Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1094 in total

  1. de Silva JR, Amir A, Lau YL, Ooi CH, Fong MY
    PLoS One, 2019;14(9):e0222681.
    PMID: 31536563 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222681
    The Duffy blood group plays a key role in Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax invasion into human erythrocytes. The geographical distribution of the Duffy alleles differs between regions with the FY*A allele having high frequencies in many Asian populations, the FY*B allele is found predominately in European populations and the FY*Bes allele found predominantly in African regions. A previous study in Peninsular Malaysia indicated high homogeneity of the dominant FY*A/FY*A genotype. However, the distribution of the Duffy genotypes in Malaysian Borneo is currently unknown. In the present study, the distribution of Duffy blood group genotypes and allelic frequencies among P. knowlesi infected patients as well as healthy individuals in Malaysian Borneo were determined. A total of 79 P. knowlesi patient blood samples and 76 healthy donor samples were genotyped using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR). Subsequently a P. knowlesi invasion assay was carried out on FY*AB/ FY*A and FY*A/ FY*A Duffy genotype blood to investigate if either genotype conferred increased susceptibility to P. knowlesi invasion. Our results show almost equal distribution between the homozygous FY*A/FY*A and heterozygous FY*A/FY*B genotypes. This is in stark contrast to the Duffy distribution in Peninsular Malaysia and the surrounding Southeast Asian region which is dominantly FY*A/FY*A. The mean percent invasion of FY*A/FY*A and FY*A/FY*B blood was not significantly different indicating that neither blood group confers increased susceptibility to P. knowlesi invasion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  2. Zuridah H
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Oct;67(5):548.
    PMID: 23770884
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  3. Zuridah H, Kirkwood CD, Bishop RF, Bogdanovic-Sakran N, Yap KL
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Sep;64(3):193-6.
    PMID: 20527266 MyJurnal
    This retrospective study examined the G/P type of rotavirus in RNA samples that have previously been e-typed by RNA-PAGE in 1996. The results were then compared to 2007 samples to ascertain the extent of changes that may have occurred in this 11-years time interval. The G and P genotypes were determined by hemi-nested PCR and further analysed by phylogenetic study. In 1996, the G/P combination G1P[8], G(UT)P[8] and G1P(UT) prevalence rate were 81%, 9% and 7%, respectively. As expected, the G9 genotype which has already emerged worldwide was identified in 42% of the 2007 samples with the remaining 33% G1P[8] and 25% G1P(UT) Analysis of the RNA pattern showed that majority of the isolates were long e-type in both series, nevertheless minor differences within electropherotypes were observed. Genetic diversity in some strains of the human group A rotaviruses was analysed by phylogenetic methods. These findings will help in the decision to introduce rotavirus vaccines within the next decade.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  4. Zuridah H, Kirkwood CD, Bogdanovic-Sakran N, Bishop RF, Yap KL
    J Med Virol, 2010 Apr;82(4):707-11.
    PMID: 20166178 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21717
    This study examined the temporal distribution of rotavirus genotypes in Malaysia. Rotaviruses from children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in 1996 (n = 93) and 2007 (n = 12) in two different regions of Peninsular (West) Malaysia were analyzed for their G and P genotypes using a hemi-nested RT-PCR assay. In the 2007 samples, the dominant strain was G9P[8]. It was identified in 42% of the samples. Different strains all possessing the G1 genotype were identified in the rest of the samples. In contrast, 81% of the samples collected in 1996 were the G1P[8] strain. No strains with G9 genotype were detected in samples collected in 1996.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  5. Zulkifly S, Hanshew A, Young EB, Lee P, Graham ME, Graham ME, et al.
    Am J Bot, 2012 Sep;99(9):1541-52.
