Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 306 in total

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  1. Hani H, Allaudin ZN, Mohd-Lila MA, Ibrahim TA, Othman AM
    Xenotransplantation, 2014 Mar-Apr;21(2):174-82.
    PMID: 24645790 DOI: 10.1111/xen.12087
    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a devastating disease for which there is currently no cure, but only lifetime management. Islet xenotransplantation is a promising technique for the restoration of blood glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of caprine (goat) islet cells as xenogeneic grafts in the treatment for diabetes in a mouse model.
    METHODS: Caprine pancreases were harvested and transported to the laboratory under conditions optimized to prevent ischemia. Islets were isolated, purified, and tested for functionality. Caprine islets (2000 islet equivalent) were transplanted beneath the kidney capsules of diabetic BALB/c mice under thalidomide-induced immunosuppression. Blood glucose and insulin levels of grafted mice were evaluated by glucometer and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. The functionality and quality of caprine pancreatic islet grafts were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests.
    RESULTS: The viability of purified islet cells exceeded 90%. Recipient mice exhibited normoglycemia (<11 mM glucose) for 30 days. In addition, weight gain negatively correlated with blood glucose level. The findings verified diabetes reversal in caprine islet recipient mice. A significant drop in non-fasting blood glucose level (from 23.3 ± 5.4 to 8.04 ± 0.44 mM) and simultaneous increase in serum insulin level (from 0.01 ± 0.001 to 0.56 ± 0.17 μg/l) and body weights (from 23.64 ± 0.31 to 25.85 ± 0.34 g) were observed (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis verified insulin production in the transplanted islets.
    CONCLUSIONS: Purified caprine islets were demonstrated to successfully sustain viability and functionality for controlling blood glucose levels in an immunosuppressed mouse model of diabetes. These results suggest the use of caprine islets as an addition to the supply of xenogeneic islets for diabetes research.
    KEYWORDS: caprine islets; streptozotocin‐injected mice; type 1 diabetes; xenotransplantation
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
  2. Hani H, Ibrahim TA, Othman AM, Lila MA, bt Allaudin ZN
    Xenotransplantation, 2010 12 17;17(6):469-80.
    PMID: 21158948 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3089.2010.00616.x
    BACKGROUND: Insufficient availability of human donors makes the search for alternative source of islet cells mandatory for future developments in pancreatic transplantation. The present study investigates the potential of caprine as an alternative source of pancreatic islets. The objectives of the study were to optimize techniques for caprine islet isolation and purification for culture establishment, and to subsequently assess their viable and functional potential.

    METHODS: Caprine pancreatic tissues were collected from a local slaughterhouse and prior transported to the laboratory by maintaining the cold chain. Islets were obtained by a collagenase-based digestion and optimized isolation technique. Islet cell purity and viability were determined by dithizone and trypan blue staining, respectively. Islet clusters of different sizes were positively identified by staining methods and demonstrated 90% viability in the culture system. Following static incubation, an in vitro insulin secretion assay was carried out and analyzed by ELISA.

    RESULTS: The islets remained satisfactorily viable for 5 days in the culture system following regular media changes. The current study has successfully optimized the isolation, purification and culture maintenance of caprine islets.

    CONCLUSION: The successful yield, viability and functionality of islets isolated from the optimized protocol provide promising potential as an alternative source of islets for diabetes and transplantation researches.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  3. Pok EH, Lee WJ
    World J Gastroenterol, 2014 Oct 21;20(39):14315-28.
    PMID: 25339819 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14315
    Medical therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus is ineffective in the long term due to the progressive nature of the disease, which requires increasing medication doses and polypharmacy. Conversely, bariatric surgery has emerged as a cost-effective strategy for obese diabetic individuals; it has low complication rates and results in durable weight loss, glycemic control and improvements in the quality of life, obesity-related co-morbidity and overall survival. The finding that glucose homeostasis can be achieved with a weight loss-independent mechanism immediately after bariatric surgery, especially gastric bypass, has led to the paradigm of metabolic surgery. However, the primary focus of metabolic surgery is the alteration of the physio-anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract to achieve glycemic control, metabolic control and cardio-metabolic risk reduction. To date, metabolic surgery is still not well defined, as it is used most frequently for less obese patients with poorly controlled diabetes. The mechanism of glycemic control is still incompletely understood. Published research findings on metabolic surgery are promising, but many aspects still need to be defined. This paper examines the proposed mechanism of diabetes remission, the efficacy of different types of metabolic procedures, the durability of glucose control, and the risks and complications associated with this procedure. We propose a tailored approach for the selection of the ideal metabolic procedure for different groups of patients, considering the indications and prognostic factors for diabetes remission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
  4. Jan Mohamed HJ, Mitra AK, Zainuddin LR, Leng SK, Wan Muda WM
    Women Health, 2013;53(4):335-48.
