Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 306 in total

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  1. Adam SH, Giribabu N, Kassim N, Kumar KE, Brahmayya M, Arya A, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2016 Jul;81:439-452.
    PMID: 27261624 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.04.032
    INTRODUCTION: Protective effects of Vitis Vinifera seed aqueous extract (VVSAE) against pancreatic dysfunctions and elevation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pancreas in diabetes were investigated. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscope.

    METHODS: Blood and pancreas were collected from adult male diabetic rats receiving 28days treatment with VVSAE orally. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and lipid profile levels and activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx) in the pancreas were determined by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscopy and levels of insulin, glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. Radical scavenging activity of VVSAE was evaluated by in-vitro anti-oxidant assay while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major compounds in the extract.

    RESULTS: GC-MS analyses indicated the presence of compounds that might exert anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. Near normal FBG, HbAIc, lipid profile and serum insulin levels with lesser signs of pancreatic destruction were observed following administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats. Higher insulin, GLUT-2, SOD, CAT and GPx levels but lower TNF-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were also observed in the pancreas of VVSAE-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). The extract possesses high in-vitro radical scavenging activities.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusions, administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats could help to protect the pancreas against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-induced damage while preserving pancreatic function near normal in diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  2. Giribabu N, Kumar KE, Rekha SS, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    PMID: 25104050 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-291
    We hypothesized that C. borivilianum root, known to improve male reproductive performance, prevents impairment in characteristics, morphology and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of diabetics. We therefore investigated the effect of aqueous root extract of C. borivilianum on these parameters in diabetic rat model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  3. Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Bebakar WM, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S3-9.
    PMID: 23647715 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70003-2
    AIM:
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in the ASEAN cohort of the A₁chieve study.

    METHODS:
    Type 2 diabetes patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore prescribed BIAsp 30 therapy were included. The primary outcome was evaluation of serious adverse drug reactions including major hypoglycaemia over 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were changes in hypoglycaemic events, serious adverse events (SAEs) and effectiveness parameters.

    RESULTS:
    This sub-analysis included 2798 patients (insulin-naive, 1903; insulin-experienced, 895) with mean age ± SD, 55.3 ± 10.8 years, BMI, 24.9 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration, 7.5 ± 5.9 years. Baseline HbA1c in the entire cohort was poor (9.9%, 85 mmol/mol). A total of 15 SAEs were reported in 7 insulin-experienced patients (1 moderate event was related to BIAsp 30). Overall hypoglycaemia at Week 24 was 0.88 events/patient-year compared to 1.71 events/patient-year reported at baseline (change in proportion of patients affected, p < 0.0001). No major hypoglycaemia was reported at Week 24. BIAsp 30 significantly improved glucose control (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose, p < 0.001) at Week 24. The proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% at Week 24 was 35.3% compared to 3.5% at baseline. The lipid profile and systolic blood pressure also improved significantly (p < 0.001). Quality of life was positively impacted (mean change in visual analogue scores from EQ-5D = 10.6 ± 13.8 points, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION:
    BIAsp 30 was well-tolerated and improved glucose control while decreasing the risk of hypoglycaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  4. Hussein Z, Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Goh SY, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S24-9.
    PMID: 23647714 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70006-8
    Aim: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in ASEAN type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) in the non-interventional 24-week A₁chieve study.

    Methods: Indonesian, Malaysian, Filipino and Singaporean patients switched from BHI to BIAsp 30 at their physicians' discretion were included. The incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemia was the primary endpoint. Changes in hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), lipids, body weight and systolic blood pressure were also evaluated. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire.

    Results: For the 465 patients included (mean ± SD age: 56 ± 10.3 years, diabetes duration: 9.7 ± 7.1 years, baseline HbA1c: 9.4 ± 1.8%), the mean pre-study BHI dose was 0.62 ± 0.28 IU/kg and 63.4% were dosing BHI twice daily (bid). The mean baseline BIAsp 30 dose was 0.65 ± 0.27 U/kg, titrated up to 0.71 ± 0.28 U/kg over 24 weeks, and most patients continued bid dosing. No SADRs or major hypoglycaemic episodes were reported. The proportion of patients reporting overall hypoglycaemia decreased significantly from 10.8% at baseline to 3.4% at Week 24 (p < 0.0001). Significant improvements in glycaemic control were noted (HbA1c: -1.4 ± 1.7%, FPG: -56.7 ± 72.5 mg/dL, post-breakfast PPPG: -84.8 ± 82.8 mg/dL, p < 0.001). Mean QoL improved by +6.6 ± 14.6 points (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion: BIAsp 30 was well-tolerated and significantly increased glycaemic control in this ASEAN subgroup poorly controlled on BHI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  5. Bebakar WM, Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S17-23.
    PMID: 23647713 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70005-6
    AIM:
    To examine the clinical safety and effectiveness of insulin aspart (IAsp) therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients from the ASEAN cohort of the international, 24-week, non-interventional A₁chieve study.

