Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 306 in total

  1. Paramaesvaran N
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Mar;19(3):224-8.
    PMID: 4220475
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  2. Bhattathiry EP
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Dec;23(2):123-6.
    PMID: 4240822
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  3. Perumal R, Bhattathiry EP
    Med J Malaya, 1970 Mar;24(3):208-11.
    PMID: 4246803
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  4. Jones JJ, Watkins PJ, Owyong LY, Loh PP, Kutty MK, Jogie B
    Trop Geogr Med, 1978 Dec;30(4):439-49.
    PMID: 749278
    One hundred and thirty-two newly diagnosed Asian diabetic patients (39 Malay, 30 Chinese and 63 Indians) have been studied in Kuala Lumpur. The highest proportion of diabetic patients were Indian and the lowest were Chinese. Vascular complications were equally common in Asian diabetic patients as in Europeans; coronary heart disease was relatively more common in Indians and cerebral vascular disease in Chinese. Twenty percent of all Asian diabetic patients requiring admission to hospital also had coronary heart disease, 9% had cerebral vascular disease and 8% had gangrene or ulceration of the feet. In Kuala Lumpur, diabetes is a very important risk factor for coronary heart disease: 17% of all patients admitted to the General Hospital with coronary heart disease were already diabetic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  5. Cheah JS
    Med J Malaysia, 1981 Dec;36(4):220-6.
    PMID: 7334957
    There is overwhelming evidence that the microangiopathic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) of diabetes can be minimised, prevented or improved by optimal blood glucose control. There is little evidence to show otherwise. This paper reviews evidences to demonstrate that poor diabetic control predisposes to diabetic microangiopathy. The only way to minimise diabetic microangiopathy is to avoid hyperglycaemia and achieve euglycaemia for most part of the day. In doing so the dangers of hypoglycaemia must be clearly recognized and avoided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
  6. Fock KM, Nambiar R
    Med J Malaysia, 1984 Jun;39(2):170-2.
    PMID: 6096683
    A 22-year-old Malay man with recurrent hypoglycaemic fainting spells was found to have hyperinsulinism. Although the CT scan of the abdomen and arteriogram failed to demonstrate any tumour in the pancreas, three tumours were found in the body of the pancreas at laporatomy, An appraisal of the techinques currently available for diagnosis and localisation of insulinoma is presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  7. Merriman A, Ross I
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1985 Apr;14(2):277-85.
    PMID: 4037686
    A Specialist Clinic was commenced in August 1983, from the Medical School at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia to assess: 1) the present control and 2) the incidence of complications in a diabetic population already receiving primary health care at Penang General Hospital. The ethnic groups among the diabetics were Chinese (39%), Malays (26%) and Indian (35%). There was a greater percentage of Indians than would be expected from the ethnic distribution of the population of Penang. The results of the first 100 (43 males and 57 females) non-insulin dependent diabetic patients are reviewed. The mean age was 54 years, 41% had relatives with diabetes, and all were taking oral agents. The diet comprehension and compliance were poor. 65% of the group, 54% of males and 75% of females were obese. The mean blood glucose was 11 m.mols/l (fasting) and 12.8 m.mols/1 (2 hours post prandial). The complications seen in the 100 diabetics were: albuminurea 41, skin infection 37, cataracts 35, hypertension 32, peripheral sensory neuropathy 32, retinopathy 22, ischaemic heart disease 19, autonomic neuropathy 10, impaired renal function 4 (urea or creatinine elevated), foot ulcer 2 and gangrene 1. Urinalysis for glucose at the Clinic showed very little correlation with blood glucose at the same time. Nine out of 43 males admitted to impotence on questioning. Comparisons of findings in Penang were made with recent studies in Singapore and Hong Kong.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  8. Ch'ng SL, Chandrasekharan N
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1985 Apr;14(2):223-8.