    PMID: 23751089 DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2013.788120
    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  5. Abu Bakar N
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Sep;32(3):485-93.
    PMID: 26695209 MyJurnal
    Studies show that the pH of the malaria parasite's digestive vacuole (DV) plays a key role in the physiological functions of this organelle and antimalarial drug accumulation, and yet is technically difficult to measure. In this study, a flow cytometry-based technique was developed to measure the DV pH using a ratiometric pH indicator, FITC-dextran loaded into the DV of saponin-permeabilized parasites. To calculate the DV pH, a standard pH calibration curve was generated by incubating the saponin-permeabilized cells in buffers with different pH in the presence of an ionophore, CCCP. The measured average pH of the DV was 5.27 ± 0.03 that is approximately the same in the parasites observed microscopically by Hayward et al. (2006) (5.50 ± 0.14) using the same probe. The removal of glucose from the medium, causing a rapid depletion of parasite ATP, resulted in an alkalization of the DV. The DV was reacidified upon restoration of glucose to the medium. This technique provides a rapid, simple and quantitative measurement of the DV pH on a large number of cells. It will also be useful in future attempts to evaluate the effect of antimalarial drugs (i.e. chloroquine and artemisinin-based drugs) in pH changes of the DV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  6. Jones JJ, Watkins PJ, Owyong LY, Loh PP, Kutty MK, Jogie B
    Trop Geogr Med, 1978 Dec;30(4):439-49.
    PMID: 749278
    One hundred and thirty-two newly diagnosed Asian diabetic patients (39 Malay, 30 Chinese and 63 Indians) have been studied in Kuala Lumpur. The highest proportion of diabetic patients were Indian and the lowest were Chinese. Vascular complications were equally common in Asian diabetic patients as in Europeans; coronary heart disease was relatively more common in Indians and cerebral vascular disease in Chinese. Twenty percent of all Asian diabetic patients requiring admission to hospital also had coronary heart disease, 9% had cerebral vascular disease and 8% had gangrene or ulceration of the feet. In Kuala Lumpur, diabetes is a very important risk factor for coronary heart disease: 17% of all patients admitted to the General Hospital with coronary heart disease were already diabetic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  7. Ting CY, Ahmad Zaidi Adruce S, Hassali MA, Ting H, Lim CJ, Ting RS, et al.
    Trials, 2018 Jun 05;19(1):310.
    PMID: 29871651 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-018-2649-9
    BACKGROUND: Amidst the high disease burden, non-adherence to medications among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported to be common and devastating. Sarawak Pharmaceutical Services Division has formulated a pharmacist-led, multiple-theoretical-grounding, culturally sensitive and structured group-based program, namely "Know Your Medicine - Take if for Health" (MEDIHEALTH), to improve medication adherence among Malay patients with T2DM. However, to date, little is known about the effectiveness and sustainability of the Program.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, parallel-design, two-treatment-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of MEDIHEALTH in improving medication adherence. Malay patients who have underlying T2DM, who obtain medication therapy at Petra Jaya Health Clinic and Kota Samarahan Health Clinic, and who have a moderate to low adherence level (8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Malaysian specific, score <6) were randomly assigned to the treatment group (MEDIHEALTH) or the control group. The primary outcome of this study is medication adherence level at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The secondary outcomes are attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, intention and knowledge related to medication adherence measured at baseline and 1, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The effectiveness and sustainability of the Program will be triangulated by findings from semi-structured interviews with five selected participants conducted 1 month after the intervention and in-depth interviews with two main facilitators and two managerial officers in charge of the Program 12 months after the intervention. Statistical analyses of quantitative data were conducted using SPSS version 22 and Stata version 14. Thematic analysis for qualitative data were conducted with the assistance of ATLAS.ti 8.