    METHODS:
    T2D patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore, who started IAsp therapy with or without oral glucose-lowering drugs, were included. The primary endpoint was the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemic events. Secondary endpoints included hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], fasting plasma glucose [FPG], postprandial plasma glucose [PPPG], systolic blood pressure [SBP], body weight and lipids. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire.

    RESULTS:
    Overall, 312 T2D patients (222 insulin-naive and 90 insulin-experienced) with a mean ± SD age of 56.6 ± 11.2 years, BMI of 24.2 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration of 7.0 ± 5.7 years were included. The mean daily IAsp dose was 0.51 ± 0.31 U/kg at baseline titrated up to 0.60 ± 0.29 U/kg at Week 24. No SADRs or major hypoglycaemic events were reported in the entire subgroup. The proportion of patients who reported overall hypoglycaemia decreased from baseline to Week 24 (7.1% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.0001). The mean HbA1c improved from 9.5 ± 1.6% at baseline to 7.6 ± 1.3% after 24 weeks (p < 0.001). The mean FPG, post-breakfast PPPG and SBP also improved (p < 0.001). Health-related QoL scores increased in the entire subgroup (mean increase: 9.8 ± 14.6 points, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS:
    Starting IAsp therapy was well-tolerated and was associated with significantly improved overall glycaemic control in the ASEAN cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  6. Soewondo P, Mohamed M, Jain AB, Sy RA, Khoo CM
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S10-6.
    PMID: 23647712 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70004-4
    AIM:
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir (IDet) in type 2 diabetes patients from the ASEAN cohort of the A1chieve study.

    METHODS:
    Patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore prescribed IDet at the discretion of their physicians were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions including major hypoglycaemia over 24 weeks. Secondary endpoints included changes in the frequency of hypoglycaemia, serious adverse events and effectiveness assessments.

