Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 50 in total

  1. Chamsi-Pasha H, Albar MA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):278-281.
    PMID: 29197882
    INTRODUCTION: The ever-increasing technological advances of Western medicine have created new ethical issues awaiting answers and response. The use of genetic therapy, organ transplant, milk-banking, end-of-life care and euthanasia are of paramount importance to the medical students and need to be addressed.

    METHODS: A series of searches were conducted of Medline databases published in English between January 2000 and January 2017 with the following keywords: medical ethics, syllabus, Islam, jurisprudence.

    RESULTS: Islamic medical jurisprudence is gaining more attention in some medical schools. However, there is still lack of an organised syllabus in many medical colleges.

    CONCLUSION: The outlines of a syllabus in Islamic medical jurisprudence including Islamic values and moral principles related to both the practice and research of medicine are explored.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  2. Isa NM
    Sci Eng Ethics, 2016 10;22(5):1319-1332.
    PMID: 26358749 DOI: 10.1007/s11948-015-9698-1
    The discovery and invention of new medical applications may be considered blessings to humankind. However, some applications which might be the only remedy for certain diseases may contain ingredients or involve methods that are not in harmony with certain cultural and religious perspectives. These situations have raised important questions in medical ethics; are these applications completely prohibited according to these perspectives, and is there any room for mitigation? This paper explores the concept of darurah (necessity) and its deliberation in the formulation of fatwas on medicine issued by the National Fatwa Council of Malaysia. Darurah has explicitly been taken into consideration in the formulation of 14 out of 45 fatwas on medicine thus far, including one of the latest fatwas regarding uterine donation and transplantation. These fatwas are not only limited to the issues regarding the use of unlawful things as remedies. They include issues pertaining to organ transplantation, management of the corpse and treatment of brain dead patients. While deliberation of darurah in medicine may vary from issue to issue, darurah applies in a dire situation in which there are no lawful means to prevent harm that may be inflicted upon human life. Nevertheless, other aspects must also be taken into the deliberation. For example, consent must be obtained from the donor or his next of kin (after his death) to conduct a cadaveric organ transplantation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical*
  3. Santibañez S, Boudreaux D, Tseng GF, Konkel K
    J Relig Health, 2016 Oct;55(5):1483-94.
    PMID: 26311054 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-015-0110-x
    The Buddhist Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program promotes the donation of one's body to science as a selfless act by appealing to the Buddhist ethics of compassion and self-sacrifice. Together, faculty, families, and donors help medical students to learn the technical, spiritual, emotional, and psychological aspects of medicine. Students assigned to each "Silent Mentor" visit the family to learn about the donor's life. They see photos and hear family members' stories. Afterwards, students write a brief biography of the donor which is posted on the program website, in the medical school, and on the dissection table. In this paper, we: (1) summarize the Silent Mentor Program; (2) describe findings from an assessment of medical students who recently completed a new version of the program in Malaysia; and (3) explore how healthcare settings could benefit from this innovative program.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical/education
  4. Rathor MY, Azarisman Shah MS, Hasmoni MH
    The practice of contemporary medicine has been tremendously influenced by western ideas and it is assumed by many that autonomy is a universal value of human existence. In the World Health Report 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) considered autonomy a “universal” value of human life against which every health system in the world should be judged. Further in Western bioethics, patient autonomy and self -determination prevails in all sectors of social and personal life, a concept unacceptable to some cultures. In principle, there are challenges to the universal validity of autonomy, individualism and secularism, as most non-Western cultures are proud of their communal relations and spiritualistic ethos and, thereby imposing Western beliefs and practices as aforementioned can have deleterious consequences. Religion lies at the heart of most cultures which influences the practice patterns of medical professionals in both visible and unconscious ways. However, religion is mostly viewed by scientists as mystical and without scientific proof. Herein lies the dilemma, whether medical professionals should respect the cultural and religious beliefs of their patients? In this paper we aim to discuss some of the limitations of patient's autonomy by comparing the process of reasoning in western medical ethics and Islamic medical ethics, in order to examine the possibility and desirability of arriving at a single, unitary and universally acceptable notion of medical ethics. We propose a more flexible viewpoint that accommodates different cultural and religious values in interpreting autonomy and applying it in an increasingly multilingual and multicultural, contemporaneous society in order to provide the highest level of care possible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  5. Azmi, A.N., Jamilah, J., Dzulkhairi, M.R., Ramli, S., Ariff, O., Nasri Ismai,l N.M.
