Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1094 in total

  1. Zahler M, Rinder H, Zweygarth E, Fukata T, Maede Y, Schein E, et al.
    Parasitology, 2000 Apr;120 ( Pt 4):365-9.
    PMID: 10811277
    18S rDNA sequences from 4 isolates of Babesia gibsoni originating from Japan, Malaysia and Sri Lanka were compared with a previously published, 0.5 kb portion of the 18S rDNA from a B. gibsoni isolate from California, USA, and with the corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of other Babesia spp. Distance, parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses showed almost identical genotypes among the small canine Babesia from Asia, but an unexpectedly distant genetic relationship to that from the USA. While the American isolate segregated together with B. equi, the Asian isolates showed a close relationship to B. divergens and B. odocoilei. These results indicate that small Babesia of dogs originating from North America and Asia belong to different, genetically distantly related species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  2. Ng ZX, Kuppusamy UR, Tajunisah I, Fong KC, Koay AC, Chua KH
    Br J Ophthalmol, 2012 Feb;96(2):289-92.
    PMID: 22116960 DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300658
    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 2245G/A gene polymorphism of the RAGE gene and retinopathy in Malaysian type 2 diabetic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  3. Illyaaseen Z, Ngeow YF, Yap SF, Ng HF
    Malays J Pathol, 2021 Apr;43(1):55-61.
    PMID: 33903306
    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing fatal systemic infections in humans. Presently in Malaysia, there is little information available on the genetic diversity of this organism and trends in behavioural characteristics. In this project, three genotyping methods: 25S rDNA genotyping, Alternative Lengthening of Telomerase (ALT) sequence typing and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) were applied to study the genetic diversity of strains from infected hospital in-patients and asymptomatic individuals in the community. The results showed that, with the 25S rDNA genotyping, as in other parts of the world, the most common genotype was type A which accounted for approximately 70% of the 111 isolates tested. Further typing with the ALT sequence showed type 3 to be the most common in the isolates tested. MLST analysis revealed many possibly novel sequence types, as well as a statistically significant association between pathogenicity and a group of closely related isolates, most of which were from hospital samples. Further work on genotypes associated with enhanced virulence will help to clarify the value of genotyping for clinical and epidemiological investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  4. Amini F, Ismail E
    J Hum Genet, 2013 Apr;58(4):189-94.
    PMID: 23389243 DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2012.155
    The combination of two silent mutations, c.1311C>T in exon 11 and IVS11 T93C (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) 1311T/93C), with unknown mechanism, have been reported in G6PD-deficient individuals in Asian populations including Malaysian aboriginal group, Negrito. Here, we report the screening of G6PD gene in 103 Negrito volunteers using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and direct sequencing. A total of 48 individuals (46.6%) were G6PD deficient, 83.3% of these carried G6PD 1311T/93C with enzyme activity ranging from 1.8 to 4.8 U gHb(-1). Three novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs112950723, rs111485003 and rs1050757, were found in the G6PD 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Strong association was observed between haplotype 1311T/93C and rs1050757G, which is located inside the 35 bp AG-rich region. In silico analysis revealed that the transition of A to G at position rs1050757 makes significant changes in the G6PD mRNA secondary structure. Moreover, putative micro (mi)RNA target sites were identified in 3'-UTR of G6PD gene, two of these in the region encompassing rs1050757. It could be speculated that rs1050757 have a potential functional effect on the downregulation of mRNA and consequently G6PD deficiency either by affecting mRNA stability and translation or mirRNA regulation process. This is the first report of biochemical association of an SNP in 3'-UTR of G6PD gene and the possible role of mRNA secondary structure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  5. Chan JY, Li H, Singh O, Mahajan A, Ramasamy S, Subramaniyan K, et al.
    Urol Oncol, 2013 Nov;31(8):1553-60.
    PMID: 22561070 DOI: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2012.02.009
    OBJECTIVES: Recently, several genome-wide association studies have demonstrated a cumulative association of 5 polymorphic variants in chromosomes 8q24 and 17q with prostate cancer (CaP) risk in Caucasians, particularly those harboring aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of these variants on CaP susceptibility in Singaporean Asian men.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a case-control study in 289 Chinese CaP patients and 412 healthy subjects (144 Chinese, 134 Malays, and 134 Indians), and examined the association of the 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with CaP.