    PMID: 22947483 DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1200161
    The filamentous chlorophyte Cladophora produces abundant nearshore populations in marine and freshwaters worldwide, often dominating periphyton communities and producing nuisance growths under eutrophic conditions. High surface area and environmental persistence foster such high functional and taxonomic diversity of epiphytic microfauna and microalgae that Cladophora has been labeled an ecological engineer. We tested the hypotheses that (1) Cladophora supports a structurally and functionally diverse epiphytic prokaryotic microbiota that influences materials cycling and (2) mutualistic host-microbe interactions occur. Because previous molecular sequencing-based analyses of the microbiota of C. glomerata found as western Lake Michigan beach drift had identified pathogenic associates such as Escherichia coli, we also asked if actively growing lentic C. glomerata harbors known pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  6. Zulkeflle SNM, Yusaimi YA, Sugiura N, Iwamoto K, Goto M, Utsumi M, et al.
    Microbiology (Reading), 2016 12;162(12):2064-2074.
    PMID: 27902427 DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.000392
    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem throughout the world. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in hospital wastewater is a cause for great concern today. In this study, 276 Staph. aureus isolates were recovered from hospital wastewater samples in Malaysia. All of the isolates were screened for susceptibility to nine different classes of antibiotics: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and nalidixic acid. Screening tests showed that 100 % of Staph.aureus isolates exhibited resistance against kanamycin, vancomycin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 91, 87, 50, 43, 11 and 8.7 % of isolates showed resistance against erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, respectively. Based on these results, 100 % of isolates demonstrated multidrug-resistant (MDR) characteristics, displaying resistance against more than three classes of antibiotics. Of 276 isolates, nine exhibited resistance to more than nine classes of tested antibiotics; these were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing and examined for the presence of conserved ARGs. Interestingly, a high percentage of the selected MDR Staph.aureus isolates did not contain conserved ARGs. These results indicate that non-conserved MDR gene elements may have already spread into the environment in the tropics of Southeast Asia, and unique resistance mechanisms against several antibiotics may have evolved due to stable, moderate temperatures that support growth of bacteria throughout the year.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  7. Zulkefli NJ, Mariappan V, Vellasamy KM, Chong CW, Thong KL, Ponnampalavanar S, et al.
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e1802.
    PMID: 26998408 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1802
    Background. Central intermediary metabolism (CIM) in bacteria is defined as a set of metabolic biochemical reactions within a cell, which is essential for the cell to survive in response to environmental perturbations. The genes associated with CIM are commonly found in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. As these genes are involved in vital metabolic processes of bacteria, we explored the efficiency of the genes in genotypic characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates, compared with the established pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes. Methods. Nine previously sequenced B. pseudomallei isolates from Malaysia were characterized by PFGE, MLST and CIM genes. The isolates were later compared to the other 39 B. pseudomallei strains, retrieved from GenBank using both MLST and sequence analysis of CIM genes. UniFrac and hierachical clustering analyses were performed using the results generated by both MLST and sequence analysis of CIM genes. Results. Genetic relatedness of nine Malaysian B. pseudomallei isolates and the other 39 strains was investigated. The nine Malaysian isolates were subtyped into six PFGE profiles, four MLST profiles and five sequence types based on CIM genes alignment. All methods demonstrated the clonality of OB and CB as well as CMS and THE. However, PFGE showed less than 70% similarity between a pair of morphology variants, OS and OB. In contrast, OS was identical to the soil isolate, MARAN. To have a better understanding of the genetic diversity of B. pseudomallei worldwide, we further aligned the sequences of genes used in MLST and genes associated with CIM for the nine Malaysian isolates and 39 B. pseudomallei strains from NCBI database. Overall, based on the CIM genes, the strains were subtyped into 33 profiles where majority of the strains from Asian countries were clustered together. On the other hand, MLST resolved the isolates into 31 profiles which formed three clusters. Hierarchical clustering using UniFrac distance suggested that the isolates from Australia were genetically distinct from the Asian isolates. Nevertheless, statistical significant differences were detected between isolates from Malaysia, Thailand and Australia. Discussion. Overall, PFGE showed higher discriminative power in clustering the nine Malaysian B. pseudomallei isolates and indicated its suitability for localized epidemiological study. Compared to MLST, CIM genes showed higher resolution in distinguishing those non-related strains and better clustering of strains from different geographical regions. A closer genetic relatedness of Malaysian isolates with all Asian strains in comparison to Australian strains was observed. This finding was supported by UniFrac analysis which resulted in geographical segregation between Australia and the Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  8. Zueter AR, Rahman ZA, Abumarzouq M, Harun A
    BMC Infect Dis, 2018 01 02;18(1):5.
