Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 65 in total

  1. Ahmad MA, Lim YH, Chan YS, Hsu CY, Wu TY, Sit NW
    Acta Pharm, 2022 Jun 01;72(2):317-328.
    PMID: 36651512 DOI: 10.2478/acph-2022-0013
    This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities of the leaf extracts of Syzygium myrtifolium Walp. (Myrtaceae). The results indicate that the leaf extracts of S. myrtifolium contain various classes of phytochemicals (alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, tannins and triterpenoids) and possess antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, and water extracts exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power than the hexane and chloroform extracts. However, all extracts exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against four tested species of yeasts (minimal inhibitory concentration: 0.02-0.31 mg mL-1) than against six tested species of bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration: 0.16-1.25 mg mL-1). The ethanolic extract offered the highest protection of Vero cells (viability > 70 %) from the cytopathic effect caused by the Chikungunya virus while the ethyl acetate extract showed significant replication inhibitory activity against the virus (p < 0.001) using the replicon-enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  2. Lee WZ, Chang SK, Khoo HE, Sia CM, Yim HS
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2016 Oct-Dec;15(4):419-428.
    PMID: 28071019 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.2016.4.40
    Soursop is a healthy fruit. Peels form about 20% of the soursop fruit and are usually discarded as waste product. With a view to utilizing soursop peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study aimed to investigate the influence of different extraction conditions on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of soursop (Annona muricata L.) peel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  3. R R
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2022 Jan;194(1):176-186.
    PMID: 34762268 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-021-03742-2
    Hellenia speciosa (J.Koenig) S.R. Dutta is a plant species belonging to the family Costaceae. It is widely distributed in China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, tropical, and subtropical Asia. In Ayurveda, the rhizome of this plant has been extensively used to treat fever, rash, asthma, bronchitis, and intestinal worms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents of the leaf of Hellenia speciosa using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 17 phytochemical components in the ethanolic leaf extract of Hellenia speciosa. The prevailing bioactive compounds present in Hellenia speciosa were thymol (RT-10.019; 3.59%), caryophyllene (RT-11.854; 0.62%), caryophyllene oxide (RT-13.919; 1.34%), artumerone (RT-14.795; 1.35%), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (RT-17.536; 2.77%), 9,12-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (RT-19.163; 1.35%), squalene (RT-24.980; 1.19%), piperine (RT-25.745; 3.11%), beta tocopherol (RT-26.681; 2.88%), vitamin E (RT-27.290; 2.64%), progesterone (RT-29.608; 3.18%), caparratriene (RT-29.861; 9.72%), and testosterone (RT-30.73; 5.81%). The compounds were identified by comparing their retention time and peak area with that of the literature and by interpretation of mass spectra. The results and findings of the present study suggest that the plant leaf can be used as a valuable source in the field of herbal drug discovery. The presence of bioactive compounds justifies the use of plant leaves for treating various diseases with fewer side effects and recommended the plant of pharmaceutical importance. However, further studies are needed to undertake its bioactivity and toxicity profile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  4. Shafaei A, Esmailli K, Farsi E, Aisha AF, Abul Majid AM, Ismail Z
    PMID: 26467526 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0885-z
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Pharmacological effects of OS are attributed to the presence of lipophilic flavones. However; lipophilic compounds suffer from poor aqueous solubility which limits the OS oral bioavailability and therapeutic applications. Therefore, OS was prepared in nano formulation form using liposomes from soybean phospholipids. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo oral toxicity of nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract (OS-EL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  5. Rahim NA, Hassandarvish P, Golbabapour S, Ismail S, Tayyab S, Abdulla MA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:416409.
    PMID: 24783203 DOI: 10.1155/2014/416409
    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  6. Ramli S, Radu S, Shaari K, Rukayadi Y
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:9024246.
    PMID: 29410966 DOI: 10.1155/2017/9024246