    RESULTS: In the healthy subjects, rs16901979 A-allele frequency was highest amongst Chinese (0.32) compared with Malays (0.13; P < 0.0001) or Indians (0.09; P < 0.0001); rs6983267 G-allele was highest in Indians (0.51) compared with Chinese (0.42; P = 0.041) or Malays (0.43; P = 0.077); whereas rs1859962 G-allele frequency was highest amongst Indians (0.56) compared with Chinese (0.40; P = 0.0002) or Malays (0.38; P < 0.0001). Individuals with the rs4430796 TT genotype were at increased CaP risk in the Chinese via a recessive model (odds ratios (OR) = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.04-2.33). Significant associations were observed for rs4430796 TT with Gleason scores of ≥ 7 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.14-2.73) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 10 ng/ml at diagnosis (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.01-2.63), as well as for rs6983267 GG with stage 3-4 CaPs (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.01-3.61). A cumulative gene interaction influence on disease risk, which approximately doubled for individuals with at least 2 susceptibility genotypes, was also identified (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.10-4.32).
    CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory analysis suggests that the 5 genetic variants previously described may contribute to prostate cancer risk in Singaporean men.
    KEYWORDS: Cancer; Ethnicity; Gleason; Pharmacogenetics; Polymorphism; Prostate
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  6. Rosdi R.A., Yusoff S., Mohd Yusoff N., Ismail R., Tan, C.S., Musa N.
    It has been recognized extensively that studies of pharmacogenetics provide massive examples of causal relationship between genotypes and drug effectiveness to account for interindividual phenotypic variations in drug therapy. In most cases, cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms are one of the major variables that affecting those drug plasma concentration, drug detoxification and drug activation in humans. Thus, understanding of CYP polymorphisms can be crucially valuable in order to allow early and more accurate drug dosage prediction and improve the drug response accordingly. Despite the high level of homologous amino acid sequences, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are among the most important CYP genes which metabolize a wide range of clinically therapeutic drugs. Several critical reviews have been published relating to the aforementioned genes. However, this minireview aims to systematically merge reported studies on the SNPs frequencies of both genes concentrating only on Malaysian population. It is hoped that, the minireview can be an opener for new opportunities to reevaluate the evidence on the prevalence of CYP2C genes as a potential genetic factor influencing a particular drug efficacy and safety among Malaysian. Such evaluation can be developed to the next level of early prediction of better and specific drug treatment, thereby improving the drug response while helping the government in minimising the drug expenditures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  7. Islam MJ, Saha SK, Das AK, Jahan MS, Pervin S, Karim CF, et al.
    Mymensingh Med J, 2019 Oct;28(4):935-939.
    PMID: 31599264
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important reason of liver-related death globally. HCC is the fifth most common cancer, the third most common cause for cancer related death in the world and responsible for approximately one million deaths each year. The incidence of HCC is expected to increase in the next two decades, largely due to hepatitis C infection and secondary cirrhosis. We have reported a case of hepatocellular carcinoma in a 56-year-old man with peritoneal metastasis. Diagnostic imaging (Ultra sonogram & CT-Scan) shown: a large hypo density, irregular outline lesion noted in right lower liver, post contrast image shown patchy enhancement of the lesion. His serum Alpha-Feto Protein (AFP) level was very high with elevated serum alanine amino transaminase (ALT) enzyme and prothrombin time. Histopathological (microscopic) features are compatible with Hepatocellular carcinoma. His Hepatitis C viral DNA load e.g., core protein variants and genotype 1, have been reported. The patient was treated by surgical resection followed by conservative treatment includes sorafenib & interferon alpha. This case report aims to outlines the epidemiology of HCC in chronic HCV, risk factors and pathophysiology that contribute to this disease process, related pathophysiology of patient's clinical features, screening recommendations, and the available statistics on the impact of new direct-acting antiviral treatment on the development on HCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  8. Low JS, Chin YM, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Govindasamy GK, Pua KC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0145774.
