Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 100 in total

  1. Alhawarri MB, Dianita R, Razak KNA, Mohamad S, Nogawa T, Wahab HA
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 29;26(9).
    PMID: 33946788 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26092594
    Despite being widely used traditionally as a general tonic, especially in South East Asia, scientific research on Cassia timoriensis, remains scarce. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the in vitro activities for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory potential, radical scavenging ability, and the anti-inflammatory properties of different extracts of C. timoriensis flowers using Ellman's assay, a DPPH assay, and an albumin denaturation assay, respectively. With the exception of the acetylcholinesterase activity, to the best of our knowledge, these activities were reported for the first time for C. timoriensis flowers. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the existence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids in the C. timoriensis flower extracts. The ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (527.43 ± 5.83 mg GAE/g DW and 851.83 ± 10.08 mg QE/g DW, respectively) as compared to the other extracts. In addition, the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant (IC50 20.12 ± 0.12 and 34.48 ± 0.07 µg/mL, respectively), anti-inflammatory (92.50 ± 1.38 and 92.22 ± 1.09, respectively), and anti-AChE (IC50 6.91 ± 0.38 and 6.40 ± 0.27 µg/mL, respectively) activities. These results suggest that ethyl acetate and methanol extracts may contain bioactive compounds that can control neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, through high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-AChE activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  2. Gao X, Yanan J, Santhanam RK, Wang Y, Lu Y, Zhang M, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2021 Feb;86(2):366-375.
    PMID: 33448034 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15599
    Liver damage is a common liver disorder, which could induce liver cancer. Oral antioxidant is one of the effective treatments to prevent and alleviate liver damage. In this study, three flavonoids namely myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin were isolated and identified from Laba garlic. The isolated compounds were investigated on the protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damages in hepatic L02 cells and apoptosis inducing mechanism in hepatic cancer cells HepG2 by using MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blotting analysis. Myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin showed proliferation inhibition on HepG2 cells with IC50 value of 44.32 ± 0.213 µM, 49.68 ± 0.192 µM, and 54.32 ± 0.176 µM, respectively. While they showed low toxicity on normal cell lines L02. They could significantly alleviate the oxidative damage towards L02 cells (P < 0.05), via inhibiting the morphological changes in mitochondria and upholding the integrity of mitochondrial structure and function. The fluorescence intensity of L02 cells pre-treated with myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin (100 µM) was 89.23 ± 1.26%, 89.35 ± 1.43% and 88.97 ± 0.79%, respectively. Moreover, the flavonoids could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via Bcl-2/Caspase pathways, where it could up-regulate the expression of Bax and down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, pro-Caspase-3, and pro-Caspase-9 proteins in a dose dependent manner. Overall, the results suggested that the flavonoids from Laba garlic might be a promising candidate for the treatment of various liver disorders. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Flavonoids from Laba garlic showed selective toxicity towards HepG2 cells in comparison to L02 cells via regulating Bcl-2/caspase pathway. Additionally, the isolated flavonoids expressively barred the oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 in L02 cells. These results suggested that the flavonoids from laba garlic could be a promising agent towards the development of functional foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  3. Mohebali N, Pandurangan AK, Mustafa MR, Anandasadagopan SK, Alagumuthu T
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 2020 Dec;34(12):e22587.
    PMID: 32726518 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.22587
    Colorectal cancer is one of the most leading death-causing cancers in the world. Vernodalin, a cytotoxic sesquiterpene, has been reported to possess anticancer properties against human breast cancer cells. We aimed to examine the anticancer mechanism of vernodalin on human colon cancer cells. Vernodalin was used on human colon cancer cells, HT-29 and HCT116. The cytotoxicity of vernodalin on human colon cancer cells was determined through in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Small interfering RNA was used to analyze the cascade activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in HT-29, and HCT116 cells against vernodalin treatment. The protein expressions of caspase 3, Bcl-2, and Bax were examined through Western blot analysis. Immunoblot analysis on the JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK pathways showed increased activation due to vernodalin treatment. It was proven from the JNK and p38 inhibition test that both pathways are significantly activated by vernodalin to induce apoptosis. Our results, collectively, showed the apoptosis-induced anticancer mechanism of vernodalin on human colon cancer cells that was mediated through the activation of JNK pathway and apoptotic regulator proteins. These results suggest that vernodalin could be developed as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for human colorectal cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  4. Tan HT, Chek MF, Lakshmanan M, Foong CP, Hakoshima T, Sudesh K
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Sep 15;159:250-257.