    The aim of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of S. polyanthum L. (salam) leaves extract foodborne pathogens. All the foodborne pathogens were inhibited after treating with extract in disk diffusion test with range 6.67 ± 0.58-9.67 ± 0.58 mm of inhibition zone. The range of MIC values was between 0.63 and 1.25 mg/mL whereas MBC values were in the range 0.63 mg/mL to 2.50 mg/mL. In time-kill curve, L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa were found completely killed after exposing to extract in 1 h incubation at 4x MIC. Four hours had been taken to completely kill E. coli, S. aureus, V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus at 4x MIC. However, the population of K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and S. typhimurium only reduced to 3 log CFU/mL. The treated cell showed cell rupture and leakage of the cell cytoplasm in SEM observation. The significant reduction of natural microflora in grapes fruit was started at 0.50% of extract at 5 min and this concentration also was parallel to sensory attributes acceptability where application of extract was accepted by the panellists until 5%. In conclusion, S. polyanthum extract exhibits antimicrobial activities and thus might be developed as natural sanitizer for washing raw food materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  7. Cui X, Zhao X, Zeng J, Loh SK, Choo YM, Liu D
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Aug;166:584-91.
    PMID: 24956030 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.05.102
    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was pretreated by Formiline process to overcome biomass recalcitrance and obtain hemicellulosic syrup and lignin. Higher formic acid concentration led to more lignin removal but also higher degree of cellulose formylation. Cellulose digestibility could be well recovered after deformylation with a small amount of lime. After digested by enzyme loading of 15 FPU+10 CBU/g solid for 48 h, the polysaccharide conversion could be over 90%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results demonstrated that ethanol concentration reached 83.6 g/L with approximate 85% of theoretic yield when performed at an initial dry solid consistency of 20%. A mass balance showed that via Formiline pretreatment 0.166 kg of ethanol could be produced from 1 kg of dry EFB with co-production of 0.14 kg of high-purity lignin and 5.26 kg hemicellulosic syrup containing 2.8% xylose. Formiline pretreatment thus can be employed as an entry for biorefining of EFB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  8. Zainuddin Z, Wan Daud WR, Pauline O, Shafie A
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Dec;102(23):10978-86.
    PMID: 21996481 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.080
    In the organosolv pulping of the oil palm fronds, the influence of the operational variables of the pulping reactor (viz. cooking temperature and time, ethanol and NaOH concentration) on the properties of the resulting pulp (yield and kappa number) and paper sheets (tensile index and tear index) was investigated using a wavelet neural network model. The experimental results with error less than 0.0965 (in terms of MSE) were produced, and were then compared with those obtained from the response surface methodology. Performance assessment indicated that the neural network model possessed superior predictive ability than the polynomial model, since a very close agreement between the experimental and the predicted values was obtained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  9. Goh CS, Tan KT, Lee KT, Bhatia S
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Jul;101(13):4834-41.
    PMID: 19762229 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.080
    The present study reveals the perspective and challenges of bio-ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials in Malaysia. Malaysia has a large quantity of lignocellulosic biomass from agriculture waste, forest residues and municipal solid waste. In this work, the current status in Malaysia was laconically elucidated, including an estimation of biomass availability with a total amount of 47,402 dry kton/year. Total capacity and domestic demand of second-generation bio-ethanol production in Malaysia were computed to be 26,161 ton/day and 6677 ton/day, respectively. Hence, it was proven that the country's energy demand can be fulfilled with bio-ethanol if lignocellulosic biomass were fully converted into bio-ethanol and 19% of the total CO(2) emissions in Malaysia could be avoided. Apart from that, an integrated national supply network was proposed together with the collection, storage and transportation of raw materials and products. Finally, challenges and obstacles in legal context and policies implementation were elaborated, as well as infrastructures shortage and technology availabilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  10. Tan HT, Lee KT, Mohamed AR
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Jul;101(14):5719-27.
    PMID: 20223656 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.023
    Recently, second-generation bio-ethanol (SGB), which utilizes readily available lignocellulosic biomass has received much interest as another potential source of liquid biofuel comparable to biodiesel. Thus the aim of this paper is to determine the exergy efficiency and to compare the effectiveness of SGB and palm methyl ester (PME) processes. It was found that the production of bio-ethanol is more thermodynamically sustainable than that of biodiesel as the net exergy value (NExV) of SGB is 10% higher than that of PME. Contrarily, the former has a net energy value (NEV) which is 9% lower than the latter. Despite this, SGB is still strongly recommended as a potential biofuel because SGB production can help mitigate several detrimental impacts on the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  11. Shukor H, Abdeshahian P, Al-Shorgani NK, Hamid AA, Rahman NA, Kalil MS