    PMID: 26730743 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145774
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a neoplasm of the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx. Despite various reports linking genomic variants to NPC predisposition, very few reports were done on copy number variations (CNV). CNV is an inherent structural variation that has been found to be involved in cancer predisposition.

    METHODS: A discovery cohort of Malaysian Chinese descent (NPC patients, n = 140; Healthy controls, n = 256) were genotyped using Illumina® HumanOmniExpress BeadChip. PennCNV and cnvPartition calling algorithms were applied for CNV calling. Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR were used to validate CNV calls and replicate candidate copy number variant region (CNVR) associations in a follow-up Malaysian Chinese (NPC cases, n = 465; and Healthy controls, n = 677) and Malay cohort (NPC cases, n = 114; Healthy controls, n = 124).

    RESULTS: Six putative CNVRs overlapping GRM5, MICA/HCP5/HCG26, LILRB3/LILRA6, DPY19L2, RNase3/RNase2 and GOLPH3 genes were jointly identified by PennCNV and cnvPartition. CNVs overlapping GRM5 and MICA/HCP5/HCG26 were subjected to further validation by Taqman CNV assays and digital PCR. Combined analysis in Malaysian Chinese cohort revealed a strong association at CNVR on chromosome 11q14.3 (Pcombined = 1.54x10-5; odds ratio (OR) = 7.27; 95% CI = 2.96-17.88) overlapping GRM5 and a suggestive association at CNVR on chromosome 6p21.3 (Pcombined = 1.29x10-3; OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.75-10.11) overlapping MICA/HCP5/HCG26 genes.

    CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the association of CNVs towards NPC susceptibility, implicating a possible role of CNVs in NPC development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  9. Wong M, Woolford L, Hasan NH, Hemmatzadeh F
    Viral Immunol, 2017 05;30(4):258-263.
    PMID: 28426340 DOI: 10.1089/vim.2016.0041
    In this study, canine adenoviruses (CAdVs) from two acute fatal cases of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) were analyzed using molecular detection and sequencing of the pVIII, E3, and fiber protein genes. Pathological findings in affected dogs were typical for CAdV-1 associated disease, characterized by severe centrilobular to panlobular necrohemorrhagic hepatitis and the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation in the terminal stages of disease. Comparison of partial genome sequences revealed that although these newly detected viruses mainly had CAdV-1 genome characteristics, their pVIII gene was more similar to that of CAdV-2. This likely suggests that a recombination has occurred between CAdV-1 and CAdV-2, which possibly explains the cause of vaccine failure or increased virulence of the virus in the observed ICH cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype*
  10. Lu Y, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Wu L, Guo X, Li B, Schildkraut JM, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2018 09 15;78(18):5419-5430.
    PMID: 30054336 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-0951
    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  11. Khan F, Chai HH, Ajmera I, Hodgman C, Mayes S, Lu C
    Genes (Basel), 2017 Apr 18;8(4).