    PMID: 29291714 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2912-9
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the Burkholderia pseudomallei genetic diversity among clinical isolates from melioidosis-endemic areas have identified genetic factors contributing to differential virulence. Although it has been ruled out in Australian and Thai B. pseudomallei populations, it remains unclear whether B. pseudomallei sequence types (STs) correlate with disease in Malaysian patients with melioidosis.

    METHODS: In this study, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on clinical B. pseudomallei isolates collected from Kelantan state of Malaysia, patients' clinical data were reviewed and then genotype-risk correlations were investigated.

    RESULTS: Genotyping of 83 B. pseudomallei isolates revealed 32 different STs, of which 13(40%) were novel. The frequencies of the STs among the 83 isolates ranged from 1 to 12 observations, and ST54, ST371 and ST289 were predominant. All non-novel STs reported in this study have also been identified in other Asian countries. Based on the MLST data analysis, the phylogenetic tree showed clustering of the STs with each other, as well as with the STs from Southeast Asia and China. No evidence for associations between any of B. pseudomallei STs and clinical melioidosis presentation was detected. In addition, the bacterial genotype clusters in relation with each clinical outcome were statistically insignificant, and no risk estimate was reported. This study has expanded the data for B. pseudomallei on MLST database map and provided insights into the molecular epidemiology of melioidosis in Peninsular Malaysia.

    CONCLUSION: This study concurs with previous reports concluding that infecting strain type plays no role in determining disease presentation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  9. Zilfalil BA, Hoh BP, Nizam MZ, Liza-Sharmini AT, Teh LK, Ismail R
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2006 Dec;31(6):637-40.
    PMID: 17176369
    Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified so far, within the beta-2 receptor (beta(2) AR) gene. The presence of so many SNPs within the beta(2) AR gene causes a problem, for those studying beta(2) AR pharmacogenetics, in relation to which SNPs to choose. Most of the work has focused on the three common SNPs within the coding block (alleles 16, 27 and 164) and the techniques developed have been for these three functionally important alleles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  10. Zhu X, Chen H, Li S, Wang LC, Wu DR, Wang XM, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2020;11:778.
    PMID: 32457710 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00778
    Melioidosis is a common infectious disease in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. In Hainan, several cases have been reported, but no systematic study has yet been done on the molecular epidemiology profiles of the organism. An investigation of the molecular epidemiology links and population structure of Burkholderia pseudomallei would help to better understand the clonally of the isolates and differences among them. In this study, multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were applied to examine the epidemiological relatedness and population structure of 166 B. pseudomallei isolates obtained during 2002-2014 in Hainan, China. Both the MLVA_4 and MLST approaches had high discriminatory power for this population, with diversity indices of 0.9899 and 0.9457, respectively. However, the MLVA_4 assay showed a higher discriminatory power than the MLST approach, and a variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR3 933) found by the MLVA approach was the most useful in discriminating strains from this province. A total of 166 strains yielded 99 MLVA_4 genotypes, of which 34 genotypes were shared by 101 isolates, for a clustering rate of 60.8% (101/166), which suggested that some cases may have a common source. Additionally, 65 isolates showed distinct genotypes, indicating that more than 39.2% (65/166) of melioidosis cases in Hainan had epidemiologically unrelated or sporadic characteristics. The 166 isolates were resolved into 48 STs, of which five STs (ST55, -70, -46, -50, and -58) were here found to be predominant. Phylogenetic analysis of 116 isolates conducted using the eBURST v3 segregated the 48 STs into eight groups with ST50 as predicted founder, and 21 STs were found to be singletons, which suggest that the strains in the Hainan region represent a high diversity of ST clones, indicating that many B. pseudomallei clone groups are endemic to this region. Moreover, ST50 had 5 SLV, 7 DLV, 6 TLV, and 29 satellite STs and formed a radial expansion pattern, suggesting that the melioidosis epidemic in this study was mainly caused by the clonal expansion of ST 50. Phylogenetic analysis on global scale suggests that China's isolates are closely related to isolates from Southeast Asia, particularly from Thailand and Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  11. Zhou Q, Cheung YB, Jada SR, Lim WT, Kuo WL, Gray JW, et al.