    DISCUSSION: This study provides evidence on the effectiveness and sustainability of a structured group-based educational program that employs multiple theoretical grounding and a culturally sensitive approach in promoting medication adherence among Malays with underlying T2DM. Both the quantitative and qualitative findings of this study could assist in the future development of the Program.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Medical Research Register, NMRR-17-925-35875 (IIR). Registered on 19 May 2017. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03228706 . Registered on 25 July 2017.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  8. Singh B, Choo KE, Ibrahim J, Johnston W, Davis TM
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1998 12 23;92(5):532-7.
    PMID: 9861371
    To determine whether glucose turnover is increased in acute falciparum malaria compared to enteric fever in children, steady-state 6,6-D2-glucose turnover was measured in 9 Malaysian children with uncomplicated malaria (6 males and 3 females; median age 10 years, body weight 22 kg) and in 12 with uncomplicated enteric fever (8 males and 4 females; median age 10 years, body weight 24 kg) in acute illness, after quinine (5 malaria patients) and in convalescence. Baseline plasma glucose concentrations in malaria and enteric fever were similar (all values are medians [ranges in brackets]) 5.6 [3.2-11.3] vs. 5.5 [4.2-8.0] mmol/L), as were serum insulin levels (5.6 [0.4-26.5] vs. 6.8 [1.1-22.5] milliunits/L; P > 0.4). Glucose turnover in the malaria patients was higher than in patients with enteric fever (6.27 [2.71-6.87] vs. 5.20 [4.50-6.08] mg/kg.min; P = 0.02) and in convalescence (4.74 [3.35-6.79] mg/kg.min; P = 0.05 vs. acute malaria study), and fell after quinine together with a rise in serum insulin (P = 0.03). Basal plasma lactate concentrations were higher in enteric fever than in malaria (3.4 [1.8-6.4] vs. 0.8 [0.3-3.8] mmol/L; P < 0.0001) and correlated inversely with glucose turnover in this group (rs = -0.60; n = 12; P = 0.02). These data suggest that glucose turnover is 20% greater in malaria than in enteric fever. This might reflect increased non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake in falciparum malaria and/or impaired gluconeogenesis in enteric fever, and may have implications for metabolic complications and their clinical management in both infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  9. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Hussaini J, Khor GH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:908098.
    PMID: 25485304 DOI: 10.1155/2014/908098
    To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  10. Kuppusamy UR, Arumugam B, Azaman N, Jen Wai C
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:737263.
    PMID: 25180205 DOI: 10.1155/2014/737263
    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  11. Mohamed MS, Tan JS, Mohamad R, Mokhtar MN, Ariff AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:948940.
    PMID: 24109209 DOI: 10.1155/2013/948940
    Mixotrophic metabolism was evaluated as an option to augment the growth and lipid production of marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. FTC 209. In this study, a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented in order to enrich the W-30 algal growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model the effect of three medium variables, that is, glucose (organic C source), NaNO3 (primary N source), and yeast extract (supplementary N, amino acids, and vitamins) on biomass concentration, X(max), and lipid yield, P(max)/X(max). RSM capability was also weighed against an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting a composition that would result in maximum lipid productivity, Pr(lipid). A quadratic regression from RSM and a Levenberg-Marquardt trained ANN network composed of 10 hidden neurons eventually produced comparable results, albeit ANN formulation was observed to yield higher values of response outputs. Finalized glucose (24.05 g/L), NaNO3 (4.70 g/L), and yeast extract (0.93 g/L) concentration, affected an increase of X(max) to 12.38 g/L and lipid a accumulation of 195.77 mg/g dcw. This contributed to a lipid productivity of 173.11 mg/L per day in the course of two-week cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  12. Loganadan NK, Huri HZ, Vethakkan SR, Hussein Z
    Pharmacogenomics J, 2016 06;16(3):209-19.
    PMID: 26810132 DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2015.95
    The clinical response to sulphonylurea, an oral antidiabetic agent often used in combination with metformin to control blood glucose in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, has been widely associated with a number of gene polymorphisms, particularly those involved in insulin release. We have reviewed the genetic markers of CYP2C9, ABCC8, KCNJ11, TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2), IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1), CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, KCNQ1 and NOS1AP (nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein) genes that predict treatment outcomes of sulphonylurea therapy. A convincing pattern for poor sulphonylurea response was observed in Caucasian T2DM patients with rs7903146 and rs1801278 polymorphisms of the TCF7L2 and IRS-1 genes, respectively. However, limitations in evaluating the available studies including dissimilarities in study design, definitions of clinical end points, sample sizes and types and doses of sulphonylureas used as well as ethnic variability make the clinical applications challenging. Future studies need to address these limitations to develop personalized sulphonylurea medicine for T2DM management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  13. Nordin NM, Wei JW, Naing NN, Symonds EM
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2006 Feb;32(1):107-14.
