Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 76 in total

  1. Jairoun AA, Shahwan M, Zyoud SH
    Sci Rep, 2020 11 02;10(1):18824.
    PMID: 33139833 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76000-w
    A specific safety concern is the possibility that a dietary supplement could be contaminated with heavy metals. This research was undertaken to investigate the daily exposure levels of heavy metals in dietary supplements available in the UAE and to explore the factors associated with the contamination of dietary supplements with heavy metals. A total of 277 dietary supplement samples were collected from the UAE market and prepared for the analysis of selected heavy metal contamination. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the presence of heavy metals. The average daily intake of cadmium was 0.73 μg [95% CI 0.61-0.85], compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 6 μg; the daily intake of lead was 0.85 μg [95% CI 0.62-1.07], compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 20 μg; and the daily intake of arsenic was 0.67 μg [95% CI 0.57-0.78], compared to the acceptable daily intake of 10 μg. Although the dietary supplements available in the UAE have low levels of heavy metal contamination, numerous individuals are consuming a number of different dietary supplements every day and thereby may experience a cumulative level of toxic exposure. Dietary supplements formulations (Categories), dosage forms and country of origin are strong determents of heavy metal contamination in dietary supplements products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety*
  2. Mohd Nawawee NS, Abu Bakar NF, Zulfakar SS
    PMID: 31766289 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16224463
    Improper handling, poor hygienic practices, and lack of environmental control affect the safety of street-vended beverages. The objective of this study is to determine the bacterial contamination level of three types of beverages (cordial-based drinks, milk-based drinks, fruit juices) sold by street vendors at Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 31 samples of beverages were analyzed to determine total viable count (TVC), total coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus counts via the standard plate count method. The results showed that only 9.7% of the total samples were not contaminated with the tested microorganisms. All milk-based drink samples were positive for TVC and also had the highest average bacterial counts at 5.30 ± 1.11 log Colony Forming Unit/mL (CFU/mL). About 71% of the samples were contaminated with total coliform with the average readings ranging between 4.30 and 4.75 log CFU/mL, whereas 58.1% of the samples were positive with S. aureus, with fruit juices having the highest average reading (3.42 ± 1.15 log CFU/mL). Only one sample (milk-based drink) was E. coli positive. This study showed that the microbiological safety level of street-vended beverages in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur was average and needs to be improved. Provision of food safety education and adequate sanitary facilities at vending sites are suggested to increase the safety of food products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  3. Henriksson PJG, Rico A, Troell M, Klinger DH, Buschmann AH, Saksida S, et al.
    Sustain Sci, 2018;13(4):1105-1120.
    PMID: 30147798 DOI: 10.1007/s11625-017-0511-8
    Global seafood provides almost 20% of all animal protein in diets, and aquaculture is, despite weakening trends, the fastest growing food sector worldwide. Recent increases in production have largely been achieved through intensification of existing farming systems, resulting in higher risks of disease outbreaks. This has led to increased use of antimicrobials (AMs) and consequent antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in many farming sectors, which may compromise the treatment of bacterial infections in the aquaculture species itself and increase the risks of AMR in humans through zoonotic diseases or through the transfer of AMR genes to human bacteria. Multiple stakeholders have, as a result, criticized the aquaculture industry, resulting in consequent regulations in some countries. AM use in aquaculture differs from that in livestock farming due to aquaculture's greater diversity of species and farming systems, alternative means of AM application, and less consolidated farming practices in many regions. This, together with less research on AM use in aquaculture in general, suggests that large data gaps persist with regards to its overall use, breakdowns by species and system, and how AMs become distributed in, and impact on, the overall social-ecological systems in which they are embedded. This paper identifies the main factors (and challenges) behind application rates, which enables discussion of mitigation pathways. From a set of identified key mechanisms for AM usage, six proximate factors are identified: vulnerability to bacterial disease, AM access, disease diagnostic capacity, AMR, target markets and food safety regulations, and certification. Building upon these can enable local governments to reduce AM use through farmer training, spatial planning, assistance with disease identification, and stricter regulations. National governments and international organizations could, in turn, assist with disease-free juveniles and vaccines, enforce rigid monitoring of the quantity and quality of AMs used by farmers and the AM residues in the farmed species and in the environment, and promote measures to reduce potential human health risks associated with AMR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  4. Wang J, Yi X, Cui J, Chang Y, Yao D, Zhou D, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Jun 20;670:1060-1067.