    Introduction: The Medical Faculty of Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) aims to produce good Muslim
    doctors (GMD) who are able to practise medicine that is integrated with Islamic values. Islamic courses and
    Medical Ethics are integrated into the curriculum in its effort to provide adequate Islamic knowledge and
    nurturing professionalism as a process of personal and professional development (PPD) within the framework
    of Islamic teaching. The objective of the study was to evaluate the perception of graduates and students of
    characteristics of a GMD. Method: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the participants. The
    respondents were asked to rate their level of agreement or disagreement on the statements that represent
    the characteristics of a GMD. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using SPSS version 18.0. The
    mean, median and inter quartile ranges of the characteristics were determined and differences between the
    groups were analysed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Results showed significant difference between
    gender for the item “Conscious of professional ethics” (p=0.021). Significant differences were seen in the
    median scores between the graduates and the final year students in four out of six items for personal
    characteristic. Conclusion: Islamic input in the medical curriculum and the teaching of professionalism has
    an impact on graduate perception of characteristics of a GMD. Further improvement in the teaching of
    professionalism among undergraduates is necessary in order to promote greater impact on the understanding
    and internalization of characteristics of a GMD. The Islamic input in the medical curriculum can thus be
    regarded as the blueprint for PPD of medical undergraduates to become a GMD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  6. Citation:
    Ethical Professional Practice Guidelines. Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Medicine Malaysia; 2016
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  7. Phua J, Joynt GM, Nishimura M, Deng Y, Myatra SN, Chan YH, et al.
    JAMA Intern Med, 2015 Mar;175(3):363-71.
    PMID: 25581712 DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.7386
    Little data exist on end-of-life care practices in intensive care units (ICUs) in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  8. Jamilah J, Ahmad Najib A, Dzulkhairi MR, Ariff HO, Nasri Ismail NM
    Muslim doctors are those qualified doctors who practise their professional knowledge and skills in line with Islam and upholds the highest standards of ethical and professional behaviour. The medical curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) was designed with the integration of Islamic input which aims at producing doctors who are able to practise medicine that is integrated with Islamic, moral and ethical values. Halaqah Studies and Fundamental Islamic Knowledge (FIK) courses such as History of Medicine in Islam, Science and Medicine in Quran and Sunnah, Akhlak and Tasawuf, Islamic Jurisprudence and Medical Ethics and Fiqh Issues are taught to students during the pre-clinical and clinical phases. Memorization of selected Quranic verses throughout the programme aim to get the students to apply the verses of the al-Quran into practice in everyday life and especially in their clinical practice. Islamic values are emphasised during doctor-patient interactions in all clinical postings. Islamic knowledge and values integrated in the curriculum are assessed in written and clinical examinations. The outcome of the integration of the Naqli component in the medical curriculum has been demonstrated positively by the students in the patient management problems and clinical consultations. Studies on the outcome of the integrated Islamic input in the medical curriculum among the clinical students and graduates are being carried out.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  9. van Rostenberghe H, Yong A, Mohd Zin F, Fuad MDF, Idris B, Tahir NA, et al.