    PMID: 16445535 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2006.00360.x
    AIM: To determine the relationships between maternal and fetal outcomes and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), respectively.
    METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design was used with 149 patients with abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 149 normal patients. Statistical analysis used was the chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test or the Student's t-test, as appropriate. P < 0.05 was considered significant.
    RESULTS: The level of hyperglycemia according to the OGTT (World Health Organization criteria) was associated with pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios and macrosomia in GDM patients. There was no increase in the complications of preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes, despite the increased risk of polyhydramnios. Although treated with insulin, macrosomia still occurred in patients with GDM, but there was no shoulder dystocia as there was an increase in the incidence of cesarean section (CS). The IGT group was not associated with adverse fetal or maternal outcomes, but there was an increase in intervention and the incidence of CS. The IFG group was associated with a significantly increased risk of pre-eclampsia and macrosomia. These findings challenge the concept of IFG being a lesser pathology than GDM. Further prospective studies with a larger number of patients are needed to ascertain the significance of these findings.
    CONCLUSION: There was an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and macrosomia in both the GDM and IFG patients, but IGT was not associated with adverse fetal or maternal outcomes.
    Study site: Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur (MHKL), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  14. Nang EE, Salim A, Wu Y, Tai ES, Lee J, Van Dam RM
    PMID: 23718927 DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-70
    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association.
    METHODS: The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004-2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association.
    RESULTS: Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers.
    CONCLUSIONS: In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse levels of various cardio-metabolic risk factors. This may reflect detrimental effects of television screen time on dietary habits rather than replacement of physical activity.
    MESH: screen time
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  15. Tan WS, Ng CJ, Khoo EM, Low WY, Tan HM
    Aging Male, 2011 Dec;14(4):231-6.
    PMID: 22115177 DOI: 10.3109/13685538.2011.597463
    The etiology of erectile dysfunction (ED) is multi-factorial. This paper examines the association between ED, testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Malaysian men in an urban setting. One thousand and forty-six men aged ≥ 40 years from Subang Jaya, Malaysia were randomly selected from an electoral-roll list. The men completed questionnaires that included: socio-demographic data, self-reported medical problems and the International Index of erectile function (IIEF-5). Physical examination and the following biochemical tests were performed: lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and total testosterone. The response rate was 62.8% and the mean age of men was 55.8 ± 8.4 (41-93) years. Ethnic distribution was Chinese, 48.9%; Malay, 34.5%; Indian, 14.8%. The prevalence of moderate-severe ED was 20.0%, while 16.1% of men had TDS (< 10.4 nmol/L) and 31.3% of men had MS. Indian and Malay men were significantly more likely to have ED (p  = 0.001), TDS (p  < 0.001) and MS (p < 0.001) than the Chinese. Multivariate regression analysis showed that elevated blood pressure, elevated FBG, low high-density lipoprotein and heart disease were predictors of ED while all MS components were independently associated with TDS. Malay and Indian men have a higher disease burden compared to Chinese men and were more likely to suffer with ED, TDS and MS. MS components were closely related to TDS and ED.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  16. Hassan MR, Jamhari MN, Hayati F, Ahmad N, Zamzuri MIA, Nawi AM, et al.
    Pan Afr Med J, 2021;39:206.
    PMID: 34603587 DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2021.39.206.30410
    Introduction: type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a global public health crisis. The increment in the cases has contributed significantly to the parallel increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. This paper aimed to analyse the relationship between lipid profile, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) with the glycaemic control of the diabetes patients in Kedah.

    Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted, using the Kedah audit samples data extracted from the National Diabetes Registry (NDR) from the year 2014 to 2018. A total of 25,062 registered type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were selected using the inclusion and exclusion criteria from the registry. Only patients with complete data on their HbA1C, lipid profile, waist circumference and BMI were analysed using SPSS version 21.

