OBJECTIVE: In this presented work, an analytical method by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) has been developed to determine organic solvents in radiopharmaceutical samples. The effect of injection holding time, temperature variation in the injection port, and the column temperature on the analysis time and resolution (R ≥ 1.5) of ethanol and acetonitrile was studied extensively.
METHODS: The experimental conditions were optimized with the aid of further statistical analysis; thence, the proposed method was validated following the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Q2 (R1) guideline.
RESULTS: The proposed analytical method surpassed the acceptance criteria including the linearity > 0.990 (correlation coefficient of R2), precision < 2%, LOD, and LOQ, accuracy > 90% for all solvents. The separation between ethanol and acetonitrile was acceptable with a resolution R > 1.5. Further statistical analysis of Oneway ANOVA revealed that the increment in injection holding time and variation of temperature at the injection port did not significantly affect the analysis time. Nevertheless, the variation in injection port temperature substantially influenced the resolution of ethanol and acetonitrile peaks (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The proposed analytical method has been successfully implemented to determine the organic solvent in the [18F]fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine ([18F]FET), [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO), and [18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT).
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to prepare caffeoylquinic acids rich and poor fractions of the ethanolic extract using resin column technology and compare their antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials.
RESULTS: Among the treatment groups, caffeoylquinic acids rich fraction (F2) and chlorogenic acid (CA, one of the major caffeoylquinic acids) showed potent antihyperlipidemic effects, with significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) (p<0.01 or better) compared to the hyperlipidemic control at the 58 h. The effect was better than that of ethanolic extract. In addition, only F2 significantly increased the high-density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C) level (p<0.05). F2 showed better effect than CA alone (60 mg) despite the fact that it only contained 9.81 mg CA/1000 mg dose. The findings suggest that the di-caffeoylquinic acids (86.61 mg/g dose) may also in part be responsible for the potent antihyperlipidemic effect shown by the F2. Likewise, F2 showed the highest antioxidant activity. Thus, simple fractionation of ethanolic extract using the Amberlite XAD-2 resin technique had successfully enriched the caffeoylquinic acids into F2 with improved antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant capacities than that of the ethanolic extract.
CONCLUSION: The resin separation technology may find application in caffeoylquinic acids enrichment of plant extracts for pre-clinical studies. The F2 has potential for development into phytopharmaceuticals as adjunct therapy for management of hyperlipidemia.
Please provide feedback to Administrator (firstname.lastname@example.org)