    PMID: 32417540 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.064
    Among the various types of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] has a high potential to serve as commercial bioplastic due to its striking resemblance to petroleum-based plastics. In this study, five different genotypes of Cupriavidusnecator transformants harbouring the phaCBP-M-CPF4 gene (including PHB¯4/pBBR1-CBP-M-CPF4) were developed to evaluate the efficiency of 3HHx monomer incorporation. The fraction of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) monomer that was incorporated into the PHA synthesized by these C. necator transformants using palm oil as the sole carbon source, was examined. Overall, co-expression of enoyl-CoA hydratase gene (phaJ1) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, along with PHA synthase (PhaC), increased the 3HHx composition in the PHA copolymer. The differences in the enzyme activities of β-ketothiolase (PhaACn) and NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (PhaBCn) of the C. necator mutant hosts used in this study, were observed to alter the 3HHx composition and molecular weight of the PHA copolymer produced. The 3HHx fractions in the P(3HB-co-3HHx) produced by these C. necator transformants ranged between 1 and 18 mol%, while the weight-average molecular weight ranged from 0.7 × 106 to 1.8 × 106 Da. PhaCBP-M-CPF4 displayed a typical initial lag-phase and a relatively low synthase activity in the in vitro enzyme assay, which is thought to be the reason for the higher molecular weights of PHA obtained in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  5. Mohammed Abdul KS, Rayadurgam J, Faiz N, Jovanović A, Tan W
    J Cell Mol Med, 2020 09;24(18):10924-10934.
    PMID: 32794652 DOI: 10.1111/jcmm.15721
    In the present study, we have investigated potential cardioprotective properties of Isosteviol analogue we recently synthesized and named JC105. Treatment of heart embryonic H9c2 cells with JC105 (10 μM) significantly increased survival of cells exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation. JC105 (10 μM) activated ERK1/2, DRP1 and increased levels of cardioprotective SUR2A in hypoxia-reoxygenation, but did not have any effects on ERK1/2, DRP1 and/or SUR2A in normoxia. U0126 (10 μM) inhibited JC105-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and DRP1 without affecting AKT or AMPK, which were also not regulated by JC105. Seahorse bioenergetic analysis demonstrated that JC105 (10 μM) did not affect mitochondria at rest, but it counteracted all mitochondrial effects of hypoxia-reoxygenation. Cytoprotection afforded by JC105 was inhibited by U0126 (10 μM). Taken all together, these demonstrate that (a) JC105 protects H9c2 cells against hypoxia-reoxygenation and that (b) this effect is mediated via ERK1/2. The unique property of JC105 is that selectively activates ERK1/2 in cells exposed to stress, but not in cells under non-stress conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  6. Taha M, Rahim F, Khan AA, Anouar EH, Ahmed N, Shah SAA, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 05 14;10(1):7969.
    PMID: 32409737 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-64729-3
    The current study describes synthesis of diindolylmethane (DIM) derivatives based-thiadiazole as a new class of urease inhibitors. Diindolylmethane is natural product alkaloid reported to use in medicinal chemistry extensively. Diindolylmethane-based-thiadiazole analogs (1-18) were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques 1HNMR, 13C-NMR, EI-MS and evaluated for urease (jack bean urease) inhibitory potential. All compounds showed excellent to moderate inhibitory potential having IC50 value within the range of 0.50 ± 0.01 to 33.20 ± 1.20 µM compared with the standard thiourea (21.60 ± 0.70 µM). Compound 8 (IC50 = 0.50 ± 0.01 µM) was the most potent inhibitor amongst all derivatives. Structure-activity relationships have been established for all compounds. The key binding interactions of most active compounds with enzyme were confirmed through molecular docking studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  7. Ting SY, Janaranjani M, Merosha P, Sam KK, Wong SC, Goh PT, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2020 Apr 08;68(14):4116-4130.