    PMID: 31018421 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.245
    With the population growth, urbanization and industrialization, China has become a hotspot of atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN), which is a threat to ecosystem and food safety. However, the impacts of increased ADN on rice growth and grain metal content are little studied. Based on previous long-term ADN studies, greenhouse experiment was conducted with four simulated ADN rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (CK, N1, N2 and N3 as δ15N, respectively) to assess rice growth and metal uptake in a red soil ecosystem of southeast China during 2016-2017. Results showed that simulated ADN could promote rice growth and increase yields by 15.68-24.41% (except N2) and accumulations of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) in organs. However, there was no linear relationship between ADN rate and rice growth or Cd or Cu uptake. The 15N-ADN was mainly accumulated in roots (21.31-67.86%) and grains (25.26-49.35%), while Cd and Cu were primarily accumulated in roots (78.86-93.44% and 90.00-96.24%, respectively). 15N-ADN and Cd accumulations in roots were significantly different between the two growing seasons (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  5. Tang RH, Yang H, Choi JR, Gong Y, Feng SS, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Apr 14.
    PMID: 27075621 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2016.1164664
    In recent years, paper-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has been widely used in medical diagnostics, food safety and environmental monitoring. However, a high-cost, time-consuming and equipment-dependent sample pretreatment technique is generally required for raw sample processing, which are impractical for low-resource and disease-endemic areas. Therefore, there is an escalating demand for a cost-effective, simple and portable pretreatment technique, to be coupled with the commonly used paper-based assay (e.g. lateral flow assay) in POCT. In this review, we focus on the importance of using paper as a platform for sample pretreatment. We firstly discuss the beneficial use of paper for sample pretreatment, including sample collection and storage, separation, extraction, and concentration. We highlight the working principle and fabrication of each sample pretreatment device, the existing challenges and the future perspectives for developing paper-based sample pretreatment technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  6. Suguna, M., Rajeev Bhat, Wan Nadiah, W. A.
    Microbiological qualities of fresh goat milk collected from two selected, popular dairy farms in Penang Island, Malaysia were evaluated, as a measure of food safety. Milk samples were screened for total plate counts, yeast and mould counts, psychrotrophic counts, Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Escherichia coli, Coliforms and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which were in the range of (mean values) 4.2- 4.5, 4.2- 4.6, 3.1- 4.3, 2.7- 3.2, < 2- 4.6, 2.2- 4.0 and 4.1- 4.8 log CFU/ml, respectively in the two farms. Milk samples were also screened for the presence of selected foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. Results
    showed the presence of only Salmonella sp. (at 2.9 log CFU/ml) with the absence of Listeria monocytogenes. The outcome of this study assumes importance as the presence of microbial contaminants amounts indicates poor milk quality, which requires immediate consideration as it can pose serious health risk to consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  7. Puah SM, Chua KH, Tan JA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2016 Feb;13(2):199.
    PMID: 26861367 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13020199
    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of food poisoning. Its pathogenicity results from the possession of virulence genes that produce different toxins which result in self-limiting to severe illness often requiring hospitalization. In this study of 200 sushi and sashimi samples, S. aureus contamination was confirmed in 26% of the food samples. The S. aureus isolates were further characterized for virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility. A high incidence of virulence genes was identified in 96.2% of the isolates and 20 different virulence gene profiles were confirmed. DNA amplification showed that 30.8% (16/52) of the S. aureus carried at least one SE gene which causes staphylococcal food poisoning. The most common enterotoxin gene was seg (11.5%) and the egc cluster was detected in 5.8% of the isolates. A combination of hla and hld was the most prevalent coexistence virulence genes and accounted for 59.6% of all isolates. Antibiotic resistance studies showed tetracycline resistance to be the most common at 28.8% while multi-drug resistance was found to be low at 3.8%. In conclusion, the high rate of S. aureus in the sampled sushi and sashimi indicates the need for food safety guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  8. Samsudin H, Auras R, Mishra D, Dolan K, Burgess G, Rubino M, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2018 01;103:515-528.