    RESULTS:
    This sub-analysis included 1540 patients (insulin-naive, 1239; insulin-experienced, 301) with mean age ± SD 56.4 ± 10.9 years, BMI 25.4 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration 6.9 ± 5.3 years. Insulin-naive patients received a baseline IDet dose of 0.24 ± 0.11 U/kg titrated up to 0.37 ± 0.21 U/kg by Week 24. The pre-study insulin dose in insulin-experienced patients was 0.41 ± 0.25 U/kg and baseline IDet dose was 0.31 ± 0.24 U/kg titrated up to 0.40 ± 0.20 U/kg by Week 24. Overall hypoglycaemia decreased from 1.73 to 0.46 events/patient-year from baseline to Week 24 (change in proportion of patients affected, p < 0.0001). At Week 24, 1 major hypoglycaemic event was reported in 1 insulin-experienced patient. IDet significantly improved glucose control (p < 0.001) at Week 24. The lipid profile and systolic blood pressure improved (p < 0.001) and body weight did not change significantly. Quality of life was positively impacted (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION:
    IDet was well-tolerated and improved glycaemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia or weight gain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  7. Sazlina SG, Mastura I, Ahmad Z, Cheong AT, Adam BM, Jamaiyah H, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2014 Jan;14(1):130-7.
    PMID: 23581598 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12070
    The aims of the present study were to assess the control of glycemia and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the association between age and these controls among older adults with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
  8. Pabreja K, Dua K, Sharma S, Padi SS, Kulkarni SK
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2011 Jul 1;661(1-3):15-21.
    PMID: 21536024 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.04.014
    Painful neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes mellitus is characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Recent studies emphasized on the role of non-neuronal cells, particularly microglia in the development of neuronal hypersensitivity. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of minocyline, a selective inhibitor of microglial activation to define the role of neuroimmune activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Cold allodynia and thermal and chemical hyperalgesia were assessed and the markers of inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress were estimated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chronic administration of minocycline (40 and 80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 weeks started 2 weeks after diabetes induction attenuated the development of diabetic neuropathy as compared to diabetic control animals. In addition, minocyline treatment reduced the levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, lipid peroxidation, nitrite and also improved antioxidant defense in spinal cords of diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control animals. In contrast, minocycline (80 mg/kg, per se) had no effect on any of these behavioral and biochemical parameters assessed in age-matched control animals. The results of the present study strongly suggest that activated microglia are involved in the development of experimental diabetic neuropathy and minocycline exerted its effect probably by inhibition of neuroimmune activation of microglia. In addition, the beneficial effects of minocycline are partly mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and in part by modulating oxidative and nitrosative stress in the spinal cord that might be involved in attenuating the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in diabetic rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  9. Soo JS, Ng CH, Tan SH, Malik RA, Teh YC, Tan BS, et al.
    Apoptosis, 2015 Oct;20(10):1373-87.
    PMID: 26276035 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-015-1158-5
    Metformin, an AMPK activator, has been reported to improve pathological response to chemotherapy in diabetic breast cancer patients. To date, its mechanism of action in cancer, especially in cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that metformin, but not other AMPK activators (e.g. AICAR and A-769662), synergizes 5-fluouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) combination chemotherapy in non-stem breast cancer cells and breast cancer stem cells. We show that this occurs through an AMPK-dependent mechanism in parental breast cancer cell lines. In contrast, the synergistic effects of metformin and FEC occurred in an AMPK-independent mechanism in breast CSCs. Further analyses revealed that metformin accelerated glucose consumption and lactate production more severely in the breast CSCs but the production of intracellular ATP was severely hampered, leading to a severe energy crisis and impairs the ability of CSCs to repair FEC-induced DNA damage. Indeed, addition of extracellular ATP completely abrogated the synergistic effects of metformin on FEC sensitivity in breast CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that metformin synergizes FEC sensitivity through distinct mechanism in parental breast cancer cell lines and CSCs, thus providing further evidence for the clinical relevance of metformin for the treatment of cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  10. Liew HJ, Fazio A, Faggio C, Blust R, De Boeck G
    PMID: 26219478 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.07.011
    Interacting effects of feeding and stress on corticoid responses in fish were investigated in common carp fed 3.0% or 0.5% body mass (BM) which received no implant, a sham or a cortisol implant (250 mg/kg BM) throughout a 168 hour post-implant period (168 h-PI). At 12h-PI, cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Plasma osmolality and ions remained stable, but cortisol increased gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) and H(+) ATPase activities. Gill NKA activities were higher at 3%-BM, whereas kidney H(+) ATPase activity was greater at 0.5%-BM. Cortisol induced liver protein mobilization and repartitioned liver and muscle glycogen. At 3%-BM, this did not increase plasma ammonia, reflecting improved excretion efficiency concomitant with upregulation of Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg-1 in gill. Responses in glucocorticoid receptors (GR1/GR2) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to cortisol elevation were most prominent in kidney with increased expression of all receptors at 24 h-PI at 0.5%-BM, but only GR2 and MR at 0.5%-BM. In the liver, upregulation of all receptors occurred at 24 h-PI at 3%-BM, whilst only GR2 and MR were upregulated at 0.5%-BM. In the gill, there was a limited upregulation: GR2 and MR at 72 h-PI and GR1 at 168 h-PI at 3%-BM but only GR2 at 72 h-PI at 0.5%-BM. Thus cortisol elevation led to similar expression patterns of cortisol receptors in both feeding regimes, while feeding affected the type of receptor that was induced. Induction of corticoid receptors occurred simultaneously with increases in Rhcg-1 mRNA expression (gill) but well after NKA and H(+) ATPase activities increased (gill/kidney).
