Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 144 in total

  1. Hellal K, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS, Tan CP, Abas F
    Molecules, 2020 Mar 10;25(5).
    PMID: 32164186 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25051247
    Claims of effective therapy against diabetes using plants including Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllum album, Anacyclus valentinus L., Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Lupinus albus, and Marrubium vulgare in Algerian empirical medicine prompted our interest in evaluating their antidiabetic activity by screening their free radical scavenging (DPPH), α-glucosidase, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities as well as the total phenolic content (TPC). Extracts of the selected plants were prepared using different ratios of ethanol (0, 50, 80, and 100%). In this study, 100%, and 80% ethanol extracts of L. albus were found to be the most potent, in inhibiting α-glucosidase activity with IC50 values of 6.45 and 8.66 μg/mL, respectively. The 100% ethanol extract of A. leucotrichus exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 26.26 μg/mL. Moreover, the highest TPC of 612.84 μg GAE/mg extract was observed in M. vulgare, extracted with 80% ethanol. Metabolite profiling of the active extract was conducted using 1H-NMR metabolomics. Partial least square analysis (PLS) was used to assess the relationship between the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of L. albus and the metabolites identified in the extract. Based on the PLS model, isoflavonoids (lupinoisoflavone G, lupisoflavone, lupinoisolone C), amino acids (asparagine and thiamine), and several fatty acids (stearic acid and oleic acid) were identified as metabolites that contributed to the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. The results of this study have clearly strengthened the traditional claim of the antihyperglycemic effects of L. albus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  2. Lay MM, Karsani SA, Mohajer S, Abd Malek SN
    PMID: 24885709 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-152
    The edible fruits of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl are widely used in traditional medicine in Indonesia. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as - cancer, diabetes mellitus, allergies, liver and heart diseases, kidney failure, blood diseases, high blood pressure, stroke, various skin diseases, itching, aches, and flu. Therefore, it is of great interest to determine the biochemical and cytotoxic properties of the fruit extracts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  3. Phan CW, Sabaratnam V, Yong WK, Abd Malek SN
    Nat Prod Res, 2018 May;32(10):1229-1233.
    PMID: 28539058 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1331226
    Chalcones are a group of compounds widely distributed in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to assess the neurite outgrowth stimulatory activity of selected chalcones, namely helichrysetin, xanthohumol and flavokawin-C. Using adherent rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 Adh) cells, the chalcones were subjected to neurite outgrowth assay and the extracellular nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined. Xanthohumol (10 μg/mL) displayed the highest (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  4. Karimi E, Mehrabanjoubani P, Keshavarzian M, Oskoueian E, Jaafar HZ, Abdolzadeh A
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Aug;94(11):2324-30.
    PMID: 24415452 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6567
    Plant foods are rich sources of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease, reduce inflammation, reduce the incidence of cancers and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids profiling in three varieties of rice straw and five varieties of the seed husk of Iranian rice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and nitric oxide assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  5. Nordin ML, Abdul Kadir A, Zakaria ZA, Abdullah R, Abdullah MNH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 12;18(1):87.
    PMID: 29530022 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2153-5
    BACKGROUND: Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C is used mostly in some parts of the Asian region by traditional practitioners to treat certain diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation including cancer and rheumatism. In Malaysia, it is popularly known as 'Mata Ayam' and local traditional practitioners believed that the root of the plant is therapeutically beneficial.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay. The cells were treated with concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL- 1000 μg/mL for 72 h. The quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were carried out to determine the relationship between of phytochemical compounds responsible for cytotoxic and antioxidative activities. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay and expressed as milligram (mg) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per 1 g (g) of tested extract.

    RESULTS: The hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 57.35 ± 19.33 μg/mL, and 54.98 ± 14.10 μg/mL, respectively but aqueous extract was inactive against MCF-7. For MDA-MB-231, hydromethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts exhibited weak cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL. The plant revealed high total phenolic content, total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity.

