Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1094 in total

  1. AR Siti Nurul Fazlin, H Hairul Aini, HM Hadzri, MM Mohammed Imad
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is very important for the clinical management of HCV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypes of HCV-infected patients and to identify their risk factors and comorbidities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  2. Abbasi S, Rasouli M
    Mol Med Rep, 2017 Jun;15(6):3983-3988.
    PMID: 28440412 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2017.6489
    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) is also a potential breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. A novel allele with tandem duplication of 13 base pair sequence in promoter region was identified. To investigate whether the 13 base pair sequence of tandem duplication in promoter region of the FANCA gene is of high penetrance in patients with breast cancer and to determine if the presence of the duplicated allele was associated with an altered risk of breast cancer, the present study screened DNA in blood samples from 304 breast cancer patients and 295 normal individuals as controls. The duplication allele had a frequency of 35.4 and 21.2% in patients with breast cancer and normal controls, respectively. There was a significant increase in the frequency of the duplication allele in patients with familial breast cancer compared with controls (45.1%, P=0.001). Furthermore, the estimated risk of breast cancer in individuals with a homozygote [odds ratio (OR), 4.093; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.957‑8.561] or heterozygote duplicated genotype (OR, 3.315; 95% CI, 1.996‑5.506) was higher compared with the corresponding normal homozygote genotype. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the higher the frequency of the duplicated allele, the higher the risk of breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report FANCA gene duplication in patients with breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  3. Abd El-Maksoud E, Salem AM, Maher AM, Hegazy MGA
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Dec 01;37(4):1083-1092.
    PMID: 33612760 DOI: 10.47665/tb.37.4.1083
    HCV genotype 4 dominates the HCV epidemic in Egypt. Drug resistance was the most serious side effect that reflects bad clinical outcome. Several studies had demonstrated that baseline serum interferon-γ-inducible-protein 10 (IP-10) levels and interleukin 28B polymorphisms were associated with the resistance to the standard of care pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin (PEG-IFNα/RBV) therapy and development of post-treatment relapse. Our purpose was to assess the predictive value of combining IP-10 levels and IL28B genotypes to PEG-IFNα/RBV therapy response in Egyptian chronic HCV infection patients with genotype 4. Ninety Egyptian patients chronically infected by HCV genotype-4 treated with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin (PEG-IFNα/RBV) therapy were enrolled. Serum IP-10 levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay pre- and post- treatment. IL-28B (rs12979860 and rs8099917) polymorphisms were performed by PCR-RFLP in all patients. Overall, 38 patients (42.2%) achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) and 52 (57.8%) patients have non-viral response (NVR). Pretreatment serum IP-10 mean levels were significantly lower in patients who achieved SVR than in NVR (P<0.05). CC genotype in IL28B polymorphism (rs12979860) was the favorable genotype as 65.8% achieved SVR, while TT genotype in IL-28B polymorphism (rs8099917) was the favorable genotype as 81.5% achieved SVR. Baseline IP-10 was significantly correlated to genotypes CC in rs12979860 and TT in rs8099917. Combined use of serum baseline IP-10 levels with IL-28B polymorphisms could improve the prediction of SVR to PEG-IFNα/RBV therapy in Egyptian chronic HCV infection patients with genotype 4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  4. Abd-Jamil J, Teoh BT, Hassan EH, Roslan N, Abubakar S
    BMC Pediatr, 2010;10:46.
    PMID: 20594359 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-46
    There are at least 51 adenovirus serotypes (AdV) known to cause human infections. The prevalence of the different human AdV (HAdV) serotypes varies among different regions. Presently, there are no reports of the prevalent HAdV types found in Malaysia. The present study was undertaken to identify the HAdV types associated primarily with respiratory tract infections (RTI) of young children in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  5. Abdul Aziz AA, Md Salleh MS, Yahya MM, Zakaria AD, Ankathil R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Apr 01;22(4):1319-1324.