    PMID: 29389642 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.021
    Migration studies of chemicals from contact materials have been widely conducted due to their importance in determining the safety and shelf life of a food product in their packages. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) require this safety assessment for food contact materials. So, migration experiments are theoretically designed and experimentally conducted to obtain data that can be used to assess the kinetics of chemical release. In this work, a parameter estimation approach was used to review and to determine the mass transfer partition and diffusion coefficients governing the migration process of eight antioxidants from poly(lactic acid), PLA, based films into water/ethanol solutions at temperatures between 20 and 50°C. Scaled sensitivity coefficients were calculated to assess simultaneously estimation of a number of mass transfer parameters. An optimal experimental design approach was performed to show the importance of properly designing a migration experiment. Additional parameters also provide better insights on migration of the antioxidants. For example, the partition coefficients could be better estimated using data from the early part of the experiment instead at the end. Experiments could be conducted for shorter periods of time saving time and resources. Diffusion coefficients of the eight antioxidants from PLA films were between 0.2 and 19×10-14m2/s at ~40°C. The use of parameter estimation approach provided additional and useful insights about the migration of antioxidants from PLA films.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  9. Ong HT, Samsudin H, Soto-Valdez H
    PMID: 33081493 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1830747
    Plastic packaging materials (PPMs) protect food from contamination, maintain quality, and ease transportation and distribution. Additives included during the manufacturing and processing of PPMs improve flexibility, durability, barrier properties, and sometimes aid the processing itself. During processing, these additives, even the monomers used to produce the plastics, can produce side products or breakdown products as a result of degradation and various chemical reactions. These starting substances and reaction products include 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A), phthalates/phthalic acid esters, alkylphenols, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, which are considered endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that may interfere with the human endocrine system and produce adverse reproductive, neurological, developmental, and immune effects. When in contact with food, EDCs can migrate into food if conditions are appropriate, thereby possibly jeopardizing food safety. Chemical risk assessment and regulatory control were developed to reduce human exposure to harmful migrated EDCs. This article gives an overview of the migration of EDCs from PPMs and control measures to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  10. Soon JM
    Food Res Int, 2018 06;108:455-464.
    PMID: 29735079 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.03.068
    Food allergen labelling is mandatory and regulated whilst precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) remains voluntary in most countries. It is the aim of this study to identify the food allergens declared in food products sold in a developing country and to what extent food allergens and PAL are emphasised in the products. A total of 505 food and beverages (snacks, baked goods, confectionary, baby food, condiments & jams, beverages, powder & paste, instant food, chilled & frozen food and canned food) were evaluated in Malaysia. Soybean represents the largest group of food allergen declared in labels, followed by wheat and milk products. Thirteen variations of contains statement were found with "Contains [allergen(s)]" being the most common (55.02%). There were 22 different types of "may contain" statements with 'May contain traces of [allergen(s)]' being the most common advice labelling used (55.41%). Different font type or emphasis such as brackets (51.57%) and bold font (33.86%) were used to inform consumers about presence of allergens. The national regulations on food allergen labelling are then critically contrasted with other Asian countries and the EU Regulation No. 1169/2011, which represents one of the most stringent food regulations in the world. Improving current allergen labelling limitations and practices would be of great benefit to consumers to prevent risk of food hypersensitivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety/methods*
  11. Soon JM
    J Food Prot, 2020 Mar 01;83(3):452-459.
    PMID: 32065648 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-19-415
    ABSTRACT: Social media offers numerous advantages for personal users and organizations to communicate, socialize, and market their products. When used correctly, social media is an effective tool to communicate and to share food safety news and good practices. However, there have been reports of fake food safety news shared via social media, fueling panic and resulting in a loss of revenue. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the consumers' awareness, trust, and usage of social media in communicating food safety news in Malaysia. A questionnaire divided into five sections-(i) demographics, (ii) reaction to food safety news, (iii) consumers' awareness, (iv) social media truth and level of trust, and (v) social media uses and content creation-was created and shared online. A total of 341 questionnaires were returned of which 339 surveys were valid. This study revealed that less than one-third of the study group (27.1%) knew which of the food safety news were fake. Most respondents (67.8%) were less likely to purchase the affected foods if the foods were featured in social media as problematic, although no differences were made between true and fake news and how that would influence respondents' willingness to purchase affected foods. Overall, 62% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed about the usage of social media and its ability to prevent food poisoning cases, while more than 50% of the respondents were in total agreement that social media allow consumers to act more responsibly by sharing food safety news. Respondents tended to trust information shared by scientists (67.5%) and family members and friends (33%). Respondents would most often share the news after verifying its authenticity (46%). If respondents experienced a personal food safety issue (e.g., discovered a fly in their meal), they seldom or never took photos to post online (56.1%). It is possible that the respondents preferred to inform the food handlers and/or shop owners about the affected products rather than post the photos online. It is suggested that targeted food safety information and media literacy be provided to improve consumers' awareness and to positively influence self-verification of the food safety information before sharing. This study provides crucial insights for a range of stakeholders, particularly public authorities, food bloggers, and the public, in using social media effectively to build consumers' awareness and trust in food safety information.