    CONCLUSION: The response of different type of breast cancer cell lines towards A. crispa extract and its partitions varied. Accordingly, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts appear to be more cytotoxic to oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer than oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. However, aqueous extract appears to have poor activity to both types of breast cancer. Besides that, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts exhibit higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous extract. Synergistic effect of anticancer and antioxidant bioactives compounds of A. crispa plausibly contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  6. Khalilpourfarshbafi M, Gholami K, Murugan DD, Abdul Sattar MZ, Abdullah NA
    Eur J Nutr, 2019 Feb;58(1):5-25.
    PMID: 29541908 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-018-1663-8
    PROPOSE: Obesity is a fast growing epidemic worldwide. During obesity, the increase in adipose tissue mass arise from two different mechanisms, namely, hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Hyperplasia which is the increase in adipocyte number is characteristic of severe obese patients. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting adipogenesis as therapeutic strategy against obesity. Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development.

    METHODS: Presently, we provide a review of key studies evaluating the effects of dietary flavonoids in different stages of adipocyte development with a particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the underlying mechanisms of action of these compounds in human or animal cell lines as well as animal models.

    RESULTS: Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development. Although most of the studies reveal anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids, some flavonoids demonstrated proadipogenic effect in mesenchymal stem cells or preadipocytes.

    CONCLUSION: The anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids is mainly via their effect on regulation of several pathways such as induction of apoptosis, suppression of key adipogenic transcription factors, activation of AMPK and Wnt pathways, inhibition of clonal expansion, and cell-cycle arrest.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  7. Zandi K, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Wong PF, Mustafa MR, Abubakar S
    Virol J, 2011;8:560.
    PMID: 22201648 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-560
    Dengue is a major mosquito-borne disease currently with no effective antiviral or vaccine available. Effort to find antivirals for it has focused on bioflavonoids, a plant-derived polyphenolic compounds with many potential health benefits. In the present study, antiviral activity of four types of bioflavonoid against dengue virus type -2 (DENV-2) in Vero cell was evaluated. Anti-dengue activity of these compounds was determined at different stages of DENV-2 infection and replication cycle. DENV replication was measured by Foci Forming Unit Reduction Assay (FFURA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Selectivity Index value (SI) was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) to inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) for each compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  8. Ghasemzadeh A, Nasiri A, Jaafar HZ, Baghdadi A, Ahmad I
    Molecules, 2014 Oct 30;19(11):17632-48.
    PMID: 25361426 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191117632
    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and total phenolic (TP) (18.21 mg/g DW) were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW) and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW) were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50) values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 μM of Fe(II)/g) than in 1-year-old buds (453 μM of Fe(II)/g), in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between CHS enzyme activity and FRAP activity, TF, catechin, and kaempferol content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cancer cells with IC50 value of 56.8 µg/mL. These results indicate that early harvesting of snake grass (6-month-old) may yield increased concentrations of secondary metabolites, which are potent antioxidant compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  9. Abdullah NH, Salim F, Ahmad R
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 27;21(5).
    PMID: 27128898 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050525
    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and the first report of the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  10. Mohd Sakeh N, Md Razip NN, Mohd Ma'in FI, Abdul Bahari MN, Latif N, Akhtar MN, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Jul 28;25(15).
    PMID: 32731323 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25153403
    Excessive production of melanin implicates hyperpigmentation disorders. Flavokawain A (FLA) and flavokawain B (FLB) have been reported with anti-melanogenic activity, but their melanogenic inhibition and toxicity effects on the vertebrate model of zebrafish are still unknown. In the present study, cytotoxic as well as melanogenic effects of FLA and FLB on cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity were evaluated in α-MSH-induced B16/F10 cells. Master regulator of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) and the other downstream melanogenic-related genes were verified via quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Toxicity assessment and melanogenesis inhibition on zebrafish model was further observed. FLA and FLB significantly reduced the specific cellular melanin content by 4.3-fold and 9.6-fold decrement, respectively in α-MSH-induced B16/F10 cells. Concomitantly, FLA significantly reduced the specific cellular tyrosinase activity by 7-fold whilst FLB by 9-fold. The decrement of melanin production and tyrosinase activity were correlated with the mRNA suppression of Mitf which in turn down-regulate Tyr, Trp-1 and Trp-2. FLA and FLB exhibited non-toxic effects on the zebrafish model at 25 and 6.25 µM, respectively. Further experiments on the zebrafish model demonstrated successful phenotype-based depigmenting activity of FLA and FLB under induced melanogenesis. To sum up, our findings provide an important first key step for both of the chalcone derivatives to be further studied and developed as potent depigmenting agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  11. Shahinuzzaman M, Yaakob Z, Anuar FH, Akhtar P, Kadir NHA, Hasan AKM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 07 02;10(1):10852.
    PMID: 32616768 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-67765-1
    As synthetic antioxidants that are widely used in foods are known to cause detrimental health effects, studies on natural additives as potential antioxidants are becoming increasingly important. In this work, the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn latex from 18 cultivars were investigated. The TPC of latex was calculated using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used for antioxidant activity assessment. The bioactive compounds from F. carica latex were extracted via maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with 75% ethanol as solvent. Under the same extraction conditions, the latex of cultivar 'White Genoa' showed the highest antioxidant activity of 65.91% ± 1.73% and 61.07% ± 1.65% in DPPH, 98.96% ± 1.06% and 83.04% ± 2.16% in ABTS, and 27.08 ± 0.34 and 24.94 ± 0.84 mg TE/g latex in FRAP assay via maceration and UAE, respectively. The TPC of 'White Genoa' was 315.26 ± 6.14 and 298.52 ± 9.20 µg GAE/mL via the two extraction methods, respectively. The overall results of this work showed that F. carica latex is a potential natural source of antioxidants. This finding is useful for further advancements in the fields of food supplements, food additives and drug synthesis in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  12. Kumar S, Alagawadi KR
    Pharm Biol, 2013 May;51(5):607-13.
    PMID: 23363068 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2012.757327
    Context: Alpinia galanga Willd (Zingiberaceae) (AG) is a rhizomatous herb widely cultivated in shady regions of Malaysia, India, Indochina and Indonesia. It is used in southern India as a domestic remedy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, cough, asthma, obesity, diabetes, etc. It was reported to have anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties.

