AIM: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether this polymorphism modulate the risk of disease recurrence in TNBC patients undergoing TAC chemotherapy regimen.
METHODS: Blood samples of 76 immunohistochemistry confirmed TNBC patients were recruited. The genotyping of CYP1B1 4326 C>G polymorphism was carried out using PCR-RFLP technique. The genotype patterns were categorized into homozygous wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous variant. Kaplan-Meier analysis followed by Cox proportional hazard regression model were performed to evaluate the TNBC patients' recurrence risk.
RESULTS: Out of 76 TNBC patients, 25 (33.0%) showed disease recurrence after one-year evaluation. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that TNBC patients who are carriers of CYP1B1 4326 GG variant genotypes (37.0%) had a significantly lower probability of disease-free rates as compared to TNBC patients who are carriers of CYP1B1 4326 CC/CG genotypes (71.0%). Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that TNBC patients who carried CYP1B1 4326 GG variant genotype had a significantly higher risk of recurrence with HR: 2.50 and HR: 4.18 respectively, even after adjustment as compared to TNBC patients who were carriers of CYP1B1 4326 CC and CG genotypes.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the potential use of CYP1B1 4325 GG variant genotype as a candidate biomarker in predicting risk of recurrence in TNBC patients undergoing TAC chemotherapy regimen.
METHODS: Microbiological samples from 71 subjects with infected root canals were aseptically collected, and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, and C. albicans was identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and the isolates were further subtyped using ABC genotyping system. Their relative virulence was compared using further four archival samples of endodontic origin from another geographical region, and four more salivary isolates, as controls. The virulence attributes compared were biofilm formation, and production of phospholipase and haemolysin, and the susceptibility to nystatin, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, and fluoconazole was also tested.
RESULTS: 4 out of 71 samples (5.6%) yielded Candida species. On analysis of variance among the groups, the intracanal isolates, mainly Genotype A, possessed a high degree of phospholipase and haemolysin activity (p
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the phytochemical composition of 7 varieties growing in different conditions at various geographical locations. We also aimed to establish the quality control markers for the authentication of these varieties.
METHODS: We applied untargeted UHPLC-TOFMS metabolomics to discriminate 100 leaf samples of F. deltoidea collected from 6 locations in Malaysia. A genetic analysis on 21 leaf samples was also performed to validate the chemotaxonomy differentiation.
RESULTS: The PCA and HCA analysis revealed the existence of 3 chemotypes based on the differentiation in the flavonoid content. The PLS-DA analysis identified 15 glycosylated flavone markers together with 1 furanocoumarin. These markers were always consistent for the respective varieties, regardless of the geographical locations and growing conditions. The chemotaxonomy differentiation was in agreement with the DNA sequencing. In particular, var. bilobata accession which showed divergent morphology was also differentiated by the chemical fingerprints and genotype.
CONCLUSION: Chemotype differentiation based on the flavonoid fingerprints along with the proposed markers provide a powerful identification tool to complement morphology and genetic analyses for the quality control of raw materials and products from F. deltoidea.
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