Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 306 in total

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  1. Daud SM, Yaacob NS, Fauzi AN
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Feb 01;22(S1):59-65.
    PMID: 33576213 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.S1.59
    OBJECTIVE: The persistent activation of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells results in accumulation of lactate and other metabolic intermediates that contribute to tumorigenesis. Increased glycolysis is frequently dysregulated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which promotes tumor growth and immune escape. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 2-methoxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (MNQ), compound extracted from Impatiens balsamina on glycolytic activities in human breast adenocarcinoma, MDA-MB-231 cells.

    METHODS: Initially, MTT proliferation assay was used to test the cell viability with various doses of MNQ (5-100 µM). As the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was obtained, glucose uptake and lactate assays of the cells were tested with IC50 dose of MNQ. The treated cells were also subjected to gene and protein analysis of glycolysis-related molecules (GLUT1 and Akt).

    RESULTS: The results showed that MNQ decreased the percentage of MDA-MB-231 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 value of 29 µM. The percentage of glucose uptake into the cells and lactate production decreased significantly after treatment with MNQ as compared to untreated cells. Remarkably, the expressions of GLUT1 and Akt molecules decreased in MNQ-treated cells, suggesting that the inhibition of glycolysis by MNQ is GLUT1-dependent and possibly mediated by the Akt signaling pathway.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the ability of MNQ to inhibit the glycolytic activities as well as glycolysis-related molecules in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting the potential of MNQ to be further developed as an effective anticancer agent against TNBC cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  2. Ramli NZ, Chin KY, Zarkasi KA, Ahmad F
    Nutrients, 2018 Aug 02;10(8).
    PMID: 30072671 DOI: 10.3390/nu10081009
    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of diseases comprising of obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. There are numerous pre-clinical as well as human studies reporting the protective effects of honey against MetS. Honey is a nutritional food low in glycemic index. Honey intake reduces blood sugar levels and prevents excessive weight gain. It also improves lipid metabolism by reducing total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which leads to decreased risk of atherogenesis. In addition, honey enhances insulin sensitivity that further stabilizes blood glucose levels and protects the pancreas from overstimulation brought on by insulin resistance. Furthermore, antioxidative properties of honey help in reducing oxidative stress, which is one of the central mechanisms in MetS. Lastly, honey protects the vasculature from endothelial dysfunction and remodelling. Therefore, there is a strong potential for honey supplementation to be integrated into the management of MetS, both as preventive as well as adjunct therapeutic agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  3. Wang M, Han L, Liu S, Zhao X, Yang J, Loh SK, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Sep;10(9):1424-33.
    PMID: 26121186 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400723
    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  4. Lee WS, Tay CG, Nazrul N, Paed M, Chai PF
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):83-5.
    PMID: 19852331 MyJurnal
    A five-month-old Indian girl, product of consanguineous marriage, presented with diarrhoea with an onset within two days after birth, severe malnutrition and metabolic acidosis. The diarrhoea persisted even with lactose-free formula, amino acid-based formula and glucose-containing oral rehydration solution, but stopped when fasted. She required prolonged parenteral nutrition. Fructose and glucose tolerance tests were performed, confirming the child was able to absorb and metabolize fructose but not glucose, indicating a diagnosis of glucose-galactose malabsorption. This case illustrate how simple and pertinent clinical observations and laboratory investigations is sufficient to allow a firm diagnosis to be made.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  5. Paramaesvaran N
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Mar;19(3):224-8.
    PMID: 4220475
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  6. Taher M, Amiroudine MZAM, Jaffri JM, Amri MS, Susanti D, Abd Hamid S, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2017 Jul;30(4):1335-1339.
    PMID: 29039334
    A new naturally occurring dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan named isocubebinic ether has been isolated from Knema patentinervia. The structure was established by spectroscopic methods, which include Ultraviolet, Infrared, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry. The compound showed activity in the stimulation of glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Deoxyglucose/metabolism; Glucose/metabolism*
  7. Yusof BN, Talib RA, Kamaruddin NA, Karim NA, Chinna K, Gilbertson H
    Diabetes Obes Metab, 2009 Apr;11(4):387-96.