    Objective: A flavonol glycoside, galangin, was isolated from AG rhizomes. Based on its in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect, the study was further aimed to clarify whether galangin prevented obesity induced in female rats by feeding cafeteria diet (CD) for 6 weeks.

    Materials and methods: The in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect of galangin was determined by measuring the release of oleic acid from triolein. For in vivo experiments, female albino rats were fed CD with or without 50 mg/kg galangin for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake was measured at weekly intervals. On day 42, serum lipids levels were estimated and then the weight of liver and parametrial adipose tissue (PAT) was determined. The liver lipid peroxidation and triglyceride (TG) content was also estimated.

    Results: The IC50 value of galangin for pancreatic lipase was 48.20 mg/mL. Galangin produced inhibition of increased body weight, energy intake and PAT weight induced by CD. In addition, galangin produced a significant decrease in serum lipids, liver weight, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of hepatic TGs.

    Conclusion: Galangin present in AG rhizomes produces anti-obesity effects in CD-fed rats; this may be mediated through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  13. Ho WY, Yeap S, Liang WS, Beh BK, Mohamad N, Alitheen NB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Jan;28(1):15-22.
    PMID: 25553678
    Vernonia amygdalina is a strong natural antioxidant that possessed various medicinal properties. In this study, the spray-dried water extract of V. amygdalina was evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo hepatoprotective effect against alcoholic-mediated liver damage. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of spray-dried V. amygdalina water extract were determined. Liver enzyme profiles, liver antioxidant level and nitric oxide level were evaluated in alcohol-induced liver injured mice or co-supplement with spray-dried V. amydalina. Water extract of spray-dried V. amygalina that contained phenolic content of 24.8±1.5 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and total flavonoid content of 25.7±1.3 mg/g catechin equivalent was able to inhibit 50% of xanthine and tyrosinase oxidation at 170 μg/ml and 2 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, extracts at both 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight were able to reduce the levels of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate transaminase (AST), triglyceride and total bilirubin content inthe alcohol-mediated liver injury in mice. Furthermore, it also helped to increase levels of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduce the levels of Nitric oxide (NO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of the treated mice. These resultssuggestedthat water extract of spray-dried V. amygdalina exhibited liver protective effect, which could be contributed by its antioxidant properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  14. Abu N, Mohamed NE, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Akhtar MN, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:1401-17.
    PMID: 25834398 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S67976
    Flavokawain B (FKB) is a naturally occurring chalcone that can be isolated through the root extracts of the kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum). It can also be synthesized chemically to increase the yield. This compound is a promising candidate as a biological agent, as it is reported to be involved in a wide range of biological activities. Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet. Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in the world today. Any potential treatment should not only impede the growth of the tumor, but also modulate the immune system efficiently and inhibit the formation of secondary tumors. As presented in our study, FKB induced apoptosis in 4T1 tumors in vivo, as evidenced by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor. FKB also regulated the immune system by increasing both helper and cytolytic T-cell and natural killer cell populations. In addition, FKB also enhanced the levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma but suppressed interleukin 1B. Apart from that, FKB was also found to inhibit metastasis, as evaluated by clonogenic assay, bone marrow smearing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and proteome profiler analysis. All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  15. Khan SA, Khan SU, Fozia, Ullah N, Shah M, Ullah R, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 02;26(7).