    Autonomy is widely accepted to be the third pillar of medical ethics. However, if it comes to refusal of life saving treatments, some extra considerations are necessary, especially if decisions are made by surrogate decision makers. Four cases of problematic decision making are presented here, followed by a discussion about the cultural and religious misconceptions about the rights of surrogate decision makers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  10. Victor Lim
    Consent is defined as the “voluntary agreement to or acquiescence in what another person proposes or desires”. In the context of medical practice it is now universally accepted that every human being of adult years and of sound mind has the right to determine what shall be done with his or her own body. Informed consent is now a central part of medical ethics and medical law. There has been a change in the public’s expectations of their role in medical decision making. The paternalistic approach by doctors is no longer acceptable. Today the patient has the right to receive and the doctor the obligation to give sufficient and appropriate information so that the patient can make an informed decision to accept or refuse a treatment option. This has led to higher standards of practice in the process of informed consent taking. Consent taking is both a legal and moral requirement. Failure to comply with standards of practice can result in criminal prosecution, civil litigation or disciplinary action by the relevant professional authority. Consent taking is a process and not merely a one-off affixation of the patient’s signature on consent form. It involves a continuous discussion to reflect the evolving nature of treatment from before the treatment is given to the post-operative or discharge period. The regulatory authorities in many countries have established standards for consent taking which would include the capacity of the patient, the person who should seek consent, the information to be provided and the necessary documentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  11. Harlina H. Siraj, Salam, A., Juriza, I., Zaleha A. Mahdy, Nabishah, M.
    Introduction: Appropriate professional conduct of clinical teacher is vital in their medicine practice. In UKM medical centre Malaysia, personal and professional development (PPD) of future medical professionals is greatly emphasized. The objective of this study was to determine the medical students' perception about the professional conduct of their clinical teachers at UKM medical centre. Methods: It was an online questionnaire survey conducted among the clinical students enquiring about the professional conduct of their clinical teachers. There were five statements and one open ended question which described students' preference about PPD teaching- learning method, expectation on PPD session, need of teachers training and experience about the excellent and inappropriate professional conduct of clinical teachers. The open ended question described what students had observed regarding the 'doctor-patient relationship' medical ethics and 'student-teacher relationship. A total of 77 questionnaires were returned after complete evaluation. The data were compiled and analysed using SPSS version 20 and the answers to the open ended questions were transcribed. Result: Role modelling was the preferred teaching-learning method for PPD as stated by 38% respondents; subsequent preferred methods were small group (30%), role play (24%), large group (7%) and reflective writing (1%). Majority (67.5%) respondents indicated that professional conduct of their clinical teachers was frequent enough as they had expected while 29.9% claimed that professional conduct was infrequently emphasized. Excellent professional conduct of clinical teachers was witnessed by 73% respondents while 27% indicated that they had never seen excellent conduct. When asked about inappropriate professional behaviours by clinical teachers, 53% indicated to have witnessed. Qualitative data also revealed both positive and negative experiences as reflected in open comments. According to 70% respondents clinical teachers required training to apply PPD in their daily practices. Conclusion: Professional conduct of clinical teachers as perceived by the students was excellent and frequents enough with experience of inappropriate behaviour too. Role modeling was the preferred teaching method while attention needed on reflective assignment. Educators must emphasize on role modelling in their daily practices and curriculum planners should give due importance on training needs of clinical teachers to apply PPD in their daily practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  12. Yousuf, R.M., Mohammed Fauzi, A.R.
    Due to globalizing trend of homogenisation of culture, changes in the health care delivery system and market economics infringing on the practice of medicine, there has been a gradual shift in the attitude of the medical community as well as the lay public towards greater acceptance of euthanasia as an option for terminally ill and dying patients. Physicians in developing countries come across situations where such issues are raised with increasing frequency. As the subject has gained worldwide prominence, we want to review this topic from Islamic perspective due to its significance in medical ethics and clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  13. Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(1):129-136.