    PMID: 32186869 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b06692
    While the capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis has been elucidated in vertebrates and several invertebrate phyla, the comparative knowledge in crustaceans remains vague. A key obstacle in mapping the full spectrum of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in crustacean is the limited evidence of the functional activities of enzymes involved in desaturation or elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates. In this present study, we report on the cloning and functional characterization of two Elovl elongases from the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggest these two Elovl as putative Elovl4 and Elovl6, respectively. Using the recombinant expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate the elongation capacity for C18-C22 PUFA substrates in the S. olivacea Elovl4. The S. olivacea Elovl6 elongated saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and interestingly, C18-C20 PUFA. Taken together, both Elovl fulfill the elongation steps required for conversion of C18 PUFA to their respective LC-PUFA products. Elovl4 is expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas and gill tissues, while Elovl6 is predominant in digestive tissues. The mRNA expression of both enzymes was higher in mud crabs fed with vegetable oil-based diets. Tissue fatty acid composition also showed the existence of LC-PUFA biosynthesis intermediate products in tissues expressing these two elongases. In summary, we report here two novel Elovl with PUFA elongating activities in a marine brachyuran. This will contribute significantly to the understanding of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway in crustaceans and advance the development of aquafeed for intensive farming of the mud crab.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  8. Sayyed RZ, Bhamare HM, Sapna, Marraiki N, Elgorban AM, Syed A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(6):e0229968.
    PMID: 32497077 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0229968
    Although laccase has been recognized as a wonder molecule and green enzyme, the use of low yielding fungal strains, poor production, purification, and low enzyme kinetics have hampered its large-scale application. Thus,this study aims to select high yielding fungal strains and optimize the production, purification, and kinetics of laccase of Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4. The results obtained indicated that Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 produced a significantly large amount of laccase under meso-acidophilic shaking conditions in a medium containing glucose and yeast extract. A 25 μM CuSO4 was observed to enhance the enzyme yield. The enzyme was best purified on a Sephadex G-100 column. The purified enzyme resembled laccase of A. flavus. The kinetics of the purified enzyme revealed high substrate specificity and good velocity of reaction,using ABTS as a substrate. The enzyme was observed to be stable over various pH values and temperatures. The peptide structure of the purified enzyme was found to resemble laccase of A. kawachii IFO 4308. The fungus was observed to decolorize various dyes independent of the requirement of a laccase mediator system.Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 was observed to be a potent natural producer of laccase, and it decolorized the dyes even in the absence of a laccase mediator system. Thus, it can be used for bioremediation of effluent that contains non-textile dyes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  9. Zhang X, Tan Z, Jia K, Zhang W, Dang M
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;47(1):2171-2178.
    PMID: 31159596 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2019.1620249
    Nanomedicine is a rapidly emerging field and is reported to be a promising tool for treating various diseases. Green synthesized nanoparticles are documented to possess a potent anticancer effect. Rabdosia rubescens is a Chinese plant which is also one of the components of PC-SPES and used to treat prostate cancer. In the present study, we synthesized the gold nanoparticles from R. rubescens (RR-AuNP) and analyzed its anticancer activity against the lung carcinoma A549 cell lines. Since lung cancer is reported to be with increased morbidity and decreased survival rate. The biosynthesized RR-AuNP were confirmed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer, size and shape of RR-AuNP were assessed by DLS, TEM and EDX. The biomolecules present in RR-AuNP and its topographical structure were detected using FTIR, SAED and AFM analysis. MTT assay was performed to detect the IC50 dose of RR-AuNP and its apoptotic effect was assessed by detecting the caspases activation, ROS generation. The anticancer effect of RR-AuNP was confirmed by DAPI staining, TUNEL assay and its molecular mechanism were confirmed by assessing the apoptotic signalling molecules protein expression. Our results illustrate that RR-AuNP showed a strong absorption peak at 550 nm and the RRAuNP were polydispersed nanospheres with size of 130 nm. RR-AuNP IC50 dose against A549 lung carcinoma cell line was detected to be at 25 µg/ml. The results of DAPI staining, TUNEL and immunoblotting analysis confirms both the 25 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of RR-AuNP possess potent anticancer and apoptotic effect, suggesting that RR-AuNP that it may be a persuasive molecule to treat lung cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  10. Csato V, Kadir SZSA, Khavandi K, Bennett H, Sugden S, Gurney AM, et al.
    Physiol Rep, 2019 11;7(22):e14260.