    PMID: 4037680
    The pattern of plasma and urine sugar changes after 50g glucose load in 1900 Malaysians (522 males and 1378 females) consisting predominantly of Malays, Chinese and Indians were studied. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results show bimodal distribution of 120 min. plasma sugar values in the age groups 21 years and above and trimodal distribution in most groups above 40 years. The mean 120 minutes plasma sugar cut-off values for nondiabetics (ND), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetics (DM) of 8.4 and 11.1 mmol/l respectively were close to the values recommended by the National Diabetic Data Group (NDDG). Fifty two percent of all subjects showed peaked plasma sugar values at 60 minutes (14% of them had IGT, 12% DM), 25% peaked at 30 minutes (98% of them were ND). The rest showed peaked values at 90 minutes (17%), 120 minutes (4%) and 150 minutes (2%) and from this group forty two percent were DM and 23% had IGT. Reliance on urine sugar qualitative tests could misclassify 7.3% of subjects (predominantly elderly females) with hyperglycaemia of greater than 11 mmol/l. This study shows that in the 50 g glucose tolerance test, the NDDG criteria for ND, IGT, DM is still applicable to the Malaysian population. The sampling time could be reduced to four points at 0, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Blood analysis is the preferred method for the diagnosis of hyperglycaemia in elderly females.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
  9. Wong HB
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1985 Apr;14(2):334-42.
    PMID: 4037695
    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is inherited in a multifactorial manner with polygenes and environmental factors contributing to its emergence in a particular individual. The evidence for such a mode of inheritance is reviewed. One of the most important genetic roles is that played by the HLA genes on chromosome 6 and the different alleles which increase or decrease susceptibility in Caucasians, Japanese, Singapore Chinese and Shanghai Chinese are described. It is inferred that these alleles are different in different ethnic groups. The other genes which are important are unknown. The environmental influences are less well known although viral infections may act as triggers. Because the morbidity and mortality are still extremely serious in IDDM patients in spite of insulin therapy, it is proposed that preventive measures should be instituted in families prone to IDDM. The role of prenatal diagnosis is discussed especially in those families with multiple HLA susceptibility genes present. Great care paid to management of hyperglycemia from onset of the disease may reduce future morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  10. Ch'ng SL, Cheah SH, Husain R, Duncan MT
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1989 May;18(3):326-7.
    PMID: 2774480
    The effect of alteration of eating pattern during Ramadan on body mass index (BMI), serum fructosamine: total protein ratio (F/TP), and glucose level in 18 healthy male Asiatic Moslems were studied. The results showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.025) in F/TP at the second week of Ramadan in 11 subjects who experienced continuous decrease in BMI throughout Ramadan. The remaining 7 subjects showed no significant changes in BMI and F/TP. No evidence of hypoglycaemia was observed in the subjects during the study. Serum fructosamine: total protein ratio in subjects with altered eating pattern preferably should be interpreted along with the change in body mass index.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
  11. Noor H, Hammonds P, Sutton R, Ashcroft SJ
    Diabetologia, 1989 Jun;32(6):354-9.
    PMID: 2668082
    In Malaysia, Tinospora crispa extract is taken orally by Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients to treat hyperglycaemia. We have evaluated the claimed hypoglycaemic property by adding aqueous extract to the drinking water of normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. After one week, fasting blood glucose levels were significantly (p less than 0.01) lower and serum insulin levels were significantly (p less than 0.01) higher in treated diabetic animals (10.4 +/- 1.0 mmol/l and 12.8 +/- 1.1 muU/ml respectively) compared to untreated diabetic controls (17.4 +/- 1.7 mmol/l and 8.0 +/- 0.7 muU/ml respectively). The insulinotropic action of T. crispa was further investigated in vitro using isolated human or rat islets of Langerhans and HIT-T15 cells. In static incubations with rat islets and HIT-T15 B cells, the extract induced a dosage dependent stimulation and potentiation of basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion respectively. This insulinotropic effect was also evident in perifused human and rat islets and HIT-T5 B-cells. The observations that (i) in all three models insulin secretory rates rapidly returned to basal levels on removal of the extract and (ii) in rat islets, a second challenge with T. crispa induced an additional, stimulated response, are all consistent with physiological release of insulin by B cells. Moreover, the rate of HIT-T15 glucose utilisation was not affected by incubation with T. crispa, suggesting that the cells were viable throughout. These are the first studies to provide biochemical evidence which substantiates the traditional claims for an oral hypoglycaemic effect of Tinospora crispa, and which also show that the hypoglycaemic effect is associated with increased insulin secretion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism; Glucose/metabolism*