    Introduction Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology. The medical profession has long subscribed to a body of ethical statements developed primarily for the benefit of the patient. A physician must recognize responsibility to patients first and foremost, as well as to society, to other health professionals, and to self. This paper presents some information regarding medical ethics, including the values and principles of ethical conduct. Later the requirements of consent form is presented to guide the researchers before conducting a study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  14. Rathor MY, Rani MF, Shah AM, Akter SF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):423-8.
    PMID: 22390094 MyJurnal
    Informed consent [IC] is a recognized socio-legal obligation for the medical profession. The doctrine of IC involves the law, which aims to ensure the lawfulness of health assistance and tends to reflect the concept of autonomy of the person requiring and requesting medical and/or surgical treatment. Recent changes in the health care delivery system and the complex sociological settings, in which it is practiced, have resulted in an increase in judicial activity and medical negligence lawsuits for physicians. While IC is a well-established practice, it often fails to meet its stated purpose. In the common law, the standard of medical care to disclose risks has been laid down by the Bolam test- a familiar concept to most physicians, but it has been challenged recently in many jurisdictions. This paper aims to discuss some important judgments in cases of alleged medical negligence so as to familiarize doctors regarding their socio-legal obligations. We also propose to discuss some factors that influence the quality of IC in clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical*
  15. Mazlina M, Julia PE
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Jun;52(6):421-7.
    PMID: 21731994
    Medical ethics issues encountered in rehabilitation medicine differ from those in an acute care setting due to the complex relationships among the parties involved in rehabilitative care. The study examined the attitudes of Malaysian rehabilitation doctors toward medical ethics issues commonly encountered during patient care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical*
  16. Talib N
    Med Law, 2010 Sep;29(3):433-42.
    PMID: 22145562
    The doctrine of informed consent has the effect of allowing the mentally competent adult patient to exercise individual choice in any proposed medical treatment. The ethical principles primarily inherent in this doctrine would be the principles of autonomy and beneficence. However, it is argued in this essay that the concept and meaning of autonomy might be vastly different between western and eastern communities. Consequently the doctrine of informed consent will lead to a different meaning in these different societies. The essay also raises the implication of transplanting legal doctrines into societies which might not be fully prepared to implement the ideal contained in the doctrine of informed consent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical*
  17. Yusoff MS, Rahim AF, Noor AR, Yaacob NA, Hussin ZA
    Med Educ, 2009 Nov;43(11):1106.
    PMID: 19874517 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03459.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical/education
  18. Nurdeng D
    In this paper, attempts will be made to study and understand the lawful and unlawful foods in the light of Islamic Medical law focus on ethical aspect that has been practiced during Islamic civilization. We will realize that lawful and unlawful foods are not, as some imagine, mere pretense, but rather constitute the divine command which protects against many diseases. In order to present such a law, the jurists of Islam needed great acuteness and power of reflection to make them understand the matters relating to lawful and unlawful foods in Islam. To attempt to follow these jurists, in their treatment, of the different school of thoughts (madhahib) would take us far beyond the limits of this research. Thus, we will rather confine ourselves to those laws which are clearly stated in the Qur’an and tradition (hadith), as well as a few of the most important issues dealt with in the different school of thoughts (madhahib).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
  19. Loh KY, Nalliah S
    Med Educ, 2008 Nov;42(11):1127-8.
    PMID: 18991988 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03217.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical/education*
  20. Loh KY, Sivalingam N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Mar;63(1):85-7; quiz 88.
    PMID: 18935748 MyJurnal
    Doctor-patient relationship is a special kind of social. relationship where bonding is planned and carried out with the final objective of helping the patient to achieve the treatment goal. A positive therapeutic relationship encourages active participation of patient in the treatment plan, contributing to success of treatment goals and minimizing malpractice suits. The humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of love, belonging, self esteem, self expression and the final stage of self actualization-the drive to realize one's full potential. In person centered approach to therapeutic relationship, the three most fundamental elements are congruent (genuineness), unconditioned positive regards and empathy. In daily medical consultation, applying these elements can promote greater chance of success in the therapeutic process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical
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