    PMID: 31782255 DOI: 10.14814/phy2.14260
    We investigated the biomechanical relationship between intraluminal pressure within small mesenteric resistance arteries, oxidant activation of PKG, Ca2+ sparks, and BK channel vasoregulation. Mesenteric resistance arteries from wild type (WT) and genetically modified mice with PKG resistance to oxidative activation were studied using wire and pressure myography. Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ transients within vascular smooth muscle cells of intact arteries were characterized using high-speed confocal microscopy of intact arteries. Arteries were studied under conditions of varying intraluminal pressure and oxidation. Intraluminal pressure specifically, rather than the generic stretch of the artery, was necessary to activate the oxidative pathway. We demonstrated a graded step activation profile for the generation of Ca2+ sparks and also a functional "ceiling" for this pressure --sensitive oxidative pathway. During steady state pressure - induced constriction, any additional Ca2+ sensitive-K+ channel functional availability was independent of oxidant activated PKG. There was an increase in the amplitude, but not the Area under the Curve (AUC) of the caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient in pressurized arteries from mice with oxidant-resistant PKG compared with wild type. Overall, we surmise that intraluminal pressure within resistance arteries controls Ca2+ spark vasoregulation through a tightly controlled pathway with a graded onset switch. The pathway, underpinned by oxidant activation of PKG, cannot be further boosted by additional pressure or oxidation once active. We propose that these restrictive characteristics of pressure-induced Ca2+ spark vasoregulation confer stability for the artery in order to provide a constant flow independent of additional pressure fluctuations or exogenous oxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects; Enzyme Activation/physiology
  11. Ng IS, Song CP, Ooi CW, Tey BT, Lee YH, Chang YK
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Aug 01;134:458-468.
    PMID: 31078593 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.05.054
    Nanofiber membrane chromatography integrates liquid membrane chromatography and nanofiber filtration into a single-step purification process. Nanofiber membrane can be functionalised with affinity ligands for promoting binding specificity of membrane. Dye molecules are a good affinity ligand for nanofiber membrane due to their low cost and high binding affinity. In this study, a dye-affinity nanofiber membrane (P-Chitosan-Dye membrane) was prepared by using polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membrane modified with chitosan molecules and immobilized with dye molecules. Reactive Orange 4, commercially known as Procion Orange MX2R, was found to be the best dye ligand for membrane chromatography. The binding capacity of P-Chitosan-Dye membrane for lysozyme was investigated under different operating conditions in batch mode. Furthermore, desorption of lysozyme using the P-Chitosan-Dye membrane was evaluated systematically. The recovery percentage of lysozyme was found to be ~100%. The optimal conditions obtained from batch-mode study were adopted to develop a purification process to separate lysozyme from chicken egg white. The process was operated continuously using the membrane chromatography and the characteristic of the breakthrough curve was evaluated. At a lower flow rate (i.e., 0.1 mL/min), the total recovery of lysozyme and purification factor of lysozyme were 98.59% and 56.89 folds, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  12. Salwoom L, Raja Abd Rahman RNZ, Salleh AB, Mohd Shariff F, Convey P, Pearce D, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781467 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040715
    In recent years, studies on psychrophilic lipases have been an emerging area of research in the field of enzymology. This study focuses on bacterial strains isolated from anthropogenically-influenced soil samples collected around Signy Island Research Station (South Orkney Islands, maritime Antarctic). Limited information on lipase activities from bacteria isolated from Signy station is currently available. The presence of lipase genes was determined using real time quantification PCR (qPCR) in samples obtained from three different locations on Signy Island. Twenty strains from the location with highest lipase gene detection were screened for lipolytic activities at a temperature of 4 °C, and from this one strain was selected for further examination based on the highest enzymatic activities obtained. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequence data of this strain showed the highest level of sequence similarity (98%) to a Pseudomonas sp. strain also isolated from Antarctica. In order to increase lipase production of this psychrophilic strain, optimisation of different parameters of physical and nutritional factors were investigated. Optimal production was obtained at 10 °C and pH 7.0, at 150 rev/min shaking rate over 36 h incubation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  13. Gurunanselage Don RAS, Yap MKK
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Feb;110:918-929.
    PMID: 30572196 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.023
    Arctium lappa L. is a perennial herb traditionally consumed to improve well-being. It has been widely reported for its antioxidant properties; however, very little is known for its exact mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of anticancer action for different A. lappa root extracts. Arctium lappa root was extracted with ethanol, hexane and ethyl acetate, then examined for in vitro anticancer activity against cancerous HeLa, MCF-7, Jurkat cell lines and non-cancerous 3T3 cell lines. Induction of apoptosis was determined by cellular morphological changes, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), caspase-3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation. The active compounds present in the most potent root extracts were identified by LC-ESI-MS. Among all the extracts, ethyl acetate root extract has the highest potency with IC50 of 102.2 ± 42.4 μg/ml, followed by ethanolic root extract in Jurkat T cells, at 24 h. None of the extracts were cytotoxic against 3T3 cells, suggesting that the extracts were selective against cancerous cells only. Both ethyl acetate and ethanolic root extracts exhibited significant morphological changes in Jurkat T cells, including the detachment from adjacent cells, appearance of apoptotic bodies and cells shrinkage. The extracts treated cells also displayed an increase in caspase-3/7 activity and alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential. Only ethyl acetate root extract at IC50 induced DNA fragmentation in Jurkat T cells. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of 8 compounds, of which only 6 compounds with various biological activities reported. These findings suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of A. lappa had strong anticancer potential and induced intrinsic apoptosis via loss of ΔΨm and activation of caspase-3/7 This study can provide new insight to the discovery of new promising lead compound in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects; Enzyme Activation/physiology
  14. Eko Sukohidayat NH, Zarei M, Baharin BS, Manap MY
    Molecules, 2018 Jul 20;23(7).