    Bioresour Technol, 2016 Oct;218:257-64.
    PMID: 27372004 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.06.084
    Catalytic depolymerization of mannan composition of palm kernel cake (PKC) by mannanase was optimized to enhance the release of mannan-derived monomeric sugars for further application in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of PKC was studied by evaluating effects of PKC concentration, mannanase loading, hydrolysis pH value, reaction temperature and hydrolysis time on production of fermentable sugars using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA results revealed that all factors studied had highly significant effects on total sugar liberated (P<0.01). The optimum conditions for PKC hydrolysis were 20% (w/v) PKC concentration, 5% (w/w) mannanase loading, hydrolysis pH 4.5, 45°C temperature and 72h hydrolysis time. Enzymatic experiments in optimum conditions revealed total fermentable sugars of 71.54±2.54g/L were produced including 67.47±2.51g/L mannose and 2.94±0.03g/L glucose. ABE fermentation of sugar hydrolysate by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 resulted in 3.27±1.003g/L biobutanol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  12. Lam MK, Lee KT
    Biotechnol Adv, 2012 May-Jun;30(3):673-90.
    PMID: 22166620 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.11.008
    Culturing of microalgae as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production has received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fast growth rate and ability to accumulate high quantity of lipid and carbohydrate inside their cells for biodiesel and bioethanol production, respectively. In addition, this superior feedstock offers several environmental benefits, such as effective land utilization, CO(2) sequestration, self-purification if coupled with wastewater treatment and does not trigger food versus fuel feud. Despite having all these 'theoretical' advantages, review on problems and issues related to energy balance in microalgae biofuel are not clearly addressed until now. Base on the maturity of current technology, the true potential of microalgae biofuel towards energy security and its feasibility for commercialization are still questionable. Thus, this review is aimed to depict the practical problems that are facing the microalgae biofuel industry, covering upstream to downstream activities by accessing the latest research reports and critical data analysis. Apart from that, several interlink solutions to the problems will be suggested with the purpose to bring current microalgae biofuel research into a new dimension and consequently, to revolutionize the entire microalgae biofuel industry towards long-term sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  13. Mohammadi M, Hassan MA, Phang LY, Ariffin H, Shirai Y, Ando Y
    Biotechnol Lett, 2012 Feb;34(2):253-9.
    PMID: 22038551 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-011-0783-5
    A new halogen-free and environmental-friendly method using water and ethanol is developed as an alternative for the recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from recombinant Cupriavidus necator in comparison to the established chloroform extraction method. After optimisation, our results showed that the halogen-free method produced a PHA with 81% purity and 96% recovery yield, in comparison to the chloroform extraction system which resulted in a highly pure PHA with 95% yield. Although the purity of the PHA using the new method is lower, the molecular weight of the extracted PHA is not compromised. This new method can be further developed as an alternative and more environmental-friendly method for industrial application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  14. Tan IS, Lee KT
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Jun 25;124:311-21.
    PMID: 25839825 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.02.046
    The aim of this study is to investigate the technical feasibility of converting macroalgae cellulosic residue (MCR) into bioethanol. An attempt was made to present a novel, environmental friendly and economical pretreatment process that enhances enzymatic conversion of MCR to sugars using Dowex (TM) Dr-G8 as catalyst. The optimum yield of glucose reached 99.8% under the optimal condition for solid acid pretreatment (10%, w/v biomass loading, 4%, w/v catalyst loading, 30min, 120°C) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (45FPU/g of cellulase, 52CBU/g of β-glucosidase, 50°C, pH 4.8, 30h). The yield of sugar obtained was found more superior than conventional pretreatment process using H2SO4 and NaOH. Biomass loading for the subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated MCR was then optimized, giving an optimum bioethanol yield of 81.5%. The catalyst was separated and reused for six times, with only a slight drop in glucose yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  15. Murugesu K, Murugaiyah V, Saghir SAM, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2017;18(14):1132-1140.
    PMID: 29564975 DOI: 10.2174/1389201019666180322111800
    BACKGROUND: Ethanolic extract of G. procumbens leaves has been previously shown to possess antihyperlipidemic effects.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to prepare caffeoylquinic acids rich and poor fractions of the ethanolic extract using resin column technology and compare their antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials.