    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety*
  12. Ma NL, Peng W, Soon CF, Noor Hassim MF, Misbah S, Rahmat Z, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 Feb;193:110405.
    PMID: 33130165 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110405
    The recently emerged coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has been characterised as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), is impacting all parts of human society including agriculture, manufacturing, and tertiary sectors involving all service provision industries. This paper aims to give an overview of potential host reservoirs that could cause pandemic outbreak caused by zoonotic transmission. Amongst all, continues surveillance in slaughterhouse for possible pathogens transmission is needed to prevent next pandemic outbreak. This paper also summarizes the potential threats of pandemic to agriculture and aquaculture sector that control almost the total food supply chain and market. The history lesson from the past, emerging and reemerging infectious disease including the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Influenza A H1N1 (swine flu) in 2009, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012 and the recent COVID-19 should give us some clue to improve especially the governance to be more ready for next coming pandemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  13. Noorlis, A., Ghazali, F.M., Cheah, Y.K., Tuan Zainazor, T.C., Ponniah, J., Tunung, R., et al.
    Little is known on the biosafety level of Vibrio spp. in freshwater fish in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in
    freshwater fish using the Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) method. The study was conducted on 150 samples from two types of freshwater fish commonly sold at hypermarkets, i.e. Pangasius hypophthalmus (catfish) and Oreochromis sp. (red tilapia). Sampling was done on the flesh, intestinal tract and gills of each fish. The prevalence of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus was found to be 98.67% and 24% respectively with higher percentages detected in samples from the gills followed by the intestinal tract and flesh. Vibrio spp. was detected in almost all red tilapia and catfish samples. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 25% of the catfish samples compared to 22.6% of red tilapia fish. The density of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the samples ranged from 0 to 1.1x107 MPN/g. Although the maximum value was 1.1x107 MPN/g, most samples had microbial loads ranging from 0 to >104 MPN/g. The outcome on the biosafety assessment of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in freshwater fish indicates another potential source of food safety issues to consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  14. Rahmani A, Selamat J, Soleimany F
    PMID: 21598138 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2011.576436
    A reversed-phase HPLC optimization strategy is presented for investigating the separation and retention behavior of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone, simultaneously. A fractional factorial design (FFD) was used to screen the significance effect of seven independent variables on chromatographic responses. The independent variables used were: (X1) column oven temperature (20-40°C), (X2) flow rate (0.8-1.2 ml/min), (X3) acid concentration in aqueous phase (0-2%), (X4) organic solvent percentage at the beginning (40-50%), and (X5) at the end (50-60%) of the gradient mobile phase, as well as (X6) ratio of methanol/acetonitrile at the beginning (1-4) and (X7) at the end (0-1) of gradient mobile phase. Responses of chromatographic analysis were resolution of mycotoxin peaks and HPLC run time. A central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was then carried out for optimization of the most significant factors by multiple regression models for response variables. The proposed optimal method using 40°C oven temperature, 1 ml/min flow rate, 0.1% acetic acid concentration in aqueous phase, 41% organic phase (beginning), 60% organic phase (end), 1.92 ratio of methanol to acetonitrile (beginning) and 0.2 ratio (end) for X1-X7, respectively, showed good prediction ability between the experimental data and predictive values throughout the studied parameter space. Finally, the optimized method was validated by measuring the linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision parameters, and has been applied successfully to the analysis of spiked cereal samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  15. Afsah-Hejri L, Jinap S, Hajeb P, Radu S, Shakibazadeh S
    Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2013 Nov;12(6):629-651.