  12. Noor H, Ashcroft SJ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1989 Nov;27(1-2):149-61.
    PMID: 2693839
    In Malaysia, an aqueous extract of Tinospora crispa stems is taken orally to treat diabetes mellitus. In the present study, normal and alloxan-diabetic rats were used to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of the extract. A hypoglycaemic effect was observed in moderately diabetic rats with concomitant improvement in insulinaemia. After a 2-week treatment with the extract (4 g/l in the drinking water), these rats also showed improvement in glucose tolerance. Moreover, acute intravenous treatment with the extract (50 mg/kg) caused an increase in plasma insulin levels. The data support the traditional belief that T. crispa extract could improve diabetic conditions by virtue of its action on the endocrine pancreas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  13. Nazaimoon WM, Ng ML, Satgunasingam N, Khalid BA
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Jun;47(2):103-9.
    PMID: 1494329
    Growth hormone (GH) levels were measured after a 75g oral glucose load (OGTT) in normal adults, patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and acromegaly. Nadir GH levels at 2-hour post-OGTT in normal subjects ranged from 0.4 to 8.4 mIU/L, the 95% confidence interval being 0.4-4.4 mIU/L. In IGT and IDDM subjects basal fasting GH levels were not significantly different from normal and did not alter during OGTT. The high fasting GH level measured in one each of the IGT and IDDM patients was suppressible at 1-hour after glucose intake. In contrast, acromegalic patients had elevated fasting GH levels (11.8-178 mIU/L) although in 3 patients, the levels were mildly elevated and overlapped with normal. OGTT failed or only partially suppressed GH secretion in all acromegalics. Therefore, elevated fasting GH levels are not diagnostic and OGTT is required for accurate diagnosis and assessment of treatment of acromegalic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  14. Ali O, Tan TT, Sakinah O, Khalid BA, Wu LL, Ng ML
    Diabetes Care, 1993 Jan;16(1):68-75.
    PMID: 8422835 DOI: 10.2337/diacare.16.1.68
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and IGT in different ethnic groups living in the same physical environment and to find their relationship to nutritional status and dietary intake.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was conducted among Malays and Orang Asli in six rural and urban locations in Malaysia. OGTTs were performed on 706 adult subjects > or = 18 yr of age. WHO criteria were used for diagnosing diabetes mellitus and IGT.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus and IGT among Orang Asli was 0.3 and 4.4% compared with 4.7 and 11.3%, respectively, among Malays. This increased prevalence of glucose intolerance among Malays was associated with higher levels of social development. Among rural Malays, the crude prevalence of diabetes in a traditional village was 2.8% and in the land scheme was 6.7%, whereas urban Malays had a prevalence of 8.2%. In contrast, the prevalence of IGT (10.5-14.8%) was higher among rural Malays, compared with 9.6% among urban Malays. Ethnic group, > or = 40 yr of age, an income > M$250, fewer daily activity, and obesity were associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes mellitus and IGT, which were more common among Malays than Orang Asli, were associated with more affluent life-styles and modernization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  15. Singh B, Choo KE, Ibrahim J, Johnston W, Davis TM
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1998 12 23;92(5):532-7.
