Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

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  1. Nambiar P, Naidu MD, Subramaniam K
    Clin Anat, 1999;12(1):16-9.
    PMID: 9890725
    The uniqueness of anatomical structures and their variations provides the basis for forensic identification of unknown deceased persons. Similar to fingerprints, each frontal sinus is so distinctive and unique that the chances of two individuals having the same morphology of the frontal sinuses is extremely remote. Radiographs, especially the occipitomental view commonly used in the assessment of paranasal pathology, provide excellent records of these sinuses. The case illustrated here is an application of the frontal sinus identification of a victim in a mass disaster.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine*
  2. Al-Qershi OM, Khoo BE
    Forensic Sci Int, 2013 Sep 10;231(1-3):284-95.
    PMID: 23890651 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.05.027
    Currently, digital images and videos have high importance because they have become the main carriers of information. However, the relative ease of tampering with images and videos makes their authenticity untrustful. Digital image forensics addresses the problem of the authentication of images or their origins. One main branch of image forensics is passive image forgery detection. Images could be forged using different techniques, and the most common forgery is the copy-move, in which a region of an image is duplicated and placed elsewhere in the same image. Active techniques, such as watermarking, have been proposed to solve the image authenticity problem, but those techniques have limitations because they require human intervention or specially equipped cameras. To overcome these limitations, several passive authentication methods have been proposed. In contrast to active methods, passive methods do not require any previous information about the image, and they take advantage of specific detectable changes that forgeries can bring into the image. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of passive copy-move forgery detection methods. The key current issues in developing a robust copy-move forgery detector are then identified, and the trends of tackling those issues are addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  3. Chuah SY, Tan WF, Yap KH, Tai HE, Chow ST
    Forensic Sci Int, 1994 Oct 21;68(3):169-80.
    PMID: 7982636
    The distributions of the D1S80 alleles and genotypes in the Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore were determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AMP-FLP) analysis. The distributions of the observed genotypes for the three races conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The system was applied to 19 families whose paternity had been established by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In all cases, Mendelian inheritance of the alleles at the D1S80 locus could be demonstrated. D1S80 typing on DNA recovered by differential extraction of forensic specimens which included vaginal swabs, urethral swabs and seminal stains yielded consistent results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods
  4. Khoo LS, Lai PS, Saidin MH, Noor Z, Mahmood MS
    Forensic Sci Int, 2018 Apr;285:50-57.
    PMID: 29433011 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.01.018
    Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce. The authors have therefore innovated the cling film plastic wrap as an alternative for the cadaver body bag used at the disaster site. The plastic wrap was tested on six different experimental subjects, i.e. both adult and child mannequins; body parts of the mannequin figure (arm and hand); a human adult subject and an unknown dead body. The strengths of the cling film plastic wrap are discussed in comparison with the cadaver body bag in the aspects of costing, weight, duration of the wrap, water and body fluid resistant properties, visibility and other advantages. An average savings of more than 5000% are noted for both adult body wrap and child body wrap compared to the cadaver body wrap. This simply means that the authors can either wrap 25 adult dead bodies or 80 children dead bodies with the cost of 1 cadaver body bag. The cling film plastic wrap has proven to have significant innovation impact for dead body management particularly by the first responders in large scale disasters. With proper handling of dead bodies, first responders can manage the dead with dignity and respect in an overwhelmed situation to facilitate the humanitarian victim identification process later.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/instrumentation*; Forensic Medicine/methods
  5. Bin Abdul Rashid SN, Rahim AS, Thali MJ, Flach PM
    Forensic Sci Med Pathol, 2013 Mar;9(1):82-7.
    PMID: 23404531 DOI: 10.1007/s12024-012-9395-1
    Fatal acute methamphetamine (MA) poisoning in cases of internal drug trafficking is rarely described in the literature. This case study reports an MA 'body packer' who died from fatal methamphetamine intoxication due to leaking drug packages in the alimentary tract. The deceased was examined by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), and the results were correlated to subsequent autopsy and toxicological findings. The deceased was arrested by the police when he was found disoriented in the city of Kuala Lumpur. He was transferred to the emergency department on suspicion of drug abuse. The initial drug screening was reactive for amphetamines. Shortly after admission to the hospital, he died despite rigorous resuscitation attempts. The postmortem plain chest and abdominal radiographs revealed multiple suspicious opacities in the gastrointestinal tract attributable to body packages. An unenhanced whole body PMCT revealed twenty-five drug packages, twenty-four in the stomach and one in the transverse colon. At least two were disintegrating, and therefore leaking. The autopsy findings were consistent with the PMCT results. Toxicology confirmed the diagnosis of fatal methamphetamine intoxication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  6. Paul G, Murty OP
    JUMMEC, 1999;4:88-93.