    PMID: 19175374 DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00984.x
    AIMS: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of low glycaemic index (GI) vs. conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice on glycaemic control and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    METHODS: A total of 104 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either a low GI (GI) or CCE dietary advice over a 12-week period. The primary end-point was glycaemic control as assessed by glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine level and plasma glucose. The secondary end-points were anthropometric measurements and metabolic parameters that include blood pressure, lipid profile and insulin levels. The oral antidiabetic medications remained unchanged throughout the duration of the study.
    RESULTS: A low-GI diet was associated with significant changes in the fructosamine level (DeltaGI = -0.20 +/- 0.03; DeltaCCE = -0.08 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (DeltaGI group = -1.88 +/- 0.30 cm; DeltaCCE group: -0.36 +/- 0.4 cm, p < 0.05) at week 4. At week 12, the changes in fasting glucose (DeltaGI = -0.03 +/- 0.3; DeltaCCE = 0.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/l; p < 0.05) and waist circumference (DeltaGI = -2.35 +/- 0.47 cm; DeltaCCE group = -0.66 +/- 0.46 cm; p < 0.05) in the GI group was significantly lower than the CCE group. With the low-GI diet, the changes in postprandial glycaemia at time 0, 60, 150 and 180 min after consuming the standard test meal was lower than with the CCE diet (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the groups for the remaining parameters that were measured.
    CONCLUSIONS: Use of a low-GI diet resulted in significant changes of serum fructosamine level, plasma glucose and waist circumference in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes over a 12-week period compared with those following a CCE diet. The effect on HbA1c and other metabolic parameters was not significantly different between the two study groups but the improvement within the GI group was more pronounced and of clinical benefit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism*
  8. Ataie-Jafari A, Loke SC, Rahmat AB, Larijani B, Abbasi F, Leow MK, et al.
    Clin Nutr, 2013 Dec;32(6):911-7.
    PMID: 23395257 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.01.012
    This participant-blinded parallel-group randomized placebo-controlled study demonstrated that alfacalcidol (vitamin D analogue) preserves beta cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  9. Hussain Z, Yusoff ZM, Sulaiman SA
    Prim Care Diabetes, 2015 Aug;9(4):275-82.
    PMID: 25457621 DOI: 10.1016/j.pcd.2014.10.002
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate attitude and treatment satisfaction of women suffering from GDM and their association with glycaemic level.
    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in antenatal clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia from June to December 2013 on the sample of 175 patients. Data was collected through modified version of Diabetes Integration Scale (ATT-19) and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaires (DSTQs). Glycaemic level was evaluated in terms of Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG). Three most recent values of FPG (mmol/l) were taken from patients medical profiles and their mean was calculated. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 166 patients were included in final analysis. Only 35 (21.1%) patients had positive attitude and 122 (73.5%) of patients had adequate treatment satisfaction. There was no significant association of total mean ATT-19 score with age, ethnicity, educational level, occupational status, family history and type of therapy. For treatment satisfaction statistically significant association was present only between total mean treatment satisfaction score and educational level. Patients with negative attitude and inadequate treatment satisfaction had higher mean glycaemic level.
    CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that more than two folds of patients were satisfied with their ongoing treatment but majority of the patients were feeling difficulty in active coping measures for the management of GDM.
    KEYWORDS: Attitude; GDM; Glycaemic level; Treatment satisfaction

    Study site: antenatal clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  10. Perumal R, Bhattathiry EP
    Med J Malaya, 1970 Mar;24(3):208-11.
    PMID: 4246803
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  11. Mariappan V, Thimma J, Vellasamy KM, Shankar EM, Vadivelu J
    Environ Microbiol Rep, 2018 04;10(2):217-225.