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  11. Abdul Nasir NA, Agarwal R, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Vasudevan S, Tripathy M, Iezhitsa I, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(3):e0174542.
    PMID: 28350848 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174542
    Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is of special concern in diabetics as it occurs at earlier onset. Polyol accumulation and increased oxidative-nitrosative stress in cataractogenesis are associated with NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP depletion, loss of ATPase functions, calpain activation and proteolysis of soluble to insoluble proteins. Tocotrienol was previously shown to reduce lens oxidative stress and inhibit cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats. In current study, we investigated anticataract effects of topical tocotrienol and possible mechanisms involved in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (DV) or tocotrienol (DT). A third group consists of normal, non-diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (NV). All treatments were given topically, bilaterally, twice daily for 8 weeks with weekly slit lamp monitoring. Subsequently, rats were euthanized and lenses were subjected to estimation of polyol accumulation, oxidative-nitrosative stress, NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP levels, ATPase activities, calpain activity and total protein levels. Cataract progression was delayed from the fifth week onwards in DT with lower mean of cataract stages compared to DV group (p<0.01) despite persistent hyperglycemia. Reduced cataractogenesis in DT group was accompanied with lower aldose reductase activity and sorbitol level compared to DV group (p<0.01). DT group also showed reduced NFκB activation, lower iNOS expression and reduced oxidative-nitrosative stress compared to DV group. Lenticular ATP and ATPase and calpain 2 activities in DT group were restored to normal. Consequently, soluble to insoluble protein ratio in DT group was higher compared to DV (p<0.05). In conclusion, preventive effect of topical tocotrienol on development of cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats could be attributed to reduced lens aldose reductase activity, polyol levels and oxidative-nitrosative stress. These effects of tocotrienol invlove reduced NFκB activation, lower iNOS expression, restoration of ATP level, ATPase activities, calpain activity and lens protein levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  12. Armenia A, Munavvar AS, Abdullah NA, Helmi A, Johns EJ
    Br J Pharmacol, 2004 Jun;142(4):719-26.
    PMID: 15172958
    1. Diabetes and hypertension are both associated with an increased risk of renal disease and are associated with neuropathies, which can cause defective autonomic control of major organs including the kidney. This study aimed to examine the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype(s) involved in mediating adrenergically induced renal vasoconstriction in a rat model of diabetes and hypertension. 2. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), 220-280 g, were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone 7-day poststreptozotocin (55 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) treatment. The reductions in renal blood flow (RBF) induced by increasing frequencies of electrical renal nerve stimulation (RNS), close intrarenal bolus doses of noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE) or methoxamine were determined before and after administration of nitrendipine (Nit), 5-methylurapidil (5-MeU), chloroethylclonidine (CEC) and BMY 7378. 3. In the nondiabetic SHR group, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 146+/-6 mmHg, RBF was 28.0+/-1.4 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) and blood glucose was 112.3+/-4.7 mg x dl(-1), and in the diabetic SHR Group, MAP was 144+/-3 mmHg, RBF 26.9+/-1.3 ml(-1) min x kg(-1) and blood glucose 316.2+/-10.5 mg x dl(-1). Nit, 5-MeU and BMY 7378 blunted all the adrenergically induced renal vasoconstrictor responses in SHR and diabetic SHR by 25-35% (all P<0.05), but in diabetic rats the responses induced by RNS and NA treated with 5-MeU were not changed. By contrast, during the administration of CEC, vasoconstrictor responses to all agonists were enhanced by 20-25% (all P<0.05) in both the SHR and diabetic SHR. 4. These findings suggest that alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor subtypes contribute in mediating the adrenergically induced constriction of the renal vasculature in both the SHR and diabetic SHR. There was also an indication of a greater contribution of presynaptic adrenoceptors, that is, alpha(1B)-, and/or alpha(2)-subtypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  13. Abu Bakar MH, Shariff KA, Tan JS, Lee LK
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2020 Sep 15;883:173371.
    PMID: 32712089 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173371
    Accumulating evidence indicates that adipose tissue inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle are inextricably linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Celastrol, a bioactive compound derived from the root of Tripterygium wilfordii exhibits a number of attributive properties to attenuate metabolic dysfunction in various cellular and animal disease models. However, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of celastrol in the obesogenic environment in vivo remain elusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the metabolic effects of celastrol on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response in adipose tissue and mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle of the high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Our study revealed that celastrol supplementation at 3 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks significantly reduced the final body weight and enhanced insulin sensitivity of the HFD-fed rats. Celastrol noticeably improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity and increased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle. Moreover, celastrol-treated HFD-fed rats showed attenuated inflammatory responses via decreased NF-κB activity and diminished mRNA expression responsible for classically activated macrophage (M1) polarization in adipose tissues. Significant improvement of muscle mitochondrial functions and enhanced antioxidant defense machinery via restoration of mitochondrial complexes I + III linked activity were effectively exhibited by celastrol treatment. Mechanistically, celastrol stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis attributed by upregulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling pathways. Together, these results further demonstrate heretofore the conceivable therapeutic mechanisms of celastrol in vivo against HFD-induced obesity mediated through attenuation of inflammatory response in adipose tissue and enhanced mitochondrial functions in skeletal muscle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  14. Tham YY, Choo QC, Muhammad TST, Chew CH