    The requirement of the medical graduate, tabled in the objectives of undergraduate medical education, as envisaged by the Malaysian Medical Council, call for the all round basic doctor to be able to handle any medical emergency, as well as meet the requirements of law in examining, documenting and reporting on the common offences of the Penal Code, where medical documentation is required of law for the purposes of dispensing justice. However, in tabling the amended requirements of the undergraduate syllabus on the lines of those followed in sollie of the more developed nations, we seem to have lost this perspective. The authors discuss, based on his previous experience from another former colonial country viz. India, where the objectives of the undergraduate training is the same, and the influences 011 the legal profession bear a common origin and governance, the relevance of some of these topics, coming under the antbit of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology as an undergraduate subject, in the day-to-day practise of medicine in and out of government service. While this issue has been the frequent topic of discussion in international confereilces and symposia, where the decline in the standards of medico-legal work in the coulltries attending have been blanled on the fall in the standard of undergraduate teaching, due recognition of the pitfalls of the deletion or whittling down of the course content, independent of the overall overhauling of the syllabi of medical schools, to keep up to the trends of overseas universities, has not been accorded in the planing of the coursc revisions, resulting in a deletion of a vital aspect of daily practise of medicine. KEYWORDS: Medico-legal; Undergraduates
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  7. Mujtaba G, Shuib L, Raj RG, Rajandram R, Shaikh K, Al-Garadi MA
    J Biomed Inform, 2018 06;82:88-105.
    PMID: 29738820 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2018.04.013
    Text categorization has been used extensively in recent years to classify plain-text clinical reports. This study employs text categorization techniques for the classification of open narrative forensic autopsy reports. One of the key steps in text classification is document representation. In document representation, a clinical report is transformed into a format that is suitable for classification. The traditional document representation technique for text categorization is the bag-of-words (BoW) technique. In this study, the traditional BoW technique is ineffective in classifying forensic autopsy reports because it merely extracts frequent but discriminative features from clinical reports. Moreover, this technique fails to capture word inversion, as well as word-level synonymy and polysemy, when classifying autopsy reports. Hence, the BoW technique suffers from low accuracy and low robustness unless it is improved with contextual and application-specific information. To overcome the aforementioned limitations of the BoW technique, this research aims to develop an effective conceptual graph-based document representation (CGDR) technique to classify 1500 forensic autopsy reports from four (4) manners of death (MoD) and sixteen (16) causes of death (CoD). Term-based and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) based conceptual features were extracted and represented through graphs. These features were then used to train a two-level text classifier. The first level classifier was responsible for predicting MoD. In addition, the second level classifier was responsible for predicting CoD using the proposed conceptual graph-based document representation technique. To demonstrate the significance of the proposed technique, its results were compared with those of six (6) state-of-the-art document representation techniques. Lastly, this study compared the effects of one-level classification and two-level classification on the experimental results. The experimental results indicated that the CGDR technique achieved 12% to 15% improvement in accuracy compared with fully automated document representation baseline techniques. Moreover, two-level classification obtained better results compared with one-level classification. The promising results of the proposed conceptual graph-based document representation technique suggest that pathologists can adopt the proposed system as their basis for second opinion, thereby supporting them in effectively determining CoD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  8. Pinakini KS, Kumar TS
    J Clin Forensic Med, 2006 Jul;13(5):274-6.
    PMID: 16442830
    Poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries like India. Anticholinesterase compounds like organophosphates (OP) and carbamates account for the majority of these poisoning cases because of their easy availability and agricultural use. Carbamates are as popular as OPs as insecticides that often go undiagnosed. A fatal case of carbofuran poisoning is presented where serial cholinesterase estimation played a major role in the diagnosis of the same. The pertinent medical literature on carbofuran poisoning is reviewed. The establishment of poison information center in each state is needed for proper diagnosis and management of poisoning cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  9. Kumar V, Li AK, Zanial AZ, Lee DA, Salleh SA
    J Clin Forensic Med, 2005 Oct;12(5):254-7.
    PMID: 16198967
    The main aim of this study was to determine the causes and epidemiological aspects of homicidal deaths. Data were collected on 217 homicidal victims from the total number of 2762 autopsies performed in UMMC, Kuala Lumpur over a five-year period, from year 1999 to 2003. There were 194 male victims and 23 female victims. The largest number of victims (63.6%) were in the age group of 20-39 years. Indians comprised the maximum proportion of victims (28.1%). Approximately 71.9% of victims came from the semiskilled and unskilled group. A majority of victims were married (47%). Injuries caused by sharp weapons (41%) were the most common cause of death, followed by blunt trauma and firearm injuries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  10. Murty OP
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2009 Jul;16(5):290-6.
