METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay. The cells were treated with concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL- 1000 μg/mL for 72 h. The quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were carried out to determine the relationship between of phytochemical compounds responsible for cytotoxic and antioxidative activities. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay and expressed as milligram (mg) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per 1 g (g) of tested extract.
RESULTS: The hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 57.35 ± 19.33 μg/mL, and 54.98 ± 14.10 μg/mL, respectively but aqueous extract was inactive against MCF-7. For MDA-MB-231, hydromethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts exhibited weak cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL. The plant revealed high total phenolic content, total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity.
CONCLUSION: The response of different type of breast cancer cell lines towards A. crispa extract and its partitions varied. Accordingly, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts appear to be more cytotoxic to oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer than oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. However, aqueous extract appears to have poor activity to both types of breast cancer. Besides that, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts exhibit higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous extract. Synergistic effect of anticancer and antioxidant bioactives compounds of A. crispa plausibly contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract.
METHODS: Presently, we provide a review of key studies evaluating the effects of dietary flavonoids in different stages of adipocyte development with a particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the underlying mechanisms of action of these compounds in human or animal cell lines as well as animal models.
RESULTS: Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development. Although most of the studies reveal anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids, some flavonoids demonstrated proadipogenic effect in mesenchymal stem cells or preadipocytes.
CONCLUSION: The anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids is mainly via their effect on regulation of several pathways such as induction of apoptosis, suppression of key adipogenic transcription factors, activation of AMPK and Wnt pathways, inhibition of clonal expansion, and cell-cycle arrest.