    PMID: 33906328 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.4.1319
    BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) which is treated with taxane, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) chemotherapy regimen show variation in treatment response. CYP1B1 4326 C>G polymorphism has been implicated in contributing to the differences in treatment response in various types of cancers.

    AIM: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether this polymorphism modulate the risk of disease recurrence in TNBC patients undergoing TAC chemotherapy regimen.

    METHODS: Blood samples of 76 immunohistochemistry confirmed TNBC patients were recruited. The genotyping of CYP1B1 4326 C>G polymorphism was carried out using PCR-RFLP technique. The genotype patterns were categorized into homozygous wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous variant. Kaplan-Meier analysis followed by Cox proportional hazard regression model were performed to evaluate the TNBC patients' recurrence risk.

    RESULTS: Out of 76 TNBC patients, 25 (33.0%) showed disease recurrence after one-year evaluation. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that TNBC patients who are carriers of CYP1B1 4326 GG variant genotypes (37.0%) had a significantly lower probability of disease-free rates as compared to TNBC patients who are carriers of CYP1B1 4326 CC/CG genotypes (71.0%). Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that TNBC patients who carried CYP1B1 4326 GG variant genotype had a significantly higher risk of recurrence with HR: 2.50 and HR: 4.18 respectively, even after adjustment as compared to TNBC patients who were carriers of CYP1B1 4326 CC and CG genotypes.

    CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the potential use of CYP1B1 4325 GG variant genotype as a candidate biomarker in predicting risk of recurrence in TNBC patients undergoing TAC chemotherapy regimen.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  6. Abdul Rahman SN, Bakar MFA, Singham GV, Othman AS
    3 Biotech, 2019 Nov;9(11):388.
    PMID: 31656726 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-019-1921-3
    In this study, RNA sequencing of several Hevea brasiliensis clones grown in Malaysia with different annual rubber production yields and disease resistance was performed on the Illumina platform. A total of 29,862,548 reads were generated, resulting in 101,269 assembled transcripts that were used as the reference transcripts. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein databases presented 83,771 (83%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome was annotated using gene ontology (GO), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and the Pfam database. A search for putative molecular markers was performed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Overall, 3,210,629 SNPs were detected and a total of 1314 SNPs associated with the genes involved in MVA and MEP pathways were identified. A total of 176 SNP primer pairs were designed from sequences that were related to the MVA and MEP pathways. The transcriptome of RRIM 3001 and RRIM 712 were subjected to pairwise comparison and the results revealed that there were 1262 significantly differentially expressed genes unique to RRIM 3001, 1499 significantly differentially expressed genes unique to RRIM 712 and several genes related to the MVA and MEP pathways such as AACT, HMGS, PMK, MVD, DXS and HDS were included. The results will facilitate the characterization of H. brasiliensis transcriptomes and the development of a new set of molecular markers in the form of SNPs from transcriptome assembly for the genotype identification of various rubber varieties with superior traits in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  7. Abdulla MA, Khairul Anuar A, Khalifa S, Salmah I, Mohamad Nazmul HM, Suzainur KAR, et al.
    JUMMEC, 2002;7:135-141.