    RESULTS: Among the treatment groups, caffeoylquinic acids rich fraction (F2) and chlorogenic acid (CA, one of the major caffeoylquinic acids) showed potent antihyperlipidemic effects, with significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) (p<0.01 or better) compared to the hyperlipidemic control at the 58 h. The effect was better than that of ethanolic extract. In addition, only F2 significantly increased the high-density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C) level (p<0.05). F2 showed better effect than CA alone (60 mg) despite the fact that it only contained 9.81 mg CA/1000 mg dose. The findings suggest that the di-caffeoylquinic acids (86.61 mg/g dose) may also in part be responsible for the potent antihyperlipidemic effect shown by the F2. Likewise, F2 showed the highest antioxidant activity. Thus, simple fractionation of ethanolic extract using the Amberlite XAD-2 resin technique had successfully enriched the caffeoylquinic acids into F2 with improved antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant capacities than that of the ethanolic extract.

    CONCLUSION: The resin separation technology may find application in caffeoylquinic acids enrichment of plant extracts for pre-clinical studies. The F2 has potential for development into phytopharmaceuticals as adjunct therapy for management of hyperlipidemia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  16. Hassan H, Othman MF, Zakaria ZA, Saad FFA, Abdul Razak HR
    Curr Radiopharm, 2021;14(2):131-144.
    PMID: 33115398 DOI: 10.2174/1874471013999201027215704
    BACKGROUND: Organic solvents play an indispensable role in most of the radiopharmaceutical production stages. It is almost impossible to remove them entirely in the final formulation of the product.

    OBJECTIVE: In this presented work, an analytical method by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) has been developed to determine organic solvents in radiopharmaceutical samples. The effect of injection holding time, temperature variation in the injection port, and the column temperature on the analysis time and resolution (R ≥ 1.5) of ethanol and acetonitrile was studied extensively.

    METHODS: The experimental conditions were optimized with the aid of further statistical analysis; thence, the proposed method was validated following the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Q2 (R1) guideline.

    RESULTS: The proposed analytical method surpassed the acceptance criteria including the linearity > 0.990 (correlation coefficient of R2), precision < 2%, LOD, and LOQ, accuracy > 90% for all solvents. The separation between ethanol and acetonitrile was acceptable with a resolution R > 1.5. Further statistical analysis of Oneway ANOVA revealed that the increment in injection holding time and variation of temperature at the injection port did not significantly affect the analysis time. Nevertheless, the variation in injection port temperature substantially influenced the resolution of ethanol and acetonitrile peaks (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The proposed analytical method has been successfully implemented to determine the organic solvent in the [18F]fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine ([18F]FET), [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO), and [18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT).