    PMID: 19481715 DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2008.12.020
    Domestic maid violence is an assault and coercive behaviour, which mainly includes physical, psychological and at times sexual too, by employer or household members of employer against a person hired as a domestic help. Maid abuse is well known but poorly documented in scientific literature. This is an important global issue. In this article, two illustrated cases of maid abuse are discussed. Their employers allegedly subjected both the victims to physical and psychological trauma. The physical examination of the victims showed poor state of clothing, nutrition, and presence of injuries of different duration. The bruises were irregular to patterned, and were inflicted by beating. Both cases had eczematous contact dermatitis over palms and soles, paronechia, and sub-ungal fungal infection due to unprotected working in wet conditions. In both cases, external ears were deformed like cauliflowers due to repeated trauma. All cases had multiple injuries of varying duration. In this paper, medico-legal and social issues related to maid abuse are also discussed in detail. A possible solution to minimise maid abuse is also suggested. This paper highlights and document maid abuse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  11. Kumar V, San KP, Idwan A, Shah N, Hajar S, Norkahfi M
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2007 Apr;14(3):151-4.
    PMID: 16914354
    The main aim of this study is to determine the causes and the epidemiological aspects of sudden natural deaths. Data were collected from 545 sudden natural autopsies in UMMC, Kuala Lumpur over a five-year period, from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004. There were 475 males and 70 females. The largest number of sudden natural deaths was in the age group of 41-50 years. 35.8%, 30.5% and 11.7% of the patients were Chinese, Indian and Malay, respectively. A majority of the patients were married (59.8%) and came from the semiskilled-unskilled group (30.6%). The monthly distribution was almost constant. Cardiovascular diseases were the most important cause contributing 64.9% in sudden natural deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  12. Kumar V, Mohanty MK, Kanth S
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2007 Jan;14(1):3-6.
    PMID: 17046310
    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burn injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of burn injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame burns were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical burns in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of burn incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of burn (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  13. Lee WC, Khoo BE, Bin Abdullah AF, Abdul Aziz ZB
    J Forensic Sci, 2013 May;58(3):658-63.
    PMID: 23488634 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.12103
    Bloodstain photography is important in forensic applications, especially for bloodstain pattern analysis. This study compares the enhancement effect of bloodstain photography using three different types of light source: fluorescent white light, near-ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) light, and 410 nm LED light. Randomized complete block designs were implemented to identify the lighting that would statistically produce the best enhancement results for bloodstains on different types of surfaces. Bloodstain samples were prepared on white cotton, brown carpet, tar road, and wood. These samples were photographed in darkroom conditions using a Canon EOS 50D digital SLR camera, with Canon EFS 60 mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the contrast of the images. The statistical analysis showed that 410 nm light is the best among the tested lights for enhancing bloodstains on the tested surfaces, where the contrast of bloodstain to background was the highest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  14. Low WZ, Khoo BE, Abdullah AF
    J Forensic Sci, 2016 07;61(4):1093-9.
    PMID: 27364293 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.13063
    Nondestructive techniques for gathering evidence are important in the field of forensics. Due to the geometry of the substrates, nondestructive visualization of fingermarks on curved surfaces remains challenging. A novel contactless technique was developed for visualizing and recording fingermark patterns on nonporous curved surfaces of circular cross section. The technique utilizes a plane mirror to transmit rays from a light source to illuminate the area of interest for fingermark visualization. The fingermark acquisition system consists of a digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, a plane mirror, and a white light source. Mathematical equations are used to calculate the mirror size. Experiments were performed on various curved surfaces to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the technique. Spectral Image Validation and Verification (SIVV) was used to analyze the captured images. The results of this study indicate that the technique described here is able to reveal fingermark patterns on curved surfaces of circular cross section.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  15. Ranson D
    J Law Med, 2015 Jun;22(4):745-50.
    PMID: 26349375
    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine*
  16. Chong JA, Mohamed AMFS, Pau A
    J Oral Biosci, 2020 09;62(3):249-259.