    PMID: 9861371
    To determine whether glucose turnover is increased in acute falciparum malaria compared to enteric fever in children, steady-state 6,6-D2-glucose turnover was measured in 9 Malaysian children with uncomplicated malaria (6 males and 3 females; median age 10 years, body weight 22 kg) and in 12 with uncomplicated enteric fever (8 males and 4 females; median age 10 years, body weight 24 kg) in acute illness, after quinine (5 malaria patients) and in convalescence. Baseline plasma glucose concentrations in malaria and enteric fever were similar (all values are medians [ranges in brackets]) 5.6 [3.2-11.3] vs. 5.5 [4.2-8.0] mmol/L), as were serum insulin levels (5.6 [0.4-26.5] vs. 6.8 [1.1-22.5] milliunits/L; P > 0.4). Glucose turnover in the malaria patients was higher than in patients with enteric fever (6.27 [2.71-6.87] vs. 5.20 [4.50-6.08] mg/kg.min; P = 0.02) and in convalescence (4.74 [3.35-6.79] mg/kg.min; P = 0.05 vs. acute malaria study), and fell after quinine together with a rise in serum insulin (P = 0.03). Basal plasma lactate concentrations were higher in enteric fever than in malaria (3.4 [1.8-6.4] vs. 0.8 [0.3-3.8] mmol/L; P < 0.0001) and correlated inversely with glucose turnover in this group (rs = -0.60; n = 12; P = 0.02). These data suggest that glucose turnover is 20% greater in malaria than in enteric fever. This might reflect increased non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake in falciparum malaria and/or impaired gluconeogenesis in enteric fever, and may have implications for metabolic complications and their clinical management in both infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  16. Rosfarizan M, Ariff AB, Hassan MA, Karim MI
    Folia Microbiol (Praha), 1998;43(5):459-64.
    PMID: 9867479
    Direct conversion of gelatinized sago starch into kojic acid by Aspergillus flavus strain having amylolytic enzymes was carried out at two different scales of submerged batch fermentation in a 250-mL shake flask and in a 50-L stirred-tank fermentor. For comparison, fermentations were also carried out using glucose and glucose hydrolyzate from enzymic hydrolysis of sago starch as carbon sources. During kojic acid fermentation of starch, starch was first hydrolyzed to glucose by the action of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase during active growth phase. The glucose remaining during the production phase (non-growing phase) was then converted to kojic acid. Kojic acid production (23.5 g/L) using 100 g/L sago starch in a shake flask was comparable to fermentation of glucose (31.5 g/L) and glucose hydrolyzate (27.9 g/L) but in the 50-L fermentor was greatly reduced due to non-optimal aeration conditions. Kojic acid production using glucose was higher in the 50-L fermentor than in the shake flask.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  17. Majid MI, Akmal DH, Few LL, Agustien A, Toh MS, Samian MR, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 1999 Jun-Jul;25(1-3):95-104.
    PMID: 10416655
    A locally isolated soil microorganism identified as Erwinia sp. USMI-20 has been found to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), from either palm oil or glucose and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), P(3HB-co-3HV), from a combination of palm oil and a second carbon source of either one of the following compounds: propionic acid, n-propanol, valeric acid and n-pentanol. It was found that Erwinia sp. USMI-20 could produce P(3HB) up to 69 wt.% polymer content with a dry cell weight of 4.4 g/l from an initial amount of 14.5 g/l of glucose followed by a feeding rate of glucose at 0.48 g/h glucose. On the other hand, the bacteria can achieve 46 wt.% of P(3HB) and a dry cell weight of 3.6 g/l from a batch fermentation in a 10-l fermentor from an initial concentration of 4.6 g/l of palm oil. Further characterisation of the polymer production was also carried out by using different types of palm oil. Among the different palm oils that were used, crude palm oil was the best lipid source for P(3HB) production as compared to palm olein and palm kernel oil. In the production of the copolymer, P(3HB-co-3HV), the highest mole fraction of 3-HV units could be as high as 47 mol% from a single feeding of valeric acid upon initial growth on palm oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  18. Rasool AH, Rahman AR, Ismail R, Hatim S, Abdullah AR, Singh R, et al.
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2000 May;38(5):260-9.