    PMID: 30037038 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23071800
    Purification of lipase produced by L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 was conducted for the first time using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of Triton X-100 and maltitol. The partitioning of lipase was optimized according to several parameters including pH, temperature, and crude load. Results showed that lipase preferentially migrated to the Triton X-100 rich phase and optimum lipase partitioning was achieved in ATPS at TLL of 46.4% and crude load of 20% at 30 °C and pH 8, resulting in high lipase purification factor of 17.28 and yield of 94.7%. The purified lipase showed a prominent band on SDS-PAGE with an estimated molecular weight of 50 kDa. The lipase was stable at the temperature range of 30⁻60 °C and pH range of 6⁻11, however, it revealed its optimum activity at the temperature of 37 °C and pH 8. Moreover, lipase exhibited enhanced activity in the presence of non-ionic surfactants with increased activity up to 40%. Furthermore, results exhibited that metals ions such as Na⁺, Mg2+, K⁺ and Ca2+ stimulated lipase activity. This study demonstrated that this novel system could be potentially used as an alternative to traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of enzymes since the purified lipase still possesses good process characteristics after undergoing the purification process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  15. Basiri A, Abd Razik BM, Ezzat MO, Kia Y, Kumar RS, Almansour AI, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2017 12;75:210-216.
    PMID: 28987876 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.09.019
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, which affected 35 million people in the world. The most practiced approach to improve the life expectancy of AD patients is to increase acetylcholine neurotransmitter level at cholinergic synapses by inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. A series of unreported piperidone grafted spiropyrrolidines 8(a-p) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. Therein, compounds 8h and 8l displayed more potent AChE enzyme inhibition than standard drug with IC50 values of 1.88 and 1.37 µM, respectively. Molecular docking simulations for 8l possessing the most potent AChE inhibitory activities, disclosed its interesting binding templates to the active site channel of AChE enzymes. These compounds are remarkable AChE inhibitors and have potential as AD drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  16. Marpani F, Sárossy Z, Pinelo M, Meyer AS
    Biotechnol Bioeng, 2017 12;114(12):2762-2770.
    PMID: 28832942 DOI: 10.1002/bit.26405
    Enzymatic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to methanol (CH3 OH) can be accomplished using a designed set-up of three oxidoreductases utilizing reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADH) as cofactor for the reducing equivalents electron supply. For this enzyme system to function efficiently a balanced regeneration of the reducing equivalents during reaction is required. Herein, we report the optimization of the enzymatic conversion of formaldehyde (CHOH) to CH3 OH by alcohol dehydrogenase, the final step of the enzymatic redox reaction of CO2 to CH3 OH, with kinetically synchronous enzymatic cofactor regeneration using either glucose dehydrogenase (System I) or xylose dehydrogenase (System II). A mathematical model of the enzyme kinetics was employed to identify the best reaction set-up for attaining optimal cofactor recycling rate and enzyme utilization efficiency. Targeted process optimization experiments were conducted to verify the kinetically modeled results. Repetitive reaction cycles were shown to enhance the yield of CH3 OH, increase the total turnover number (TTN) and the biocatalytic productivity rate (BPR) value for both system I and II whilst minimizing the exposure of the enzymes to high concentrations of CHOH. System II was found to be superior to System I with a yield of 8 mM CH3 OH, a TTN of 160 and BPR of 24 μmol CH3 OH/U · h during 6 hr of reaction. The study demonstrates that an optimal reaction set-up could be designed from rational kinetics modeling to maximize the yield of CH3 OH, whilst simultaneously optimizing cofactor recycling and enzyme utilization efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  17. Bharkavi C, Vivek Kumar S, Ashraf Ali M, Osman H, Muthusubramanian S, Perumal S
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2017 Jul 15;27(14):3071-3075.