    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  17. Al-Dualimi DW, Shah Abdul Majid A, Al-Shimary SFF, Al-Saadi AA, Al Zarzour R, Asif M, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2018 Jan;41(1):82-88.
    PMID: 28635332 DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2017.1317785
    Herbal products contain a variety of compounds which may be useful in protecting against cellular damage caused by mutagens. Orthosiphon stamineus (O.s) also known as Cat whiskers. The herb has been shown anti-oxidative properties and can modulate key cellular proteins that have cytoprotective effect. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1) of 50% ethanol extract of O.s (Et. O.s) on micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), Polychromatic to normachromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE), Mitotic index (MI), and Chromosomal aberration (CA) in Bab/c mice. Moreover, these parameters were used to evaluate the anti-genotoxic and clastogenic potencies of (Et. O.s) against mitomycin c (MMC) that interact with biological molecules and induce genotoxic and clastogenic disorders in non-tumor cells. MMC (4 mg kg-1) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the mice before and after treatment with three different doses of (Et. O.s). The results indicated that the extract at different doses did not show significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences in (MNPCE), (PCE/NCE) ratios, and (CA) values. The higher doses sowed high (MI) values compared with untreated control group. MMC showed significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in (MNPCE), (CA) and reduce (PCE/NCE) and (MI) values compared with untreated control group. Treatment with (Et. O.s) at different doses before and after MMC injection showed to modulate MNPCE, PCE/NCE ratios, CA and MI values in mice bone marrow cells suggesting genoprotective potential of this plant extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  18. Valizadeh N, Valian F, Sadeghifard N, Karami S, Pakzad I, Kazemian H, et al.
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2017 Jul;67(7):385-387.
    PMID: 28320039 DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-102060
    Toxin antitoxin system is a regulatory system that antitoxin inhibits the toxin. We aimed to determine the role of TA loci in biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae clinical and environmental isolates; also inhibition of biofilm formation by Peganum harmala. So, 40 K. pneumoniae clinical and environmental isolates were subjected for PCR to determine the frequency of mazEF, relEB, and mqsRA TA loci. Biofilm formation assay subjected for all isolates. Then, P. harmala was tested against positive biofilm formation strains. Our results demonstrated that relBE TA loci were dominant TA loci; whereas mqsRA TA loci were negative in all isolates. The most environmental isolates showed weak and no biofilm formation while strong and moderate biofilm formation observed in clinical isolates. Biofilm formations by K. pneumoniae in 9 ug/ml concentration were inhibited by P. harmala. In vivo study suggested to be performed to introduce Peganum harmala as anti-biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  19. Khan NR, Wong TW
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2016 09;13(9):1209-19.
    PMID: 27212391 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1193152
    OBJECTIVES: Skin drug retention is required in local treatment of skin cancer. This study investigated the interplay effects of ethosomes and microwave in transdermal drug delivery. Skin pre-treatment by microwave and applied with liquified medicine is deemed to 'cement' the skin thereby raising skin drug deposition.

    METHODS: 5-fluorouracil-loaded ethosomes were prepared and subjected to size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, drug release and skin permeation tests. The molecular characteristics of untreated, microwave and/or ethosome-treated skins were examined by Fourier transform infrared and raman spectroscopy, thermal and electron microscopy techniques.

    RESULTS: The skin drug retention was promoted using larger ethosomes with negative zeta potentials that repelled anionic lipids of skin and hindered vesicle permeation into deep layers. These ethosomes had low ethanol content. They were less able to fluidize the lipid and defluidize the protein domains at epidermis to enlarge aqueous pores for drug permeation. Pre-treatment of skin by 2450 MHz microwave for 2.5 min further increased skin drug penetration and retention of low ethanol ethosomes and provided lower drug permeation than cases treated for 1.15 min and 5 min. A 2.5 min treatment might be accompanied by specific dermal protein fluidization via C=O moiety which translated to macromolecular swelling, narrowing of intercellular spaces at lower skin layers, increased drug retention and reduced drug permeation.

    CONCLUSION: Ethosomes and microwave synergized to promote skin drug retention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  20. Wasman SQ, Mahmood AA, Chua LS, Alshawsh MA, Hamdan S
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2011 Oct;49(10):767-72.
    PMID: 22013743
    Antioxidant and gastroprotective activities of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves in rats have been reported. Sprague Dawley rats, 6 per group were used and rats in groups 1 to 6 were pretreated with (0.25% w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (negative control, 5 ml/kg), 20 mg/kg omeprazole (positive control), (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) of aqueous leaf extracts (APLAE) and (250 and 500 mg/kg) of ethanol leaf extracts (APLEE) respectively. Animals were orally administered with 95% ethanol (5 ml/kg) 60 min after their pretreatments. Rats were sacrificed 1 h after treatment and gastric contents were collected to measure pH and mucous weight. Stomach was analyzed for gross and histological changes. Ulcer control group showed extensive lesions of gastric mucosal layer, whereas rats pretreated with omeprazole, 250 and 500 mg/kg of APLAE showed significant and dose dependent reduction in gastric lesions with increased pH and mucus content of stomach. Rats pretreated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of APLEE showed significantly better inhibition of gastric mucosal lesions. Further, the in vitro antioxidant studies using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that ethanol extracts have superior free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value = 10.9 than aqueous extracts with IC50 value = 24.65. Results of this study showed that pretreatment with ethonolic extract of A. paniculata ethanolic provided significant protection against gastric ulcer by regulating of pH, mucous production and antioxidant property.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
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