    Cancer Biol. Ther., 2006 Nov;5(11):1445-9.
    PMID: 17102595
    AIM: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis if longer CA dinucleotide repeats are more common in the Asian population and also to gain insights into the interplay between the CA dinucleotide repeats and the frequencies of EGFR gene expression and amplifications as this might have therapeutic implications with regards to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EGFR intron 1 polymorphism was analysed in three distinct healthy Asian subjects, namely, Chinese (N = 96), Malays (N = 98) and Indians (N = 100). Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed to investigate for changes in DNA copy number in relation to the polymorphic CA dinucleotide repeats in breast tumor tissues (N = 22).

    RESULTS: The frequency of short alleles with 14 and 15 CA repeats were most common in the Asian populations and significantly higher than those reported for Caucasians. The frequency of 20 CA repeats was 5%, almost 13-fold lower than previous reports. EGFR amplifications were detected in 23% and 11% of breast tumor tissues harboring short and long CA repeats, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our results show that the frequency of alleles encoding for short CA dinucleotide repeats is common in Asian populations. EGFR expression and amplification levels were also higher in Asian breast tumor tissues with short CA dinucleotide repeats. These findings suggest that the EGFR intron 1 polymorphism may influence response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer patients and further studies are warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  12. Zheng L, Wang S, Romans P, Zhao H, Luna C, Benedict MQ
    BMC Genet, 2003 Oct 24;4:16.
    PMID: 14577840
    Anopheles gambiae females are the world's most successful vectors of human malaria. However, a fraction of these mosquitoes is refractory to Plasmodium development. L3-5, a laboratory selected refractory strain, encapsulates transforming ookinetes/early oocysts of a wide variety of Plasmodium species. Previous studies on these mosquitoes showed that one major (Pen1) and two minor (Pen2, Pen3) autosomal dominant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) control the melanotic encapsulation response against P. cynomolgi B, a simian malaria originating in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  13. Zhao MY, Li D
    Food Environ Virol, 2021 03;13(1):74-83.
    PMID: 33449335 DOI: 10.1007/s12560-020-09452-y
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been frequently detected from pork liver and liver products, which can usually cause self-limiting diseases in healthy adults, yet may result in fatality in immunosuppressed groups. Nevertheless, there is so far no standardized method for HEV detection available from pork liver and/or liver products. The present study aimed to optimize the virus extraction method of HEV from raw pork liver, which is often consumed in Asia undercooked to avoid a grainy texture. By comparing different sample preparation protocols and by applying the selected protocol to 60 samples collected from Singapore retail markets, we demonstrated that homogenization of 0.25 g raw pork liver with FastPrep™ Lysing Matrix Y containing yttria-stabilized zircondium oxide beads in 2 ml tubes and with harsh mechanical force at 6 ms-1, 40 s/cycle, for 5 cycles with 300 s pause time after each cycle is promising in both releasing the potentially intracellular viruses and resulting in satisfactory virus recovery rates (> 1%). A high prevalence (52%) of HEV genome was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from the 60 samples collected from Singapore retail markets imported from Indonesia, Australia and Malaysia. However, RNase treatment decreased the HEV prevalence to 33.3%, and all of the 20 positive samples were with high RT-qPCR Ct values above 35, suggesting that the positive RT-qPCR signals maybe largely due to the inactive viruses and/or exposed HEV RNA traces in raw pork liver products. Therefore, conscious care should be taken when interpreting molecular detection results of viruses from food samples to be correlated with public health risks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  14. Zhao B, Lee EJ, Wong JY, Yeoh PN, Gong NH
    Pharmacogenetics, 1995 Oct;5(5):275-80.