    Four calves from each group of purebred Kedah kelantan (KK), halfbred KK X Friesian, and quarterbred KK X Friesian were experimentally infested with Boophilus micropills larvae. Two calves from each genotype were injected, intramuscularly with antihistamine while the remaining two animals in each genotype received the same dose of antihistamine and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone combined anti-histamine treatment suppress tick resistance as manifested by the production of higher number of engorged female ticks, higher mean weight of replete ticks, mean weight of eggs and mean number of larvae hatched from 1 g of eggs. In anti-histamine treated animals there was no reduction of resistant in all animals as manifested by a few ticks were able to feed successfully. At 1, 2, and 3 hours post-larval attachment in anti-histamine and dexamethasone treated cattle there was complete ablation of the cellular infiltration in the dermis beneath the tick mouthparts, especially eosinophil and basophils. There was little destruction of tissue. However, in anti-histamine treated cattle there were more cellular infiltration and degranulation in the dermis. The cells infiltrating the dermis were mainly eosinophils followed by neutrophs, mast cells and basophils and some of these cells showed sign of degranulation. At 24 hours postlarval attachment, animals lTeated with anti-histamine and dexamethasone showed reduction of, cellular infiltration, degranulation, size of the epidermal lesion and tissue damage. The neutrophils were the predominant cells within the epidermal lesions. However, animals in anti-histamine treatment showed edema, more cellular infiltration and degranulation, and destruction of tissues as compared to antihistamine and dexamethasone treated animals. In anti-histamine treated cattle the epidermal lesions were obviously larger and the percentage of eosinophils and basophils were higher than those of antihistamine and dexamethasone treated animals. KEYWORDS: Kedah-Kelantan cattle, KK X Friesian callie, B. micropflls, dexamethasone, antihistamine, cellular response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  8. Abdullah N, Rafii Yusop M, Ithnin M, Saleh G, Latif MA
    C. R. Biol., 2011 Apr;334(4):290-9.
    PMID: 21513898 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2011.01.004
    Studies were conducted to assess the genetic relationships between the parental palms (dura and pisifera) and performance of their progenies based on nine microsatellite markers and 29 quantitative traits. Correlation analyses between genetic distances and hybrids performance were estimated. The coefficients of correlation values of genetic distances with hybrid performance were non-significant, except for mean nut weight and leaf number. However, the correlation coefficient of genetic distances with these characters was low to be used as predicted value. These results indicated that genetic distances based on the microsatellite markers may not be useful for predicting hybrid performance. The genetic distance analysis using UPGMA clustering system generated 5 genetic clusters with coefficient of 1.26 based on quantitative traits of progenies. The genotypes, DP16, DP14, DP4, DP13, DP12, DP15, DP8, DP1 and DP2 belonging to distant clusters and greater genetic distances could be selected for further breeding programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype*
  9. Abdullah N, Abdul Murad NA, Attia J, Oldmeadow C, Mohd Haniff EA, Syafruddin SE, et al.
    Diabet Med, 2015 Oct;32(10):1377-84.
    PMID: 25711284 DOI: 10.1111/dme.12735
    AIMS: To characterize the association with Type 2 diabetes of known Type 2 diabetes risk variants in people in Malaysia of Malay, Chinese and Indian ancestry who participated in the Malaysian Cohort project.
    METHODS: We genotyped 1604 people of Malay ancestry (722 cases, 882 controls), 1654 of Chinese ancestry (819 cases, 835 controls) and 1728 of Indian ancestry (851 cases, 877 controls). First, 62 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with Type 2 diabetes were assessed for association via logistic regression within ancestral groups and then across ancestral groups using a meta-analysis. Second, estimated odds ratios were assessed for excess directional concordance with previously studied populations. Third, a genetic risk score aggregating allele dosage across the candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms was tested for association within and across ancestral groups.
    RESULTS: After Bonferroni correction, seven individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with Type 2 diabetes in the combined Malaysian sample. We observed a highly significant excess in concordance of effect directions between Malaysian and previously studied populations. The genetic risk score was strongly associated with Type 2 diabetes in all Malaysian groups, explaining from 1.0 to 1.7% of total Type 2 diabetes risk variance.
    CONCLUSION: This study suggests there is substantial overlap of the genetic risk alleles underlying Type 2 diabetes in Malaysian and other populations.
    Study name: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  10. Abdullah NR, Barber BE, William T, Norahmad NA, Satsu UR, Muniandy PK, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(12):e82553.