    PMID: 32619633 DOI: 10.1016/j.job.2020.06.003
    BACKGROUND: Palatal rugae are asymmetric ridges of connective tissue located behind the incisive papilla over the anterior hard palate. They serve as stable superimposition landmarks to assess tooth movement in orthodontics and as identification aids in forensic odontology. However, the stability of palatal rugae remains controversial. This review aimed to describe the genetic, growth, and environmental factors that may influence the palatal rugae patterns. A broad search of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was conducted. A total of 193 articles were identified, of which 73 met the selection criteria. Data were extracted into a table that presented the details of the study, sample description, and changes in the palatal rugae patterns.

    HIGHLIGHT: There were conflicting results regarding sexual dimorphism and population characterization of the palatal rugae patterns. All rugae showed positional changes, increased lengths, and lower numbers, but no significant shape changes with growth. The lengths, numbers, and positions of the rugae were affected by orthodontic treatment, especially their lateral points, but their individual characteristics did not change.

    CONCLUSION: The diversity in rugae patterns and their potential for sex discrimination among different populations showed differing results due to individual variations and the complex influence of genetic, growth, and environmental factors on their morphology.

    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  17. Asif MK, Nambiar P, Ibrahim N, Al-Amery SM, Khan IM
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2019 Jul;39:9-14.
    PMID: 31158731 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2019.05.003
    Three-dimensional imaging has improved the method of analysis in many forensic science investigations. The study aimed to derive regression equation for age estimation by investigating the relationship between chronological age and surface area of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices. Furthermore, other predictor variables: ethnicity (Malay and Chinese), gender and status of the root development completion (open/closed apices) were also investigated in terms of fit to the age estimation model. One hundred and twenty eight training and 55 validation samples of intact mandibular 3rd molars were selected from 183 CBCT scans. The samples comprised of 93 Malays and 90 Chinese, ranging in age from 13 to 24 years. Three-dimensional image modeling and surface area analysis of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices were performed using Mimics and 3-Matics software. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to derive age estimation model using chronological age as a dependent variable and surface area of the apices, ethnicity, gender and status of the root development completion (open/closed apices) as predictor variables. A strong inverse correlation (r = 0.95, SD = 1.144) was observed between chronological age and all the predictor variables. The results showed that 89.6% of the variation in age can be explained by the predictor variables. Mean absolute error (MAE) value of 0.8223 was observed when the derived regression equation was tested on the independent validation sample. In conclusion, three-dimensional surface area analysis of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices can be used as a reliable method for age estimation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine/methods*
  18. Nadesan K
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 2000 Jun;21(2):107-13.
    PMID: 10871122
    True vehicular homicides are defined as those occurrences in which a motor vehicle is intentionally used as a weapon in taking of a life. A case is presented in which the deceased was traveling in the front passenger seat of a motor car that was deliberately rammed by a heavy jeep that came in the opposite direction, resulting in a serious frontal collision. Immediately after the impact, while the occupants of the car were lying in a dazed condition, the two persons riding in the jeep escaped with a bag containing money that was in the car, leaving the jeep behind. The impact mainly involved the driver's sides of both vehicles. The driver of the car sustained serious injuries but was found to be alive, whereas the front-seat passenger, who did not show any serious external injuries, was found to be in a collapsed state and was pronounced dead on admission to the hospital within 30 minutes of the accident. The autopsy revealed that death was caused by closed hemopericardium from a ruptured right atrium. The evaluation of the external and internal injuries confirmed that the fatal injury and a few serious internal injuries were caused by the seat belt (tertiary-impact injuries). The ruptured right atrium was attributed to blunt abdominal trauma by impacting against the lap belt. The case was a true vehicular homicide in which a motor vehicle had been used as a weapon to kill a person. Various aspects pertaining to road accidents, the safety of the occupants, and the advantage and disadvantage of the safety devices are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine
  19. Jothee S, Shafie MS, Vijayaretnam SV, Nor FM
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 2020 Jun;41(2):110-114.
    PMID: 32205487 DOI: 10.1097/PAF.0000000000000539
    Organ weights are routinely measured during autopsies as a crude screening tool to detect possible organ pathology. In several centers, inclusion of major organ weights indicates whether an autopsy report has achieved its standard of practice, which in turn should be subjected to an audit. Previous studies show statistical variation in organ weights across different populations. Malaysian pathologists have relied on Western data and crude subjective determination in the interpretation of normal organ weights. Hence, the need for a reference range as a guide for pathologists is acute. Organ weights from traumatic deaths between 2004 and 2017 were analyzed in the UKM Medical Centre. Statistical analysis was performed to form reference ranges for normal weights of the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and kidneys. In addition, the data were compared between sexes, races, and body mass index values to determine whether organ weights were affected by these parameters. In this study, reference ranges for organ weights are presented for Malaysian adult men and women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Forensic Medicine*
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