    PMID: 8563767
    Several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, including CYP1A1, NAT2 and GSTM1, are subject to genetic polymorphisms. Because these enzymes are important for the detoxification and/or bioactivation of drugs and carcinogens, these polymorphisms have important implications in therapeutics and cancer susceptibility. The distributions of CYP1A1, NAT2 and GSTM1 genotype frequencies in unrelated individuals of the Indian (n = 139) and Malay (n = 146) populations were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction. The respective allelic frequencies of wild-type and mutant alleles of CYP1A1 were 0.82 and 0.18 for the Indians, and 0.69 and 0.31 for the Malays. The frequencies of wild-type, M1, M2 and M3 of NAT2 among Indians were 0.44, 0.20, 0.32 and 0.04 respectively. The corresponding NAT2 allelic frequencies in Malays were 0.41, 0.12, 0.38 and 0.09. The GSTM1*A allele could not be amplified in 33.1% of Indians and 61.6% of Malays. At least one GSTM1*B allele was detected in 7.2% and 7.5% of the respective populations. The allelic frequencies of CYP1A1, NAT2 and GSTM1 among Malays are similar to previously reported frequencies among Chinese in the region. These findings will be of importance in the determination of cancer risks in these populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  15. Zhang X, Deng T, Lu J, Zhao P, Chen L, Qian M, et al.
    Transbound Emerg Dis, 2020 May;67(3):1349-1355.
    PMID: 31943814 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13477
    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an ongoing emergence enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome, belongs to the Gammacoronavirus genus in the Coronaviridae family. IBV-associated tracheitis, nephritis, salpingitis, proventriculitis and egg drop have caused devastating economic losses to poultry industry worldwide. Since the end of 2018, a remarkably increasing number of commercial broilers and layers, vaccinated or not, were infected with IBV in China. Here, we described two IB outbreaks with severe respiratory system or kidney injury in IBV-vaccinated commercial poultry farms in central China. Other possible causative viral pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Kedah fatal kidney syndrome virus (KFKSV), were excluded by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and three virulent IBV strains, HeN-1/China/2019, HeN-2/China/2019 and HeN-101/China/2019, were identified. Although the gross pathologic appearance of these two IB outbreaks was different, the newly identified IBV strains were all closely related to the ck/China/I0529/17 strain and grouped into GI-19 genotype clade based on the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the complete S1 genes. Moreover, there are still some evolutionary distance between the newly identified IBV strains, HeN-101/China/2019 in particular, and other GI-19 strains, suggesting that Chinese IBV strains constantly emerge and evolve towards different directions. In conclusion, this study provided an insight of the recently emerging IBV outbreaks in IBV-vaccinated commercial poultry farms and identified the genetic characteristics of three virulent GI-19 IBV strains, which shows the need to carry out proper preventive measures and control strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  16. Zhang M, Wang Z, Obazee O, Jia J, Childs EJ, Hoskins J, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2016 Oct 11;7(41):66328-66343.
    PMID: 27579533 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.11041
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common pancreatic cancer susceptibility variants at 13 chromosomal loci in individuals of European descent. To identify new susceptibility variants, we performed imputation based on 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project data and association analysis using 5,107 case and 8,845 control subjects from 27 cohort and case-control studies that participated in the PanScan I-III GWAS. This analysis, in combination with a two-staged replication in an additional 6,076 case and 7,555 control subjects from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control (PanC4) Consortia uncovered 3 new pancreatic cancer risk signals marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2816938 at chromosome 1q32.1 (per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 4.88x10 -15), rs10094872 at 8q24.21 (OR = 1.15, P = 3.22x10 -9) and rs35226131 at 5p15.33 (OR = 0.71, P = 1.70x10 -8). These SNPs represent independent risk variants at previously identified pancreatic cancer risk loci on chr1q32.1 ( NR5A2), chr8q24.21 ( MYC) and chr5p15.33 ( CLPTM1L- TERT) as per analyses conditioned on previously reported susceptibility variants. We assessed expression of candidate genes at the three risk loci in histologically normal ( n = 10) and tumor ( n = 8) derived pancreatic tissue samples and observed a marked reduction of NR5A2 expression (chr1q32.1) in the tumors (fold change -7.6, P = 5.7x10 -8). This finding was validated in a second set of paired ( n = 20) histologically normal and tumor derived pancreatic tissue samples (average fold change for three NR5A2 isoforms -31.3 to -95.7, P = 7.5x10 -4-2.0x10 -3). Our study has identified new susceptibility variants independently conferring pancreatic cancer risk that merit functional follow-up to identify target genes and explain the underlying biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  17. Zhang L, Cenci A, Rouard M, Zhang D, Wang Y, Tang W, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 06 03;9(1):8199.
