Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Liu Y, Saha N, Low PS, Tay JS
    Hum. Hered., 1995 Jul-Aug;45(4):192-8.
    PMID: 7558050
    The distribution of two common DNA polymorphisms (5' untranslated exon 1 and intron 5-DdeI) of the antithrombin III (ATIII) gene was studied in three ethnic groups in Singapore: 251 Chinese, 221 Dravidian Indians and 102 Malays. The polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction and size fractionation in agarose gels. The 5' untranslated to exon 1 polymorphism is a length polymorphism while the intron 5 polymorphism is a restriction site (DdeI) polymorphism. The frequency of the short fragment (S) of the 5' to exon 1 length polymorphism of the ATIII gene was found to be 0.37 in the Chinese, 0.54 in the Malays and 0.65 in the Dravidian Indians. For the Chinese, this was significantly lower compared to the Caucasians and Indians (p < 0.0001) and the Malays (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the frequencies of DdeI+ did not vary significantly among these three populations (p > 0.05). The distribution of different genotypes at these two loci of the ATIII gene was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all three ethnic groups. A strong linkage disequilibrium between these two polymorphisms was observed in all the ethnic groups and the estimated correlation coefficient (delta) was 0.42 in the Chinese (p < 0.001), 0.61 in the Dravidian Indians (p < 0.001) and 0.43 in the Malays (p < 0.001). The frequencies of haplotype S+, L+ and L- were, respectively, 0.37, 0.40 and 0.23 in the Chinese, 0.65, 0.18 and 0.16 in the Dravidian Indians and 0.54, 0.37 and 0.09 in the Malays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  2. Aslam S, Yee VC, Narayanan S, Duraisamy G, Standen GR
    Br J Haematol, 1997 Aug;98(2):346-52.
    PMID: 9266932
    Molecular analysis has been performed on a Malaysian patient with a severe bleeding disorder due to factor XIII(A) subunit deficiency. Total mRNA was isolated from the patient's leucocytes and four overlapping segments corresponding to the entire coding region of the A subunit cDNA were amplified by RT-PCR. The cDNA segments amplified efficiently and were of expected size. Direct sequencing of the complete reading frame revealed a single homozygous base change (nt 1327G-T) in exon 10 corresponding to a missense mutation, Val414Phe, in the catalytic core domain of the A subunit monomer. The mutation eliminates a BsaJ1 restriction site and family screening showed that both parents were heterozygous for the defect. The base substitution was absent in 55 normal individuals. Val414 is a highly conserved residue in the calcium-dependent transglutaminase enzyme family. Computer modelling based on 3D crystallographic data predicts that the bulky aromatic side chain of the substituted phenylalanine residue distorts protein folding and destabilizes the molecule. In addition, conformation changes in the adjacent catalytic and calcium binding regions of the A subunit are likely to impair the enzymatic activity of any protein synthesized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  3. Tang K, Ngoi SM, Gwee PC, Chua JM, Lee EJ, Chong SS, et al.
    Pharmacogenetics, 2002 Aug;12(6):437-50.
    PMID: 12172212
    The MDR1 multidrug transporter plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability, and differences in drug response exist amongst different ethnic groups. Numerous studies have identified an association between the MDR1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) exon 26 3435C>T and differences in MDR1 function. We performed a haplotype analysis of the MDR1 gene in three major ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) by examining 10 intragenic SNPs. Four were polymorphic in all three ethnic groups: one occurring in the non-coding region and three occurring in coding exons. All three coding SNPs (exon 12 1236C>T, exon 21 2677G>T/A and exon 26 3435C>T) were present in high frequency in each ethnic group, and the derived haplotype profiles exhibited distinct differences between the groups. Fewer haplotypes were observed in the Malays (n = 6) compared to the Chinese (n = 10) and Indians (n = 9). Three major haplotypes (> 10% frequency) were observed in the Malays and Chinese; of these, two were observed in the Indians. Strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected between the three SNPs in all three ethnic groups. The strongest LD was present in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays, with the corresponding LD blocks estimated to be approximately 80 kb, 60 kb and 40 kb, respectively. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strong LD between the neutral SNP exon 26 3435C>T and a nearby unobserved causal SNP underlies the observed associations between the neutral SNP and MDR1 functional differences. Furthermore, strong LD between exon 26 3435T and different unobserved causal SNPs in different study populations may provide a plausible explanation for conflicting reports associating the same exon 26 3435T allele with different MDR1 functional changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  4. Tan EL, Peh SC, Sam CK
    J Med Virol, 2003 Feb;69(2):251-7.