    PMID: 28420201 DOI: 10.3390/genes8040121
    The ability to grow crops under low-water conditions is a significant advantage in relation to global food security. Bambara groundnut is an underutilised crop grown by subsistence farmers in Africa and is known to survive in regions of water deficit. This study focuses on the analysis of the transcriptomic changes in two bambara groundnut landraces in response to dehydration stress. A cross-species hybridisation approach based on the Soybean Affymetrix GeneChip array has been employed. The differential gene expression analysis of a water-limited treatment, however, showed that the two landraces responded with almost completely different sets of genes. Hence, both landraces with very similar genotypes (as assessed by the hybridisation of genomic DNA onto the Soybean Affymetrix GeneChip) showed contrasting transcriptional behaviour in response to dehydration stress. In addition, both genotypes showed a high expression of dehydration-associated genes, even under water-sufficient conditions. Several gene regulators were identified as potentially important. Some are already known, such as WRKY40, but others may also be considered, namely PRR7, ATAUX2-11, CONSTANS-like 1, MYB60, AGL-83, and a Zinc-finger protein. These data provide a basis for drought trait research in the bambara groundnut, which will facilitate functional genomics studies. An analysis of this dataset has identified that both genotypes appear to be in a dehydration-ready state, even in the absence of dehydration stress, and may have adapted in different ways to achieve drought resistance. This will help in understanding the mechanisms underlying the ability of crops to produce viable yields under drought conditions. In addition, cross-species hybridisation to the soybean microarray has been shown to be informative for investigating the bambara groundnut transcriptome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  12. Hazwani Ahmad Yusof, Abdul Rashid Aziz, Nor Farah Mohamad Fauzi, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed
    Exercise has been suggested as the best and the most affordable way for managing blood pressure. The insertion/ deletion of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism had been reported to be linked with sev- eral diseases such as hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Several studies showed that blood pressure response to exercise training for health management also vary among individuals with different genotypes of ACE I/D gene poly- morphism. A study of 9 months of endurance exercise training at 75 to 85 % of VO2max showed that the decrease of resting blood pressure in I allele carriers wass greater than D allele carriers. In contrast, other study discovered that adult women with D allele had greater reduction in resting blood pressure than those with I allele, following a 12-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise training. Despite the inconsistencies of some findings, it has remained unknown if the ACE I/D gene polymorphism would also influence blood pressure response to isometric handgrip training that had been found to be superior to the dynamic resistance exercise training in controlling and preventing high blood pressure. Thus, this article was to review the literature on ACE I/D gene polymorphism and blood pressure response to exercise training that could serve as the basis for future research to identify individuals who will lower resting blood pressure the most with exercise training program for health management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  13. Siti Yazmin Zahari Sham, Nor Aini Umar, Khalidah Mazlan
    With advancement in genetic studies, familial phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL)
    are increasingly being recognized. Characteristically, correlations exist between genotypes and clinical
    and biochemical phenotypes. We report a phaeochromocytoma in a young patient with intriguing family
    histories, raising the possibility of his being a familial case.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  14. Li Z, Allingham RR, Nakano M, Jia L, Chen Y, Ikeda Y, et al.
    Hum Mol Genet, 2015 Jul 01;24(13):3880-92.
    PMID: 25861811 DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddv128
    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10(-33)), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7-TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10(-8)). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  15. Haridan US, Mokhtar U, Machado LR, Abdul Aziz AT, Shueb RH, Zaid M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(1):e0116791.
    PMID: 25594501 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116791
    The FCGR3 locus encoding the low affinity activating receptor FcγRIII, plays a vital role in immunity triggered by cellular effector and regulatory functions. Copy number of the genes FCGR3A and FCGR3B has previously been reported to affect susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, such genetic association studies often yield inconsistent results; hence require assays that are robust with low error rate. We investigated the accuracy and efficiency in estimating FCGR3 CNV by comparing Sequenom MassARRAY and paralogue ratio test-restriction enzyme digest variant ratio (PRT-REDVR). In addition, since many genetic association studies of FCGR3B CNV were carried out using real-time quantitative PCR, we have also included the evaluation of that method's performance in estimating the multi-allelic CNV of FCGR3B. The qPCR assay exhibited a considerably broader distribution of signal intensity, potentially introducing error in estimation of copy number and higher false positive rates. Both Sequenom and PRT-REDVR showed lesser systematic bias, but Sequenom skewed towards copy number normal (CN = 2). The discrepancy between Sequenom and PRT-REDVR might be attributed either to batch effects noise in individual measurements. Our study suggests that PRT-REDVR is more robust and accurate in genotyping the CNV of FCGR3, but highlights the needs of multiple independent assays for extensive validation when performing a genetic association study with multi-allelic CNVs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  16. Hassan MR, Mustapha NR, Zawawi FM, Earnest BS, Voralu K, Pani SP
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Feb;52(2):86-9.
    PMID: 21373733
    This study was conducted to compare the genotype and markers of disease severity of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), namely viral load, alanine transaminase (ALT) levels and histopathological findings on liver biopsy, in patients with and without end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  17. Perera D, Shimizu H, Yoshida H, Tu PV, Ishiko H, McMinn PC, et al.