    PMID: 28552337 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.05.050
    An efficient one-pot microwave assisted stereoselective synthesis of novel dihydro-2'H-spiro[indene-2,1'-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole]-tetraone derivatives through three-component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine with a series of 1-aryl-1H-pyrrole-2,5-diones is described. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial and AChE inhibition activities. Compound 4b (IC50 1.30µM) has been found to display twelve fold antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine and it is thirty seven times more active than pyrimethamine. Compound 4h displays maximum AchE inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.78±0.01µmol/L.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  18. Teoh WY, Wahab NA, Sim KS
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids, 2017 Apr 03;36(4):243-255.
    PMID: 28323520 DOI: 10.1080/15257770.2016.1268693
    This study aims to investigate the mechanisms associated with the antiproliferation effect of guanosine on human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells. In this study, guanosine induced more drastic cell cycle arrest effect than cell death effect on HCT 116 cells. The cell cycle arrest effect of guanosine on HCT 116 cells appeared to be associated with the increased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. The decrease of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and cyclin D1 expression was also involved. Thus, the antiproliferation of colon cancer cells of guanosine could be mediated by the disruption of MAPK and AMPK pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation/drug effects
  19. Tan XE, Neoh HM, Looi ML, Chin SF, Cui L, Hiramatsu K, et al.
    Can J Microbiol, 2017 Mar;63(3):260-264.
    PMID: 28059579 DOI: 10.1139/cjm-2016-0439
    Comparative proteomic profiling between 2 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains, Mu50Ω-vraSm and Mu50Ω-vraSm-graRm, and vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) strain Mu50Ω revealed upregulated levels of catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB) of the arginine catabolism pathway in VISA strains. Subsequent analyses showed that the VISA strains have higher levels of cellular ATP and ammonia, which are by-products of arginine catabolism, and displayed thicker cell walls. We postulate that elevated cytoplasmic ammonia and ATP molecules, resulting from activated arginine catabolism upon acquisition of vraS and graR mutations, are important requirements facilitating cell wall biosynthesis, thereby contributing to thickened cell wall and consequently reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
  20. He L, Mao Y, Zhang L, Wang H, Alias SA, Gao B, et al.
    BMC Biotechnol, 2017 02 28;17(1):22.
    PMID: 28245836 DOI: 10.1186/s12896-017-0343-8
    BACKGROUND: α-Amylase plays a pivotal role in a broad range of industrial processes. To meet increasing demands of biocatalytic tasks, considerable efforts have been made to isolate enzymes produced by extremophiles. However, the relevant data of α-amylases from cold-adapted fungi are still insufficient. In addition, bread quality presents a particular interest due to its high consummation. Thus developing amylases to improve textural properties could combine health benefits with good sensory properties. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles provide an economical and convenient method for separation of biomacromolecules. In order to maximize the catalytic efficiency of α-amylase and support further applications, a comprehensive characterization of magnetic immobilization of α-amylase is crucial and needed.

    RESULTS: A novel α-amylase (AmyA1) containing an open reading frame of 1482 bp was cloned from Antarctic psychrotolerant fungus G. pannorum and then expressed in the newly constructed Aspergillus oryzae system. The purified recombinant AmyA1 was approximate 52 kDa. AmyA1 was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 40 °C, and retained over 20% of maximal activity at 0-20 °C. The K m and V max values toward soluble starch were 2.51 mg/mL and 8.24 × 10-2 mg/(mL min) respectively, with specific activity of 12.8 × 103 U/mg. AmyA1 presented broad substrate specificity, and the main hydrolysis products were glucose, maltose, and maltotetraose. The influence of AmyA1 on the quality of bread was further investigated. The application study shows a 26% increase in specific volume, 14.5% increase in cohesiveness and 14.1% decrease in gumminess in comparison with the control. AmyA1 was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and characterized. The immobilized enzyme showed improved thermostability and enhanced pH tolerance under neutral conditions. Also, magnetically immobilized AmyA1 can be easily recovered and reused for maximum utilization.

    CONCLUSIONS: A novel α-amylase (AmyA1) from Antarctic psychrotolerant fungus was cloned, heterologous expression in Aspergillus oryzae, and characterized. The detailed report of the enzymatic properties of AmyA1 gives new insights into fungal cold-adapted amylase. Application study showed potential value of AmyA1 in the food and starch fields. In addition, AmyA1 was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and characterized. The improved stability and longer service life of AmyA1 could potentially benefit industrial applications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Activation
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