    PMID: 12683415
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a malignancy associated closely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is prevalent among Chinese of Southern China origin. Epidemiological studies indicate a high prevalence of EBV in Asia with viral isolates having typical characteristics of the putative viral oncogene, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1), such as the loss of the Xho1 restriction site in Exon 1 and the 30-bp deletion in Exon 3. The EBV LMP-1 gene from throat washings of 120 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 14 healthy individuals were analyzed. Similar analyses were also carried out on 30 and 12 postnasal space biopsies from nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and healthy individuals, respectively. The 30-bp deletion was detected in 20% of nasopharyngeal carcinoma throat washes and in 100% of nasopharyngeal carcinoma postnasal space biopsies. Interestingly, 16% of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies possessed both the deleted and the undeleted variants, suggestive of dual infections. The notion of dual infections in nasopharyngeal carcinoma was further supported by the coexistence of both "F" and "f" (BamH1F region) EBV variants in 11% of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies. All of the throat washes and biopsies from the healthy controls showed the undeleted variant. The loss of the Xho1 restriction site was found with higher frequency both in throat washes and biopsies from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The discrepancy in the frequency of the 30-bp deletion between throat washes (20%) and postnasal space biopsies (100%) was an indication that this deletion is specific for viral isolates from primary tumour sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  5. Lee AS, Ho GH, Oh PC, Balram C, Ooi LL, Lim DT, et al.
    Hum Mutat, 2003 Aug;22(2):178.
    PMID: 12872263
    The mutation spectrum of the BRCA1 gene among ethnic groups from Asia has not been well studied. We investigated the frequency of mutations in the BRCA1 gene among Malay breast cancer patients from Singapore, independent of family history. By using the protein truncation test (PTT) and direct sequencing, BRCA1 mutations were detected in 6 of 49 (12.2%) unrelated patients. Four novel missense mutations in exon 11, T557A (1788A>G), T582A (1863A>G), N656S (2086A>G) and P684S (2169C>T) were identified in one patient. Two patients had missense mutations in exon 23, V1809A (5545T>C), which has been previously detected in individuals from Central and Eastern Europe. Three unrelated patients had the deleterious 2846insA frameshift mutation in exon 11. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) of the promoter region of the BRCA1 gene detected hypermethylation of tumor DNA in an additional 2 patients. Haplotype analysis using the microsatellite markers D17S855, D17S1323 and D17S1325 revealed a common haplotype for the three unrelated patients and their three relatives with the 2846insA mutation. These findings strongly suggest that the 2846insA mutation, the most common deleterious mutation in this study, may possibly be a founder mutation in breast cancer patients of Malay ethnic background.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  6. Mohamed Z, Ahmad R, Yoke NS, Zakaria Z, Ahmad H, Yew TH
    Cancer Sci, 2003 Aug;94(8):725-8.
    PMID: 12901799 DOI: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2003.tb01509.x
    The present study was carried out to characterize the causative genetic mutation in a medium-sized Malaysian Chinese pedigree of three generations affected with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Clinical data and genetic studies revealed considerable phenotypic variability in affected individuals in this family. Blood was obtained from members of the FAP-01 family and genomic DNA was extracted. Mutation screening of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene was carried out using the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The possibility of exon skipping was predicted by splicing motif recognition software (ESEfinder release2.0). SSCP results showed mobility shifts in exon 8 of the APC gene which segregated with affected members of the family. Sequence analysis revealed that the affected individuals are heterozygous for a C847T transition, whilst all the unaffected family members and control individuals are homozygous C at the same position. This nucleotide substitution generates a stop codon at amino acid position 283, in place of the usual arginine (Arg283Ter). We conclude that an Arg283Ter mutation in the APC gene is causative of the FAP phenotype in this family, although there is considerable variation in the presentation of this disease among affected individuals. Computational analysis predicts that this mutation occurs within sequences that may function as splicing signals, so that the sequence change may affect normal splicing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics*
  7. Gopinath VK, Al-Salihi KA, Yean CY, Ann MC, Ravichandran M
    J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2004;28(4):319-22.
    PMID: 15366620
    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary disorder resulting in generalized defects in the enamel. The case reported here is of a seven-year-old male child with yellow color of all his teeth. Two of his primary molars were extracted due to dental abscess with advanced root resorption. Histologically hypoplastic enamel layer, positively birefringent, generalized pitting, roughness with irregular general cracked borders were observed. Scanning electron microscope, revealed extensive irregular, disorganized rough superficial enamel layer. The enamel was irregularly decussate with filamentous prisms accompanied by small rounded formations. The morphological and histological examination of the tooth revealed that this patient has the features of AI. For genetic study blood sample were collected from the patient and PCR analysis revealed that there is no mutation in exons 1-7 of AMELX gene on the X chromosome of the patient. Hence, it is probable that the AI of this patient is not X-linked. It is more likely to be an autosomal mutation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  8. Song BK, Hein I, Druka A, Waugh R, Marshall D, Nadarajah K, et al.
