast tissue), 27 colonic lesions (17 colonic adenocarcinoma and 10 non-neoplastic colonic mucosa) and 42 cervical lesions (20 cervical carcinoma and 22 non-neoplastic cervical tissues). Telomerase activity was found in 6 (60%) of 10 breast carcinomas, 6 (46%) of 13 fibroadenomas, none of the 10 nonneoplastic breast samples, 3 (17.6%) of 17 colon carcinomas and none of the 10 non-neoplastic colonic mucosal samples, 12 (60%) of 20 cervical carcinoma and 3 (13.6%) of 22 non-neoplastic cervical samples. 5/10 (50%) Stage I, 4/7 (57%) Stage II, 2/2 (100%) Stage III and 1/1 (100%) Stage IV cervical carcinomas showed telomerase activity. These findings support a contributory role for telomerase in tumourigenesis with activation occurring from neoplastic transformation and increasing with tumour progression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/physiology*
  18. Tee TT, Cheah YH, Hawariah LP
    Anticancer Res, 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5A):3425-30.
    PMID: 17970090
    F16 is a plant-derived pharmacologically active fraction extracted from Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previously, we have reported that F16 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death while having some degree of cytoselectivity on a normal human breast cell line, MCF-10A. In this study, we attempted to further elucidate the mode of action of F16. We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the reduction of Bcl-2 protein. Then, executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to F16 treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis in the MCF- 7 cells was accompanied by the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Surprisingly, caspase-9 and p53 were unchanged with F16 treatment. We believe that the F16-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurs independently of caspase-9 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that F16 from E. longifolia exerts anti-proliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  19. Handayani T, Sakinah S, Nallappan M, Pihie AH
    Anticancer Res, 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):965-71.
    PMID: 17465228
    Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect and the mechanism of action of xanthorrhizol on human hepatoma cells, HepG2, and the mode of cell death. An antiproliferative assay using methylene blue staining revealed that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the HepG2 cells with a 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) value of 4.17 +/- 0.053 microg/ml. The antiproliferative activity of xanthorrhizol was due to apoptosis induced in the HepG2 cells and not necrosis, which was confirmed by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells showed typical apoptotic morphology such as DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage and elongated lamellipodia. The apoptosis mediated by xanthorrhizol in the HepG2 cells was associated with the activation of tumor suppressor p53 and down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression, but not Bax. The levels of Bcl-2 protein expression decreased 24-h after treatment with xanthorrhizol and remained lower than controls throughout the experiment, resulting in a shift in the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio thus favouring apoptosis. The processing of the initiator procaspase-9 was detected. Caspase-3 was also found to be activated, but not caspase-7. Xanthorrhizol exerts antiproliferative effects on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  20. Cheah YH, Nordin FJ, Tee TT, Azimahtol HL, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z
    Anticancer Res, 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6A):3677-89.
    PMID: 19189649
    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb (Zingerberaceae). Recent studies of xanthorrhizol in cell cultures strongly support the role of xanthorrhizol as an antiproliferative agent. In our study, we tested the antiproliferative effect of xanthorrhizol using different breast cancer cell lines. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was then selected for further investigations. Treatment with xanthorrhizol caused 50% growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells at 8.67 +/- 0.79 microg/ml as determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled cytochrome c revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the release of cytochrome c respectively. This was further confirmed by Western-blotting, where cytochrome c was showed to migrate from mitochondrial fraction to the cytosol fraction of treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Caspase activity assay showed the involvement of caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-6 or caspase-8 in MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death. Subsequently, cleavage of PARP-1 protein is suggested. These data suggest treatment with xanthorrhizol modulates MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway subsequent to the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the modulation of PARP-1 protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
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