    PMID: 24358203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082553
    Despite significant progress in the control of malaria in Malaysia, the complex transmission dynamics of P. vivax continue to challenge national efforts to achieve elimination. To assess the impact of ongoing interventions on P. vivax transmission dynamics in Sabah, we genotyped 9 short tandem repeat markers in a total of 97 isolates (8 recurrences) from across Sabah, with a focus on two districts, Kota Marudu (KM, n = 24) and Kota Kinabalu (KK, n = 21), over a 2 year period. STRUCTURE analysis on the Sabah-wide dataset demonstrated multiple sub-populations. Significant differentiation (F ST  = 0.243) was observed between KM and KK, located just 130 Km apart. Consistent with low endemic transmission, infection complexity was modest in both KM (mean MOI  = 1.38) and KK (mean MOI  = 1.19). However, population diversity remained moderate (H E  = 0.583 in KM and H E  = 0.667 in KK). Temporal trends revealed clonal expansions reflecting epidemic transmission dynamics. The haplotypes of these isolates declined in frequency over time, but persisted at low frequency throughout the study duration. A diverse array of low frequency isolates were detected in both KM and KK, some likely reflecting remnants of previous expansions. In accordance with clonal expansions, high levels of Linkage Disequilibrium (I A (S) >0.5 [P<0.0001] in KK and KM) declined sharply when identical haplotypes were represented once (I A (S)  = 0.07 [P = 0.0076] in KM, and I A (S) = -0.003 [P = 0.606] in KK). All 8 recurrences, likely to be relapses, were homologous to the prior infection. These recurrences may promote the persistence of parasite lineages, sustaining local diversity. In summary, Sabah's shrinking P. vivax population appears to have rendered this low endemic setting vulnerable to epidemic expansions. Migration may play an important role in the introduction of new parasite strains leading to epidemic expansions, with important implications for malaria elimination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  11. Abdullah UYH, Ibrahim HM, Mahmud NB, Salleh MZ, Teh LK, Noorizhab MNFB, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 2020 May;44(3):184-189.
    PMID: 32586164 DOI: 10.1080/03630269.2020.1781652
    Effective prevention of β-thalassemia (β-thal) requires strategies to detect at-risk couples. This is the first study attempting to assess the prevalence of silent β-thal carriers in the Malaysian population. Hematological and clinical parameters were evaluated in healthy blood donors and patients with β-thal trait, Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A)/β-thal and β-thal major (β-TM). β-Globin gene sequencing was carried out for 52 healthy blood donors, 48 patients with Hb E/β-thal, 34 patients with β-TM and 38 patients with β-thal trait. The prevalence of silent β-thal carrier phenotypes found in 25.0% of healthy Malaysian blood donors indicates the need for clinician's awareness of this type in evaluating β-thal in Malaysia. Patients with β-TM present at a significantly younger age at initial diagnosis and require more blood transfusions compared to those with Hb E/β-thal. The time at which genomic DNA was extracted after blood collection, particularly from patients with β-TM and Hb E/β-thal, was found to be an important determinant of the quality of the results of the β-globin sequencing. Public education and communication campaigns are recommended as apparently healthy individuals have few or no symptoms and normal or borderline hematological parameters. β-Globin gene mutation characterization and screening for silent β-thal carriers in regions prevalent with β-thal are recommended to develop more effective genetic counseling and management of β-thal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype*
  12. Abolnik C, Mubamba C, Wandrag DBR, Horner R, Gummow B, Dautu G, et al.
    Transbound Emerg Dis, 2018 Apr;65(2):e393-e403.
    PMID: 29178267 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12771
    It is widely accepted that Newcastle disease is endemic in most African countries, but little attention has been afforded to establishing the sources and frequency of the introductions of exotic strains. Newcastle disease outbreaks have a high cost in Africa, particularly on rural livelihoods. Genotype VIIh emerged in South-East Asia and has since caused serious outbreaks in poultry in Malaysia, Indonesia, southern China, Vietnam and Cambodia. Genotype VIIh reached the African continent in 2011, with the first outbreaks reported in Mozambique. Here, we used a combination of phylogenetic evidence, molecular dating and epidemiological reports to trace the origins and spread of subgenotype VIIh Newcastle disease in southern Africa. We determined that the infection spread northwards through Mozambique, and then into the poultry of the north-eastern provinces of Zimbabwe. From Mozambique, it also reached neighbouring Malawi and Zambia. In Zimbabwe, the disease spread southward towards South Africa and Botswana, causing outbreaks in backyard chickens in early-to-mid 2013. In August 2013, the disease entered South Africa's large commercial industry, and the entire country was infected within a year, likely through fomites and the movements of cull chickens. Illegal poultry trading or infected waste from ships and not wild migratory birds was the likely source of the introduction to Mozambique in 2011.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  13. Abraham SB, Al Marzooq F, Himratul-Aznita WH, Ahmed HMA, Samaranayake LP
    BMC Oral Health, 2020 12 01;20(1):347.