    Funct. Integr. Genomics, 2009 Feb;9(1):97-108.
    PMID: 18633654 DOI: 10.1007/s10142-008-0091-x
    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) plays an important role by contributing to modern rice breeding. In this paper, we report the sequence and analysis of a 172-kb genomic DNA region of wild rice around the RM5 locus, which is associated with the yield QTL yld1.1. Comparative sequence analysis between orthologous RM5 regions from Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica and O. rufipogon revealed a high level of conserved synteny in the content, homology, structure, orientation, and physical distance of all 14 predicted genes. Twelve of the putative genes were supported by matches to proteins with known function, whereas two were predicted by homology to rice and other plant expressed sequence tags or complementary DNAs. The remarkably high level of conservation found in coding, intronic and intergenic regions may indicate high evolutionary selection on the RM5 region. Although our analysis has not defined which gene(s) determine the yld1.1 phenotype, allelic variation and the insertion of transposable elements, among other nucleotide changes, represent potential variation responsible for the yield QTL. However, as suggested previously, two putative receptor-like protein kinase genes remain the key suspects for yld1.1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  9. Sasongko TH, Gunadi, Zilfalil BA, Zabidi-Hussin Z
    J. Neurogenet., 2011 Mar;25(1-2):15-6.
    PMID: 21338334 DOI: 10.3109/01677063.2011.559561
    The authors suggest a simplification for the current molecular genetic testing of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Deletion analysis of SMN1 exon 7 alone may be necessary and sufficient for the diagnosis of SMA. It is based on sole contribution of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) exon 7 to SMA pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics*
  10. Yildiz I, Sagliker Y, Demirhan O, Tunc E, Inandiklioglu N, Tasdemir D, et al.
    J Ren Nutr, 2012 Jan;22(1):157-61.
    PMID: 22200434 DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2011.10.030
    Hypotheses explaining pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) in late and severe CKD as a unique entity called Sagliker syndrome (SS) are still unclear. This international study contains 60 patients from Turkey, India, Malaysia, China, Romania, Egypt, Tunisia, Taiwan, Mexico, Algeria, Poland, Russia, and Iran. We examined patients and first degree relatives for cytogenetic chromosomal abnormalities, calcium sensing receptor (Ca SR) genes in exons 2 and 3 abnormalities and GNAS1 genes mutations in exons 1, 4, 5, 7, 10, 13. Our syndrome could be a new syndrome in between SH, CKD, and hereditary bone dystrophies. We could not find chromosomal abnormalities in cytogenetics and on Ca SR gene exons 2 and 3. Interestingly, we did find promising missense mutations on the GNAS1 gene exons 1, 4, 10, 4. We finally thought that those catastrophic bone diseases were severe SH and its late treatments due to monetary deficiencies and iatrogenic mistreatments not started as early as possible. This was a sine qua non humanity task. Those brand new striking GNAS1 genes missense mutations have to be considered from now on for the genesis of SS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  11. Chua KH, Ng CC, Hilmi I, Goh KL
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2012;11(3):3115-21.
    PMID: 23007989
    Crohn's disease is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory bowel disease; it affects the mucosa and deeper layers of the digestive wall. Two Crohn's disease patients who carried the JW1 variant and two patients who carried the SNP5 variant were investigated for other co-inherited polymorphisms that could influence Crohn's disease development. Based on the sequencing results, a homozygous 5'-UTR-59 G to A variant in exon 1 (SNP6) was observed in a patient who carried SNP5, while a heterozygous SNP6 variant was detected in the other patient who carried SNP5. No other associated mutations or polymorphisms were detected in the two patients who carried the JW1 variant of the CARD15/NOD2 gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  12. Hung KL, Wang JS, Keng WT, Chen HJ, Liang JS, Ngu LH, et al.
    Pediatr. Neurol., 2013 Sep;49(3):185-90.
    PMID: 23835273 DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2013.04.021
    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by a defective peroxisomal membrane transporter, ABCD1, responsible for transporting very-long-chain fatty acid substrate into peroxisomes for degradation. The main biochemical defect, which is also one of the major diagnostic hallmarks, of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids in all tissues and body fluids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  13. Zanaruddin SN, Yee PS, Hor SY, Kong YH, Ghani WM, Mustafa WM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(11):e80229.
    PMID: 24224046 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080229
    The frequency of common oncogenic mutations and TP53 was determined in Asian oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  14. Phuah SY, Lee SY, Kang P, Kang IN, Yoon SY, Thong MK, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(8):e73638.