    Results: the means for the age, BMI and waist circumference of the samples were 61.5 (±10.85) years, 27.3 (±5.05) kg/m2 and 89.46 (±13.58) cm, respectively. Poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>6.5%) was observed in 72.7% of the patients, with females having poorer glycaemic control. The BMI and waist circumference were found to be significantly associated with glycaemic control (P<0.001). The total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins values showed positive correlation with glycaemic control (r = 0.178, 0.157, 0.145, p<0.001), while high-density lipoproteins values are negatively correlated (r = -0.019, p<0.001).

    Conclusion: implementing lifestyle changes such as physical activity and dietary modifications are important in the management of BMI, waist circumference and body lipids, which in turn results in improved glycaemic control.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
  17. Khong MJ, Chong CP
    Neth J Med, 2014 Apr;72(3):127-34.
    PMID: 24846925
    New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) is one of the complications that is increasingly occurring among kidney transplanted patients. It is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, graft failure and mortality. The risk of NODAT development increases with time from transplantation. Therefore, early detection and prompt action are essential in reducing the risk of NODAT and its complications. This paper aims to review the screening parameters, prevention and management strategies for NODAT in both pre- and post-transplantation conditions. The pre-transplant patient should be screened for diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors. Blood glucose evaluation for the pre-transplantation period is important for early detection of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), which are highly associated with the incidence of NODAT. Post-kidney transplant patients should have periodical blood glucose monitoring with more frequent assessment in the initial phase. As early hyperglycaemia development is a strong predictor for NODAT, prompt intervention is needed. When NODAT develops, monitoring and control of blood glucose profile, lipid profile, microalbuminuria, diabetic complications and comorbid conditions is recommended. Immunosuppressive regimen modification may be considered as suggested by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline to reverse or to improve the diabetes after weighing the risk of rejection and other potential adverse effects. Strategies for modifying immunosuppressive agents include dose reduction, discontinuation, and selection of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), anti-metabolite agents, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi), belatacept and corticosteroids. Lifestyle modification and a conventional anti-diabetic approach, as in the type 2 diabetes mellitus guidelines, are also recommended in NODAT management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  18. Taghavi SM, Fatemi SS, Rokni H
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Aug;67(4):390-2.
    PMID: 23082447
    Ergot-derived dopamine D2 receptor agonists are the usual treatment of hyperprolactinemia and Parkinson's disease and recently bromocriptine has been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was the evaluation of short-term effect of cabergoline in poorly controlled diabetic patients with oral agent failure who refused insulin therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  19. Lee WS, Tay CG, Nazrul N, Paed M, Chai PF
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):83-5.
    PMID: 19852331 MyJurnal
    A five-month-old Indian girl, product of consanguineous marriage, presented with diarrhoea with an onset within two days after birth, severe malnutrition and metabolic acidosis. The diarrhoea persisted even with lactose-free formula, amino acid-based formula and glucose-containing oral rehydration solution, but stopped when fasted. She required prolonged parenteral nutrition. Fructose and glucose tolerance tests were performed, confirming the child was able to absorb and metabolize fructose but not glucose, indicating a diagnosis of glucose-galactose malabsorption. This case illustrate how simple and pertinent clinical observations and laboratory investigations is sufficient to allow a firm diagnosis to be made.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  20. Rosediani M, Azidah AK, Mafauzy M
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Mar;61(1):67-71.
    PMID: 16708736 MyJurnal
    This study was done to determine the correlation between glucose monitoring by fasting blood glucose or 2 hours postprandial blood glucose with HbA1c and fructosamine in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 82 patients from the Primary Care Clinic were enrolled in the study. Fasting blood was drawn for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fructosamine. Two hours after a standard breakfast, blood was again drawn for prandial plasma glucose (PPG). Both PPG and FPG significantly correlated with both HbA1c and fructosamine but PPG showed better correlation to HbA1c than FPG (r= 0.604 vs.0.575) whereas that of FPG and PPG were equally correlated to fructosamine (r= 0.566 vs. 0.551). In predicting good glycaemic control (HbA1c < 7.0%), the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of PPG were 75.0%, 80.6% and 82.5% whereas FPG were 81.8%, 58.3% and 70.6% respectively. These results show that PPG correlated better than FPG to HbA1c and both equally correlated to fructosamine levels. Thus, PPG predicted overall glycaemic control better than FPG. Compared to HbA1c, fructosamine correlated least well with mean glucose profiles. Hence, using HbAlc in monitoring overall glycaemic control is better than fructosamine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
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