    PMID: 33256696 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-020-01347-5
    BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the prevalence of Candida species in infected root canal systems of human teeth. We attempted to investigate the prevalence, genotype, virulence and the antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from infected root canals of patients with primary and post-treatment infections in a UAE population.

    METHODS: Microbiological samples from 71 subjects with infected root canals were aseptically collected, and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, and C. albicans was identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and the isolates were further subtyped using ABC genotyping system. Their relative virulence was compared using further four archival samples of endodontic origin from another geographical region, and four more salivary isolates, as controls. The virulence attributes compared were biofilm formation, and production of phospholipase and haemolysin, and the susceptibility to nystatin, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, and fluoconazole was also tested.

    RESULTS: 4 out of 71 samples (5.6%) yielded Candida species. On analysis of variance among the groups, the intracanal isolates, mainly Genotype A, possessed a high degree of phospholipase and haemolysin activity (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  14. AbuBakar S, Wong PF, Chan YF
    J Gen Virol, 2002 Oct;83(Pt 10):2437-2442.
    PMID: 12237425 DOI: 10.1099/0022-1317-83-10-2437
    Phylogenetic analyses of the envelope (E) gene sequence of five recently isolated dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) suggested the emergence of a distinct geographical and temporal DENV-4 subgenotype IIA in Malaysia. Four of the isolates had direct ancestral lineage with DENV-4 Indonesia 1973 and showed evidence of intra-serotypic recombination with the other recently isolated DENV-4, MY01-22713. The E gene of isolate MY01-22713 had strong evidence of an earlier recombination involving DENV-4 genotype II Indonesia 1976 and genotype I Malaysia 1969. These results suggest that intra-serotypic recombination amongst DENV-4 from independent ancestral lineages may have contributed to the emergence of DENV-4 subgenotype IIA in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  15. Adhikary AK, Banik U
    J Clin Virol, 2014 Dec;61(4):477-86.
    PMID: 25464969 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.10.015
    Human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-8) is the most common causative agent of a highly contagious eye disease known as epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). HAdV-8 strains have been classified into genome types HAdV-8A to 8K and HAdV/D1 to D12 according to restriction endonuclease analysis. This review focuses on the significance of HAdV-8 as an agent of EKC. Molecular analysis of HAdV-8 genome types HAdV-53 and HAdV-54 was performed to reveal potential genetic variation in the hexon and fiber, which might affect the antigenicity and tropism of the virus, respectively. On the basis of the published data, three patterns of HAdV-8 genome type distribution were observed worldwide: (1) genome types restricted to a microenvironment, (2) genome types distributed within a country, and (3) globally dispersed genome types. Simplot and zPicture showed that the HAdV-8 genome types were nearly identical to each other. HAdV-54 is very close to the HAdV-8P, B and E genomes, except in the hexon. In a restriction map, HAdV-8P, B, and E share a very high percentage of restriction sites with each other. Hypervariable regions (HVRs) of the hexon were conserved and were 100% identical among the genome types. The fiber knob of HAdV-8P, A, E, J and HAdV-53 were 100% identical. In phylogeny, HVRs of the hexon and fiber knob of the HAdV-8 genome types segregated into monophyletic clusters. Neutralizing antibodies against one genome type will provide protection against other genome types, and the selection of future vaccine strains would be simple due to the stable HVRs. Molecular analysis of whole genomes, particularly of the capsid proteins of the remaining genome types, would be useful to substantiate our observations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  16. Adzitey F, Ali GR, Huda N, Ahmad R