    PMID: 23977390 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073638
    The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  15. Hagen RM, Adamo P, Karamat S, Oxley J, Aning JJ, Gillatt D, et al.
    Am J Clin Pathol, 2014 Oct;142(4):533-40.
    PMID: 25239421 DOI: 10.1309/AJCPH88QHXARISUP
    The proto-oncogene ETS-related gene (ERG) is consistently overexpressed in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced isoforms of ERG have variable biological activities; inclusion of exon 11 (72 base pairs [bp]) is associated with aggressiveness and progression of disease. Exon 10 (81 bp) has also been shown to be alternatively spliced. Within this study, we assess whether ERG protein, messenger RNA (mRNA), and ERG splice isoform mRNA expression is altered as prostate cancer progresses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  16. Ghodsinejad Kalahroudi V, Kamalidehghan B, Arasteh Kani A, Aryani O, Tondar M, Ahmadipour F, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e106656.
    PMID: 25216246 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106656
    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from mutations of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene and presents with either complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to a defect in an enzyme involved in the production of melanin. In this study, mutations in the TYR gene of 30 unrelated Iranian OCA1 patients and 100 healthy individuals were examined using PCR-sequencing. Additionally, in order to predict the possible effects of new mutations on the structure and function of tyrosinase, these mutations were analyzed by SIFT, PolyPhen and I-Mutant 2 software. Here, two new pathogenic p.C89S and p.H180R mutations were detected in two OCA1 patients. Moreover, the R402Q and S192Y variants, which are common non-pathogenic polymorphisms, were detected in 17.5% and 35% of the patients, respectively. The outcome of this study has extended the genotypic spectrum of OCA1 patients, which paves the way for more efficient carrier detection and genetic counseling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  17. Hasmad HN, Sivanandan K, Lee V, Yip CH, Mohd Taib NA, Teo SH
    Clin Genet, 2015 Apr;87(4):392-4.
    PMID: 25066186 DOI: 10.1111/cge.12451
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  18. Chua EW, Miller AL, Kennedy MA
    Anal Biochem, 2015 May 15;477:115-7.
    PMID: 25766577 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2015.02.023
    We compared four brands of microtubes with respect to their suitability for long-range polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). One of the four brands was found to have an inhibitory effect, decreasing PCR yields. The effect was universal across different PCR or enzyme systems. Increased ultraviolet absorbance suggests leaching of unknown chemical species into PCR mixtures. However, this could not be confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Nevertheless, our article demonstrates a clear impact of the choice of microtubes on long-range PCR success. Due consideration should be given to the PCR microtubes when determining optimal reaction conditions for long-range PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  19. Bin NJ, Heng HM, Poh R, Noor SM, Subrayan V
    Retina, 2015 Jun;35(6):1266-72.
    PMID: 25549071 DOI: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000446
    To evaluate the association of phospholipase A2, Group V (PLA2G5), with benign familial fleck retina in a consanguineous family with triplets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
  20. Alhasan AA, Izuogu OG, Al-Balool HH, Steyn JS, Evans A, Colzani M, et al.
    Blood, 2016 Mar 03;127(9):e1-e11.
    PMID: 26660425 DOI: 10.1182/blood-2015-06-649434
    In platelets, splicing and translation occur in the absence of a nucleus. However, the integrity and stability of mRNAs derived from megakaryocyte progenitor cells remain poorly quantified on a transcriptome-wide level. As circular RNAs (circRNAs) are resistant to degradation by exonucleases, their abundance relative to linear RNAs can be used as a surrogate marker for mRNA stability in the absence of transcription. Here we show that circRNAs are enriched in human platelets 17- to 188-fold relative to nucleated tissues and 14- to 26-fold relative to samples digested with RNAse R to selectively remove linear RNA. We compare RNAseq read depths inside and outside circRNAs to provide in silico evidence of transcript circularity, show that exons within circRNAs are enriched on average 12.7 times in platelets relative to nucleated tissues and identify 3162 genes significantly enriched for circRNAs, including some where all RNAseq reads appear to be derived from circular molecules. We also confirm that this is a feature of other anucleate cells through transcriptome sequencing of mature erythrocytes, demonstrate that circRNAs are not enriched in cultured megakaryocytes, and demonstrate that linear RNAs decay more rapidly than circRNAs in platelet preparations. Collectively, these results suggest that circulating platelets have lost >90% of their progenitor mRNAs and that translation in platelets occurs against the backdrop of a highly degraded transcriptome. Finally, we find that transcripts previously classified as products of reverse transcriptase template switching are both enriched in platelets and resistant to decay, countering the recent suggestion that up to 50% of rearranged RNAs are artifacts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Exons/genetics
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