    PMID: 31160634 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-44637-x
    Fusarium wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, especially by tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), is threatening the global banana industry. Musa acuminata Pahang, a wild diploid banana that displays strong resistance to Foc TR4, holds great potential to understand the underlying resistance mechanisms. Microscopic examination reports that, in a wounding inoculation system, the Foc TR4 infection processes in roots of Pahang (resistant) and a triploid cultivar Brazilian (susceptible) were similar by 7 days post inoculation (dpi), but significant differences were observed in corms of both genotypes at 14 dpi. We compare transcriptomic responses in the corms of Pahang and Brazilian, and show that Pahang exhibited constitutive defense responses before Foc TR4 infection and inducible defense responses prior to Brazilian at the initial Foc TR4 infection stage. Most key enzymatic genes in the phenylalanine metabolism pathway were up-regulated in Brazilian, suggesting that lignin and phytotoxin may be triggered during later stages of Foc TR4 infection. This study unravels a few potential resistance candidate genes whose expression patterns were assessed by RT-qPCR assay and improves our understanding the defense mechanisms of Pahang response to Foc TR4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  18. Zhang C, Park JS, Grce M, Hibbitts S, Palefsky JM, Konno R, et al.
    J Infect Dis, 2014 Nov 15;210(10):1600-4.
    PMID: 24879800 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu310
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype 52 is commonly found in Asian cases of cervical cancer but is rare elsewhere. Analysis of 611 isolates collected worldwide revealed a remarkable geographical distribution, with lineage B predominating in Asia (89.0% vs 0%-5.5%; P(corrected) < .001), whereas lineage A predominated in Africa, the Americas, and Europe. We propose that the name "Asian lineage" be used to denote lineage B, to signify this feature. Preliminary analysis suggested a higher disease risk for lineage B, although ethnogeographical confounders could not be excluded. Further studies are warranted to verify whether the reported high attribution of disease to HPV52 in Asia is due to the high prevalence of lineage B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  19. Zeti Norfidiyati Salmuna, Murnihayati Hassan, Habsah Hasan, Zakuan Zainy Deris
    Carpanenamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has emerged as a threat to hospitalized patients. Phenotypic test such as Modified hodge test was less sensitive and specific especially to detect blaNDM-1 which is the most predominant genotype in this region. Nucleic acid amplification technology offers improved specificity and sensitivity. Failed amplification due to the presence of inhibitors is a limitation. In this study, we tried to use previous method described by Villumseen et al with some modification using another DNA extraction kit. Methods: Ten mls of sterile whole blood taken from nearly expired blood bag from blood bank was spiked with 200 μl of 0.5mcFarland bacterial suspension from thirty-six confirmed isolates of blaNDM-1 carbapenamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in an aerobic Bactec Plus and incubated until the growth was detected. The blood specimen was subjected to DNA extraction method using Macherey-Nachel, Nucleospin® Blood QuickPure followed with multiplex PCR. Results: Out of the 36 isolates, 12 isolates revealed blaNDM-1 , 9 isolates revealed blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-48, 7 isolates revealed blaNDM-1, blaVIM and blaKPC genotypes that were amplified at cycle threshold of less than 30. Another 8 isolates could not pick up any genotypes possibly due to pipetting error as all the internal control were amplified. Eight true negative gram negative isolates underwent same procedure and none amplified at a cycle threshold less than 30. Conclusion: This modified method was proved to give a high yield of CPE genotypes with the cycle threshold was set at less than or equal to 30 and able to overcome the presence of PCR inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  20. Zeng C, Guo X, Long J, Kuchenbaecker KB, Droit A, Michailidou K, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res, 2016 06 21;18(1):64.
    PMID: 27459855 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-016-0718-0
    BACKGROUND: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk.

    METHOD: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/ ), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation.

    RESULTS: Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.12; P = 3 × 10(-9)), rs805510 (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.12, P = 2 × 10(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06; P = 2 × 10(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P = 7 × 10(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
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