    PMID: 33918531 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26072048
    Admittedly, the disastrous emergence of drug resistance in prokaryotic and eukaryotic human pathogens has created an urgent need to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents. Onosma chitralicum is a source of traditional medicine with cooling, laxative, and anthelmintic effects. The objective of the current research was to analyze the biological potential of Onosma chitralicum, and to isolate and characterize the chemical constituents of the plant. The crude extracts of the plant prepared with different solvents, such as aqueous, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol, were subjected to antimicrobial activities. Results corroborate that crude (methanol), EtoAc, and n-C6H14 fractions were more active against bacterial strains. Among these fractions, the EtoAc fraction was found more potent. The EtoAc fraction was the most active against the selected microbes, which was subjected to successive column chromatography, and the resultant compounds 1 to 7 were isolated. Different techniques, such as UV, IR, and NMR, were used to characterize the structures of the isolated compounds 1-7. All the isolated pure compounds (1-7) were tested for their antimicrobial potential. Compounds 1 (4',8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxyisoflavone), 6 (5,3',3-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone), and 7 (5',7,8-trihydroxy-6,3',4'-trimethoxyflavanone) were found to be more active against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhi. Compound 1 inhibited S. typhi and S. aureus to 10 ± 0.21 mm and 10 ± 0.45 mm, whereas compound 6 showed inhibition to 10 ± 0.77 mm and 9 ± 0.20 mm, respectively. Compound 7 inhibited S. aureus to 6 ± 0.36 mm. Compounds 6 and 7 showed significant antibacterial potential, and the structure-activity relationship also justifies their binding to the bacterial enzymes, i.e., beta-hydroxyacyl dehydratase (HadAB complex) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. Both bacterial enzymes are potential drug targets. Further, the isolated compounds were found to be active against the tested fungal strains. Whereas docking identified compound 7, the best binder to the lanosterol 14α-demethylase (an essential fungal cell membrane synthesizing enzyme), reported as an antifungal fluconazole binding enzyme. Based on our isolation-linked preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) data, we conclude that O. chitralicum can be a good source of natural compounds for drug development against some potential enzyme targets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  16. Koosha S, Mohamed Z, Sinniah A, Alshawsh MA
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 10;24(14).
    PMID: 31295840 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142522
    Colon cancer is the third most common type of cancer in the world. Diosmetin (Dis), a natural O-methylated flavone, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects against different types of cancer. Although the mechanisms of action of Dis against several cancer cell lines are well reported, in vivo anti-tumorigenesis properties of this compound are still obscure. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-tumorigenesis properties of Dis against HCT-116 colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. HCT-116 colon cancer cells were injected in NCr nu/nu nude mice and treatment with Dis was initiated after the tumor volumes reached 100 mm3 and continued for four weeks. On the sacrificing date nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg of Dis showed significant lower tumor volume (264 ± 238.3 mm3) as compared to the untreated group (1428.8 ± 459.6 mm3). Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was significantly downregulated, while apoptotic protein (Bax) was significantly overexpressed in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg Dis as compared to untreated mice. In conclusion, our in vivo results indicate that Dis significantly reduces tumor growth rate of HCT-116 colon cancer cells in nude mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and has no toxic effects in ICR mice up to 2000 mg/kg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  17. Koosha S, Mohamed Z, Sinniah A, Alshawsh MA
    Sci Rep, 2019 03 26;9(1):5148.
    PMID: 30914796 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41685-1