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 Dec;47(12):9595-9607.
    PMID: 33259010 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-06019-9
    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the central pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Macrophages play important roles in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Lauric acid is a 12-carbon medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) found abundantly in coconut oil or palm kernel oil and it comes with multiple beneficial effects. This research objective was to uncover the effects of the lauric acid on glucose uptake, mitochondrial function and mitochondrial biogenesis in insulin-resistant macrophages. THP-1 monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and induce insulin resistance, before they were treated with increasing doses of lauric acid (5 μM, 10 μM, 20 μM, and 50 μM). Glucose uptake assay, cellular ROS and ATP production assays, mitochondrial content and membrane potential assay were carried out to analyse the effects of lauric acid on insulin resistance and mitochondrial biogenesis in the macrophages. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis were also performed to determine the expression of the key regulators. Insulin-resistant macrophages showed lower glucose uptake, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 expression, and increased hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, lauric acid treatment upregulated glucose uptake, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 expressions. The treatment also restored the mitochondrial biogenesis in the insulin-resistant macrophages by improving ATP production, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial content and potential, while it promoted the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis regulator genes such as TFAM, PGC-1α and PPAR-γ. We show here that lauric acid has the potential to improve insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial dysregulation in insulin-resistant macrophages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  15. Issac PK, Guru A, Chandrakumar SS, Lite C, Saraswathi NT, Arasu MV, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 Sep;47(9):6727-6740.
    PMID: 32809102 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05728-5
    Understanding the mechanism by which the exogenous biomolecule modulates the GLUT-4 signalling cascade along with the information on glucose metabolism is essential for finding solutions to increasing cases of diabetes and metabolic disease. This study aimed at investigating the effect of hamamelitannin on glycogen synthesis in an insulin resistance model using L6 myotubes. Glucose uptake was determined using 2-deoxy-D-[1-3H] glucose and glycogen synthesis were also estimated in L6 myotubes. The expression levels of key genes and proteins involved in the insulin-signaling pathway were determined using real-time PCR and western blot techniques. The cells treated with various concentrations of hamamelitannin (20 µM to 100 µM) for 24 h showed that, the exposure of hamamelitannin was not cytotoxic to L6 myotubes. Further the 2-deoxy-D-[1-3H] glucose uptake assay was carried out in the presence of wortmannin and Genistein inhibitor for studying the GLUT-4 dependent cell surface recruitment. Hamamelitannin exhibited anti-diabetic activity by displaying a significant increase in glucose uptake (125.1%) and glycogen storage (8.7 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. The optimum concentration evincing maximum activity was found to be 100 µm. In addition, the expression of key genes and proteins involved in the insulin signaling pathway was studied to be upregulated by hamamelitannin treatment. Western blot analysis confirmed the translocation of GLUT-4 protein from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane. Therefore, it can be conceived that hamamelitannin exhibited an insulinomimetic effect by enhancing the glucose uptake and its further conversion into glycogen by regulating glucose metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  16. Chun S, Choi Y, Chang Y, Cho J, Zhang Y, Rampal S, et al.
    Am. Heart J., 2016 07;177:17-24.
    PMID: 27297845 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.018
    BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and clinically manifest coronary heart disease, but its association with subclinical coronary heart disease remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large study of asymptomatic men and women.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  17. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Hussaini J, Khor GH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:908098.
    PMID: 25485304 DOI: 10.1155/2014/908098
    To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  18. Kuppusamy UR, Arumugam B, Azaman N, Jen Wai C
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:737263.
    PMID: 25180205 DOI: 10.1155/2014/737263
    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  19. Daud NM, Ismail NA, Thomas EL, Fitzpatrick JA, Bell JD, Swann JR, et al.
    Obesity (Silver Spring), 2014 Jun;22(6):1430-8.
    PMID: 24715424 DOI: 10.1002/oby.20754
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of nutrient stimulation of gut hormones by oligofructose supplementation on appetite, energy intake (EI), body weight (BW) and adiposity in overweight and obese volunteers.

    METHODS: In a parallel, single-blind and placebo-controlled study, 22 healthy overweight and obese volunteers were randomly allocated to receive 30 g day(-1) oligofructose or cellulose for 6 weeks following a 2-week run-in. Subjective appetite and side effect scores, breath hydrogen, serum short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), plasma gut hormones, glucose and insulin concentrations, EI, BW and adiposity were quantified at baseline and post-supplementation.

    RESULTS: Oligofructose increased breath hydrogen (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  20. Ooi CP, Loke SC
    Diabet Med, 2014 Jan;31(1):2-14.
    PMID: 24024701 DOI: 10.1111/dme.12295
    Colesevelam, a second-generation bile acid sequestrant, may be beneficial in controlling both glycaemia and lipids simultaneously. Our goal was to evaluate the systemic effects of colesevelam on Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
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