    J Med Virol, 2010 Apr;82(4):649-57.
    PMID: 20166171 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21652
    The VP4, VP2, and VP1 gene regions were evaluated for their usefulness in typing human enteroviruses. Three published RT-PCR primers sets targeting separately these three gene regions were used. Initially, from a total of 86 field isolates (36 HEV-A, 40 HEV-B, and 10 HEV-C) tested, 100% concordance in HEV-A was identified from all three gene regions (VP4, VP2, and VP1). However, for HEV-B and HEV-C viruses, only the VP2 and VP1 regions, and not VP4, showed 100% concordance in typing these viruses. To evaluate further the usefulness of VP4 in typing HEV-A enteroviruses, 55 Japanese and 203 published paired VP4 and VP1 nucleotide sequences were also examined. In each case, typing by VP4 was 100% in concordance with typing using VP1. Given these results, it is proposed that for HEV-A enteroviruses, all three gene regions (VP4, VP2, and VP1), would be useful for typing these viruses. These options would enhance the capability of laboratories in identifying these viruses and would greatly help in outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  18. Panagiotou OA, Travis RC, Campa D, Berndt SI, Lindstrom S, Kraft P, et al.
    Eur Urol, 2015 Apr;67(4):649-57.
    PMID: 25277271 DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.09.020
    BACKGROUND: No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific for aggressive prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

    OBJECTIVE: To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p≤10(-7)) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24,534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p=1.6×10(-6)), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95% CI 1.16-1.27; p=3.22×10(-18)). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.94; p=2.5×10(-6)). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19; p=4.67×10(-5)); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL.

    CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify new SNPs for aggressive prostate cancer. However, rs16844874 may provide preliminary genetic evidence on the role of the glycine pathway in prostate cancer etiology.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated whether genetic variants associated with several traits are linked to the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. No new such variants were identified.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  19. Chew CS, Cherry CL, Kamarulzaman A, Yien TH, Aghafar Z, Price P
    Dis Markers, 2011;31(5):303-9.
    PMID: 22048272 DOI: 10.3233/DMA-2011-0844
    Chemokines influence the migration of leukocytes to secondary lymphoid tissue and sites of inflammation. In HIV patients, they are implicated in inflammatory complications of antiretroviral therapy (ART), notably Immune Reconstitution Disease (IRD) and Sensory Neuropathy (SN). However most chemokines have not been monitored as patients begin ART or correlated with IRD and SN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
  20. Diez Benavente E, Campos M, Phelan J, Nolder D, Dombrowski JG, Marinho CRF, et al.
    PLoS Genet, 2020 02;16(2):e1008576.
    PMID: 32053607 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008576
    Although Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, they not always prioritised by elimination programmes. P. vivax is resilient and poses challenges through its ability to re-emerge from dormancy in the human liver. With observed growing drug-resistance and the increasing reports of life-threatening infections, new tools to inform elimination efforts are needed. In order to halt transmission, we need to better understand the dynamics of transmission, the movement of parasites, and the reservoirs of infection in order to design targeted interventions. The use of molecular genetics and epidemiology for tracking and studying malaria parasite populations has been applied successfully in P. falciparum species and here we sought to develop a molecular genetic tool for P. vivax. By assembling the largest set of P. vivax whole genome sequences (n = 433) spanning 17 countries, and applying a machine learning approach, we created a 71 SNP barcode with high predictive ability to identify geographic origin (91.4%). Further, due to the inclusion of markers for within population variability, the barcode may also distinguish local transmission networks. By using P. vivax data from a low-transmission setting in Malaysia, we demonstrate the potential ability to infer outbreak events. By characterising the barcoding SNP genotypes in P. vivax DNA sourced from UK travellers (n = 132) to ten malaria endemic countries predominantly not used in the barcode construction, we correctly predicted the geographic region of infection origin. Overall, the 71 SNP barcode outperforms previously published genotyping methods and when rolled-out within new portable platforms, is likely to be an invaluable tool for informing targeted interventions towards elimination of this resilient human malaria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genotype
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