METHODS: Blood and pancreas were collected from adult male diabetic rats receiving 28days treatment with VVSAE orally. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and lipid profile levels and activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx) in the pancreas were determined by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscopy and levels of insulin, glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. Radical scavenging activity of VVSAE was evaluated by in-vitro anti-oxidant assay while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major compounds in the extract.
RESULTS: GC-MS analyses indicated the presence of compounds that might exert anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. Near normal FBG, HbAIc, lipid profile and serum insulin levels with lesser signs of pancreatic destruction were observed following administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats. Higher insulin, GLUT-2, SOD, CAT and GPx levels but lower TNF-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were also observed in the pancreas of VVSAE-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). The extract possesses high in-vitro radical scavenging activities.
CONCLUSION: In conclusions, administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats could help to protect the pancreas against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-induced damage while preserving pancreatic function near normal in diabetes.
METHODS: Two parameters were measured (i) rate of glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells in-vitro (ii) degree of pancreatic destruction in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced male diabetic rats receiving M. pumilum aqueous extract (M.P) (250 and 500mg/kg/day) as reflected by levels of pancreatic oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. In the meantime, phyto-chemical compounds in M.P were also identified by using LC-MS.
RESULTS: M.P was found able to enhance glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells in-vitro while its administration to the male diabetic rats causes decreased in the fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels but causes increased in insulin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, to near normal. Levels of oxidative stress in the pancreas as reflected by levels of lipid peroxidation product (LPO) decreased while levels of anti-oxidantive enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) in pancreas increased. Additionally, levels of inflammation as reflected by NF-κB p65, Ikkβ and TNF-α levels decreased while apoptosis levels as reflected by caspase-9 and Bax levels decreased. Anti-apoptosis marker, Bcl-2 levels in pancreas increased.
CONCLUSIONS: The ability of M.P to enhance glucose uptake and reduces pancreatic complications could account for its beneficial effects in treating DM.
RESULTS: In this study, we isolated gut K and L-cells to compare the potential of both cell types to produce insulin when exposed to similar conditions. The isolated pure K and L-cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids encoding insulin and with specific promoters for K or L-cells. Insulin expression was studied in response to glucose or meat hydrolysate. We found that glucose and meat hydrolysate efficiently induced insulin secretion from K and L-cells. However, the effects of meat hydrolysate on insulin secretion were more potent in both cells compared with glucose. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that L-cells secreted more insulin compared with K-cells regardless of the stimulator, although this difference was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: The responses of K and L-cells to stimulation with glucose or meat hydrolysate were generally comparable. Therefore, both K and L-cells show similar potential to be used as surrogate cells for insulin gene expression in vitro. The potential use of these cells for diabetic gene therapy warrants further investigation.