    PMID: 33412719 DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12029
     Fungi are distributed worldwide and can be found in various foods and feedstuffs from almost every part of the world. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some fungal species and may impose food safety risks to human health. Among all mycotoxins, aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol (DON and T-2 toxin), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisins (FMN) have received much attention due to high frequency and severe health effects in humans and animals. Malaysia has heavy rainfall throughout the year, high temperatures (28 to 31 °C), and high relative humidity (70% to 80% during wet seasons). Stored crops under such conditions can easily be contaminated by mycotoxin-producing fungi. The most important mycotoxins in Malaysian foods are AFs, OTA, DON, ZEN, and FMN that can be found in peanuts, cereal grains, cocoa beans, and spices. AFs have been reported to occur in several cereal grains, feeds, nuts, and nut products consumed in Malaysia. Spices, oilseeds, milk, eggs, and herbal medicines have been reported to be contaminated with AFs (lower than the Malaysian acceptable level of 35 ng/g for total AFs). OTA, a possible human carcinogen, was reported in cereal grains, nuts, and spices in Malaysian market. ZEN was detected in Malaysian rice, oat, barley, maize meal, and wheat at different levels. DON contamination, although at low levels, was reported in rice, maize, barley, oat, wheat, and wheat-based products in Malaysia. FMN was reported in feed and some cereal grains consumed in Malaysia. Since some food commodities are more susceptible than others to fungal growth and mycotoxin contamination, more stringent prevention and control methods are required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  16. Khalil I, Yehye WA, Muhd Julkapli N, Sina AA, Rahmati S, Basirun WJ, et al.
    Analyst, 2020 Feb 17;145(4):1414-1426.
    PMID: 31845928 DOI: 10.1039/c9an02106j
    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) DNA biosensing is an ultrasensitive, selective, and rapid detection technique with the ability to produce molecule-specific distinct fingerprint spectra. It supersedes the long amplicon based PCR assays, the fluorescence and spectroscopic techniques with their quenching and narrow spectral bandwidth, and the electrochemical detection techniques using multiplexing. However, the performance of the SERS DNA biosensor relies on the DNA probe length, platform composition, both the presence and position of Raman tags and the chosen sensing strategy. In this context, we herein report a SERS biosensor based on dual nanoplatforms with a uniquely designed Raman tag (ATTO Rho6G) intercalated short-length DNA probe for the sensitive detection of the pig species Sus scrofa. In the design of the signal probe (SP), a Raman tag was incorporated adjacent to the spacer arm, followed by a terminal thiol modifier, which consequently had a strong influence on the SERS signal enhancement. The detection strategy involves the probe-target DNA hybridization mediated coupling of the two platforms, i.e., the graphene oxide-gold nanorod (GO-AuNR) functionalized capture probe (CP) and SP-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), consequently enhancing the SERS intensity by both the electromagnetic hot spots generated at the junctions or interstices of the two platforms and the chemical enhancement between the AuNPs and the adsorbed intercalated Raman tag. This dual platform based SERS DNA biosensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity in detecting pork DNA with a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 aM validated with DNA extracted from a pork sample (LOD 1 fM). Moreover, the fabricated SERS biosensor showed outstanding selectivity and specificity for differentiating the DNA sequences of six closely related non-target species from the target DNA sequences with single and three nucleotide base-mismatches. Therefore, the developed short-length DNA linked dual platform based SERS biosensor could replace the less sensitive traditional methods of pork DNA detection and be adopted as a universal detection approach for the qualitative and quantitative detection of DNA from any source.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  17. Yazid SNE, Jinap S, Ismail SI, Magan N, Samsudin NIP
    Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2020 03;19(2):643-669.
    PMID: 33325175 DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12541
    In this review, we present the current information on development and applications of biological control against phytopathogenic organisms as well as mycotoxigenic fungi in Malaysia as part of the integrated pest management (IPM) programs in a collective effort to achieve food security. Although the biological control of phytopathogenic organisms of economically important crops is well established and widely practiced in Malaysia with considerable success, the same cannot be said for mycotoxigenic fungi. This is surprising because the year round hot and humid Malaysian tropical climate is very conducive for the colonization of mycotoxigenic fungi and the potential contamination with mycotoxins. This suggests that less focus has been made on the control of mycotoxigenic species in the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium in Malaysia, despite the food security and health implications of exposure to the mycotoxins produced by these species. At present, there is limited research in Malaysia related to biological control of the key mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins, Fusarium-related mycotoxins, and ochratoxin A, in key food and feed chains. The expected threats of climate change, its impacts on both plant physiology and the proliferation of mycotoxigenic fungi, and the contamination of food and feed commodities with mycotoxins, including the discovery of masked mycotoxins, will pose significant new global challenges that will impact on mycotoxin management strategies in food and feed crops worldwide. Future research, especially in Malaysia, should urgently focus on these challenges to develop IPM strategies that include biological control for minimizing mycotoxins in economically important food and feed chains for the benefit of ensuring food safety and food security under climate change scenarios.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  18. Fazly Ann, Z., Rukayadi, Y.