    3 Biotech, 2013 Dec;3(6):521-527.
    PMID: 28324423 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-013-0115-7
    Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that can cause illness and death in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of 115 Salmonella strains isolated from ducks and their environment using random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD). The analysis of Salmonella strains by RAPD produced DNA fingerprints of different sizes for differentiation purposes, and cluster analysis at a coefficient of 0.85 grouped the Salmonella strains into various clusters and singletons. S. Typhimurium were grouped into nine clusters and ten singletons, S. Hadar were grouped into seven clusters and nine singletons, S. Enteritidis were grouped into four clusters and five singletons, S. Braenderup were grouped into five clusters and four singletons, S. Albany were grouped into two clusters and seven singletons, and S. Derby were grouped into two clusters and four singletons at a coefficient of 0.85 with discriminatory index (D) ranging from 0.879 to 0.957. With the exception of S. Typhimurium strains which were grouped into three major groups (genotypes) by RAPD analysis, the rest were grouped into two major genotypes. RAPD was a useful genotyping tool for determining the genetic relatedness of the duck Salmonella strains. Comparison of the genetic relatedness among foodborne pathogens and their sources of isolation are important to trace their source and possibly the source of human infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  17. Afzan A, Kasim N, Ismail NH, Azmi N, Ali AM, Mat N, et al.
    Metabolomics, 2019 Mar 04;15(3):35.
    PMID: 30830457 DOI: 10.1007/s11306-019-1489-2
    BACKGROUND: Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) is a plant used in Malaysia for various diseases including as a supplement in diabetes management. Morphology distinction of the 7 main varieties (var. angustifolia, var. bilobata, var. deltoidea, var. intermedia, var. kunstleri, var. motleyana and var. trengganuensis) is challenging due to the extreme leaf heterophylly and unclear varietal boundaries, making it difficult for quality control of F. deltoidea products.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the phytochemical composition of 7 varieties growing in different conditions at various geographical locations. We also aimed to establish the quality control markers for the authentication of these varieties.

    METHODS: We applied untargeted UHPLC-TOFMS metabolomics to discriminate 100 leaf samples of F. deltoidea collected from 6 locations in Malaysia. A genetic analysis on 21 leaf samples was also performed to validate the chemotaxonomy differentiation.

    RESULTS: The PCA and HCA analysis revealed the existence of 3 chemotypes based on the differentiation in the flavonoid content. The PLS-DA analysis identified 15 glycosylated flavone markers together with 1 furanocoumarin. These markers were always consistent for the respective varieties, regardless of the geographical locations and growing conditions. The chemotaxonomy differentiation was in agreement with the DNA sequencing. In particular, var. bilobata accession which showed divergent morphology was also differentiated by the chemical fingerprints and genotype.

    CONCLUSION: Chemotype differentiation based on the flavonoid fingerprints along with the proposed markers provide a powerful identification tool to complement morphology and genetic analyses for the quality control of raw materials and products from F. deltoidea.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  18. Agina OA, Shaari MR, Isa NMM, Ajat M, Zamri-Saad M, Hamzah H
    Pathogens, 2020 Aug 25;9(9).