    Diosmetin (Dis) is a bioflavonoid with cytotoxicity properties against variety of cancer cells including hepatocarcinoma, breast and colorectal (CRC) cancer. The exact mechanism by which Dis acts against CRC however, still remains unclear, hence in this study, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of Dis in CRC cell line, HCT-116. Here, we monitored the viability of HCT-116 cells in the presence of Dis and investigated the underlying mechanism of Dis against HCT-116 cells at the gene and protein levels using NanoString and proteome profiler array technologies. Findings demonstrated that Dis exhibits greater cytotoxic effects towards HCT-116 CRC cells (IC50 = 3.58 ± 0.58 µg/ml) as compared to the normal colon CCD-841 cells (IC50 = 51.95 ± 0.11 µg/ml). Arrests of the cells in G2/M phase confirms the occurrence of mitotic disruption via Dis. Activation of apoptosis factors such as Fas and Bax at the gene and protein levels along with the release of Cytochrome C from mitochondria and cleavage of Caspase cascades indicate the presence of turbulence as a result of apoptosis induction in Dis-treated cells. Moreover, NF-ƙB translocation was inhibited in Dis-treated cells. Our results indicate that Dis can target HCT-116 cells through the mitotic disruption and apoptosis induction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  18. Hajiaghaalipour F, Khalilpourfarshbafi M, Arya A
    Int. J. Biol. Sci., 2015;11(5):508-24.
    PMID: 25892959 DOI: 10.7150/ijbs.11241
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to insufficient or inefficient insulin secretory response. This chronic disease is a global problem and there is a need for greater emphasis on therapeutic strategies in the health system. Phytochemicals such as flavonoids have recently attracted attention as source materials for the development of new antidiabetic drugs or alternative therapy for the management of diabetes and its related complications. The antidiabetic potential of flavonoids are mainly through their modulatory effects on glucose transporter by enhancing GLUT-2 expression in pancreatic β cells and increasing expression and promoting translocation of GLUT-4 via PI3K/AKT, CAP/Cb1/TC10 and AMPK pathways. This review highlights the recent findings on beneficial effects of flavonoids in the management of diabetes with particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the role of these compounds in modulating glucose transporter proteins at cellular and molecular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  19. George S, Ajikumaran Nair S, Johnson AJ, Venkataraman R, Baby S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Jun 20;168:158-63.
    PMID: 25858510 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.060
    Melicope lunu-ankenda leaves are used to treat diabetes in folklore medicinal practices in India and Malaysia. Here we report the isolation of an O-prenylated flavonoid (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-8,3'-dimethoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enoxy)flavone; OPF) from the leaves of M. lunu-ankenda and its antidiabetes activity against type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  20. Ahmad R, Lim CK, Marzuki NF, Goh YK, Azizan KA, Goh YK, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Dec 16;25(24).
    PMID: 33339375 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25245965
    In solving the issue of basal stem rot diseases caused by Ganoderma, an investigation of Scytalidium parasiticum as a biological control agent that suppresses Ganoderma infection has gained our interest, as it is more environmentally friendly. Recently, the fungal co-cultivation has emerged as a promising method to discover novel antimicrobial metabolites. In this study, an established technique of co-culturing Scytalidium parasiticum and Ganoderma boninense was applied to produce and induce metabolites that have antifungal activity against G. boninense. The crude extract from the co-culture media was applied to a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) preparative column to isolate the bioactive compounds, which were tested against G. boninense. The fractions that showed inhibition against G. boninense were sent for a Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) analysis to further identify the compounds that were responsible for the microbicidal activity. Interestingly, we found that eudistomin I, naringenin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside and penipanoid A, which were present in different abundances in all the active fractions, except in the control, could be the antimicrobial metabolites. In addition, the abundance of fatty acids, such as oleic acid and stearamide in the active fraction, also enhanced the antimicrobial activity. This comprehensive metabolomics study could be used as the basis for isolating biocontrol compounds to be applied in oil palm fields to combat a Ganoderma infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
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