    PMID: 10839470
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether racial differences in response to blockade of beta receptors occur among racial groups in Malaysia that are the Malays, Indians and Chinese. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHOD: 35 healthy male volunteers representing the 3 main racial groups in Malaysia (12 Malays, 12 Chinese and 11 Indians) were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover and single-blind design. Propranolol 80 mg 12-hourly was given orally for 48 hours. Six hours after the last dose subjects attended an exercise session where resting and exercise heart rate, blood pressure, plasma potassium and glucose levels, resting FEV1 and plasma propranolol concentrations were recorded.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in plasma propranolol (mean +/- SEM) levels was seen between races six hours after the last dose (Malays, 59.7 +/- 8.8 ng/ml, Indians, 67.6 +/- 19.3 ng/ml, Chinese, 58.4 +/- 7.9 ng/ml). Chinese were least sensitive to the bradycardic and hypotensive effects of propranolol at rest and exercise. Indians and Malays had significant reduction of supine systolic blood pressure with propranolol but not Chinese. Comparison of percentage reductions of systolic blood pressure at supine, sitting and exercise by repeated measure analysis showed the Malays to have significantly higher change compared to the Chinese (p = 0.022). Similarly, comparison of percentage reductions of heart rate at supine, sitting and exercise by repeated measure analysis showed the Malays to have significantly higher change compared to the Chinese (p = 0.040). Average change in potassium concentrations at peak exercise and recovery showed the Indians to have significantly higher increase in potassium levels with propranolol compared to the Malays (p = 0.038). However, no significant interethnic difference was seen in the reduction of glucose levels at rest, peak exercise or recovery. Also, no significant interethnic difference was seen in reduction of FEV1 values.

    CONCLUSION: We, therefore, conclude that ethnic differences in response to blockade of beta-receptors exist among racial groups in Malaysia. These differences were seen at similar plasma drug levels between races suggesting ethnic differences in drug sensitivity, rather than differences in drug disposition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  19. Tai ES, Lim SC, Chew SK, Tan BY, Tan CE
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2000 Aug;49(2-3):159-68.
    PMID: 10963828
    We studied insulin resistance and beta-cell function with reference to ethnic group, glucose tolerance and other coronary artery disease risk factors in a cross section of the Singapore population which comprises Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. 3568 individuals aged 18-69 were examined. Blood pressure, anthropometric data, blood lipids, glucose and insulin were assayed in the fasting state. Glucose and serum insulin were measured 2 h after an oral glucose challenge. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated using homeostasis model assessment. Asian Indians had higher insulin resistance than Chinese or Malays. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) were associated with greater insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Insulin resistance was positively correlated with blood pressure in women and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride in both men and women. It was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol and LDL/apolipoprotein B ratio. beta-cell function showed no significant correlations with the cardiovascular risk factors studied. It appears that both impaired beta-cell function and insulin resistance are important for the development of hyperglycemia whereas insulin resistance alone seems more important in the development of coronary artery disease as it correlates with several known coronary artery disease risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  20. Wan Mohamad WB, Tun Fizi A, Ismail RB, Mafauzy M
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2000 Aug;49(2-3):93-9.
    PMID: 10963819
    Although long acting, glibenclamide is frequently given in split doses for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This may discourage compliance. It is thus appropriate to consider dosing it less frequently. We therefore studied glibenclamide effects when used once daily and when used in split doses. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of using once daily dosing as a regimen of choice. We measured plasma glucose, insulin, glibenclamide, lipids, HbAl and body mass index associated with the regimens. We also compared the number of hypoglycemic episodes occurring with them. Thirty type 2 diabetics on multiple daily glibenclamide were enrolled. Their regimens were changed over to once daily. Blood for glucose, insulin, lipids, HbAl and glibenclamide and body weight measurements were determined before and after the crossover period. We found no major difference in the sugar and insulin profiles with the two regimens. Fasting total cholesterol and triglyceride were also similar and so were plasma glibenclamide. The HbAl levels and body mass index and number of minor and major hypoglycemic episodes and hospital admissions for hypoglycemia also did not differ. We conclude that single daily dosing of glibenclamide was equivalent to multiple daily dose regimens. It can be used to an advantage to improve patient's compliance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
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