    Piper cubeba L. is traditionally recognised as flavouring ingredient in various types of foods and has been used to marinate meat. Scientifically, it has been reported to possess various valuable nutritional and pharmacological properties including antimicrobial potential. The aim of the present work was to determine the antibacterial activity of ethanolic P. cubeba L. extract against Escherichia coli and its effect on the microbiological quality of raw chicken meat during storage. Disc diffusion assay was done and resulted in 8.40 ± 0.10 mm of inhibition zone. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of the extract were determined at 0.63 ± 0.00 mg/mL and 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL of concentration by MIC and MBC methods, respectively. The killing time was recorded at 2 × MIC (1.25 mg/mL) for 4 h. The application of the extract on chicken meat samples showed reduction in TPC and E. coli count with the observed optimum condition at 5.00% concentration stored at -18°C for 14 days based on the consistent reduction. Sensory attributes acceptability evaluation by 9-point hedonic scale showed acceptable score for colour, odour, texture and overall acceptability of the treated raw chicken meat samples. The findings implies that P. cubeba L. can be listed as one of the alternatives to reduce the bacterial load of raw chicken meat prior to cooking which is very important in ensuring food safety as well as reducing the occurrence of foodborne poisoning associated with chicken meat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  19. Zakuan, Z., Mustapa, S.A., Sukor, R., Rukayadi, Y.
    The filamentous spoilage fungi in vegetables can lead to significant impact in food and economic loss. In order to overcome this problem, chemical fungicide has been implemented in vegetable farming and processing but it causes problems towards environment and food safety. Thus, the utilization of natural products such as plants extracts, which exhibit antimicrobial and antifungal activity, is more acceptable to solve this problem. The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal activity of Boesenbergia rotunda extract against ten filamentous spoilage fungi isolated from five vegetables. The extract was used to treat fungal isolates from vegetables; CRb 002 (Penicillium sp.), CHa 009 (Aspergillus sp.), TMa 001 (Geotrichum sp.), TMa 002 (Aspergillus sp), ONb 001 (Aspergillus sp.), WBb 003 and WBb 004 (Fusarium sp.) WBb 007 (unidentified), WBb 008 (Aureobasidium sp.) and WBb 010 (Penicillium sp.). The results showed that the yield of the extract of B. rotunda using ethanol (95%) was 11.42% (w/v). The 10% of B. rotunda extract exhibited antifungal activities against ten filamentous fungi after 5 days treatment with growth reduction of 41.56%, 30.68%, 86.20%, 50.62%, 26.67%, 47.44%, 50.74%, 36.39%, 42.86%, and 39.39% for WBb 008, WBb 004, WBb 007, WBb 003, CRb 002, WBb 010, CHa 009, TMa 001, ONb 001, and TMa 002, respectively. B. rotunda extract showed highest antifungal activity against fungi isolated from winged bean (WBb 007) with percentage reduction in growth was 86.20%, while the lowest activity was against fungi isolated from the carrot (CRb 002) with 26.67% reduction in growth. Generally, the TPC of fungi in the vegetable samples were reduced after treatment with 5% of B. rotunda extract at 5 min and 10 min of exposure time. The results suggested that B. rotunda extract has high potential to become natural food preservative which can reduce the fungi spoilage of vegetables.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
  20. Myzabella N, Fritschi L, Merdith N, El-Zaemey S, Chih H, Reid A
    Int J Occup Environ Med, 2019 10;10(4):159-173.
    PMID: 31586381 DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2019.1576
    BACKGROUND: The palm oil industry is the largest contributor to global production of oils and fats. Indonesia and Malaysia are the largest producers of palm oil. More than a million workers are employed in this industry, yet there is a lack of information on their occupational health and safety.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers.

    METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers.

    RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides.

    CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Safety
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