    PMID: 32854179 DOI: 10.3390/pathogens9090697
    Theileriosis is a blood piroplasmic disease that adversely affects the livestock industry, especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It is caused by haemoprotozoan of the Theileria genus, transmitted by hard ticks and which possesses a complex life cycle. The clinical course of the disease ranges from benign to lethal, but subclinical infections can occur depending on the infecting Theileria species. The main clinical and clinicopathological manifestations of acute disease include fever, lymphadenopathy, anorexia and severe loss of condition, conjunctivitis, and pale mucous membranes that are associated with Theileria-induced immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and/or non-regenerative anaemia. Additionally, jaundice, increases in hepatic enzymes, and variable leukocyte count changes are seen. Theileria annulata and Theileria parva induce an incomplete transformation of lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages, and these cells possess certain phenotypes of cancer cells. Pathogenic genotypes of Theileria orientalis have been recently associated with severe production losses in Southeast Asia and some parts of Europe. The infection and treatment method (ITM) is currently used in the control and prevention of T. parva infection, and recombinant vaccines are still under evaluation. The use of gene gun immunization against T. parva infection has been recently evaluated. This review, therefore, provides an overview of the clinicopathological and immunopathological profiles of Theileria-infected cattle and focus on DNA vaccines consisting of plasmid DNA with genes of interest, molecular adjuvants, and chitosan as the most promising next-generation vaccine against bovine theileriosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  19. Ahmad F, Hanafi MM, Hakim MA, Rafii MY, Arolu IW, Akmar Abdullah SN
    PLoS One, 2015;10(9):e0138246.
    PMID: 26393807 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138246
    Coloured rice genotypes have greater nutritious value and consumer demand for these varieties is now greater than ever. The documentation of these genotypes is important for the improvement of the rice plant. In this study, 42 coloured rice genotypes were selected for determination of their genetic divergence using 25 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and 15 agro-morphological traits. Twenty-one out of the 25 SSR primers showed distinct, reproducible polymorphism. A dendrogram constructed using the SSR primers clustered the 42 coloured rice genotypes into 7 groups. Further, principle component analysis showed 75.28% of total variations were explained by the first-three components. All agro-morphological traits showed significant difference at the (p≤0.05) and (p≤0.01) levels. From the dendrogram constructed using the agro-morphological traits, all the genotypes were clustered into four distinct groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that among the 15 agro-morphological traits, the yield contributing factor had positive correlation with the number of tillers, number of panicles, and panicle length. The heritability of the 15 traits ranged from 17.68 to 99.69%. Yield per plant and harvest index showed the highest value for both heritability and genetic advance. The information on the molecular and agro-morphological traits can be used in rice breeding programmes to improve nutritional value and produce higher yields.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype*
  20. Ahmad Kushairi
    Quality of planting materials determines future successes of plantations and subsequent endeavours in the life cycle. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) breeding triggered an industry in Malaysia through “Plant Introduction” with the establishment of the first oil palm plantation. At the wake of the oil palm industry, plantations utilised the dura planting material. The hallmark discovery of the single gene inheritance for shell thickness led to the prolific dura x pisifera (DxP) derived tenera planting material. Subsequent parental inbred lines developed in recurrent selections, crossed and progeny tested exploiting heterosis had boosted yields. Further improvements were foresighted and executed in the widening of the genetic pool and collections of germplasm in centres of origin/diversity in Africa and Latin America. Field Genebank of the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) forms the world’s largest ex situ oil palm conservation programme. This programme enabled the developments of elite breeding populations harbouring specialty oils and products. Meanwhile, opening of large oil palm areas by the Federal Land Development Authority (Felda) set the momentum in rapid expansion of the industry. Felda is an exemplary in wealth creation and quality of life (QOL). Resettlements of landless farmers into Felda schemes, employing modern farming, mainly in oil palm has helped eradicate poverty and uplifting QOL among settlers, employees and their families. Impacts of the success in wealth creation and its distribution leading to better QOL, rooted from breeding through the supply of quality planting materials. Phenotypic expressions of the planting materials were realised through genotypic and environment interactions; the former through breeding, the latter through agronomic practices. Efforts in oil palm breeding helped paved the way to a mammoth industry, contributing to the nation economic growths, impacting livelihood of the people. Further progress in yield is expected from clones, where breeding has a role in the supply of quality ortets. Genetic potential of planting materials can be further exploited through interdisciplinary approach in breeding, biotechnology and genomics. With continuing wealth creation, the oil palm saga continues. Once wealth is created, QOL will follow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
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