    PMID: 29393577 DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12624
    Physiological constituents in airway surface liquids (ASL) appear to impact the adherence and invasion potentials of Burkholderia pseudomallei contributing to recrudescent melioidosis. Here, we investigated the factors present in ASL that is likely to influence bacterial adhesion and invasion leading to improved understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. Six B. pseudomallei clinical isolates from different origins were used to investigate the ability of the bacteria to adhere and invade A549 human lung epithelial cells using a system that mimics the physiological ASL with different pH, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and glucose concentrations. These parameters resulted in markedly differential adherence and invasion abilities of B. pseudomallei to the lung epithelial cells. The concentration of 20 mM glucose dramatically increased adherence and invasion by increasing the rate of pili formation in depiliated bacteria. Glucose significantly increased adherence and invasion of B. pseudomallei to A549 cells, and presence of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 markedly ablated the effect despite the presence of glucose. Our data established a link between glucose, enhanced adhesion and invasion potentials of B. pseudomallei, hinting increased susceptibility of individuals with diabetes mellitus to clinical melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  12. Afiqah RN, Paital B, Kumar S, Majeed AB, Tripathy M
    J. Mol. Recognit., 2016 11;29(11):544-554.
    PMID: 27406464 DOI: 10.1002/jmr.2554
    The inhibitory role of AgNO3 on glucose-mediated respiration in Escherichia coli has been investigated as a function of pH and temperature using Clark-type electrode, environmental scanning electron microscopy, and computational tools. In the given concentration of bacterial suspension (1 × 10(8)  CFU/ml), E. coli showed an increasing nonlinear trend of tetra-phasic respiration between 1-133 μM glucose concentration within 20 min. The glucose concentrations above 133 μM did not result any linear increment in respiration but rather showed a partial inhibition at higher glucose concentrations (266-1066 μM). In the presence of glucose, AgNO3 caused a concentration-dependent (47-1960 μM) inhibition of the respiration rate within 4 min of its addition. The respiration rate was the highest at pH 7-8 and then was decreased on either side of this pH range. The inhibitory action of AgNO3 upon bacterial respiration was the highest at 37 °C. The observations of the respiration data were well supported by the altered bacterial morphology as observed in electron microscopic study. Docking study indicated the AgNO3 binding to different amino acids of all respiratory complex enzymes in E. coli and thereby explaining its interference with the respiratory chain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  13. Mieczkowska A, Mansur SA, Irwin N, Flatt PR, Chappard D, Mabilleau G
    Bone, 2015 Jul;76:31-9.
    PMID: 25813583 DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2015.03.010
    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a severe disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. A higher occurrence of bone fractures has been reported in T1DM, and although bone mineral density is reduced in this disorder, it is also thought that bone quality may be altered in this chronic pathology. Vibrational microscopies such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) represent an interesting approach to study bone quality as they allow investigation of the collagen and mineral compartment of the extracellular matrix in a specific bone location. However, as spectral feature arising from the mineral may overlap with those of the organic component, the demineralization of bone sections should be performed for a full investigation of the organic matrix. The aims of the present study were to (i) develop a new approach, based on the demineralization of thin bone tissue section to allow a better characterization of the bone organic component by FTIRM, (ii) to validate collagen glycation and collagen integrity in bone tissue and (iii) to better understand what alterations of tissue material properties in newly forming bone occur in T1DM. The streptozotocin-injected mouse (150 mg/kg body weight, injected at 8 weeks old) was used as T1DM model. Animals were randomly allocated to control (n = 8) or diabetic (n = 10) groups and were sacrificed 4 weeks post-STZ injection. Bones were collected at necropsy, embedded in polymethylmethacrylate and sectioned prior to examination by FTIRM. FTIRM collagen parameters were collagen maturity (area ratio between 1660 and 1690 cm(-1) subbands), collagen glycation (area ratio between the 1032 cm(-1) subband and amide I) and collagen integrity (area ratio between the 1338 cm(-1) subband and amide II). No significant differences in the mineral compartment of the bone matrix could be observed between controls and STZ-injected animals. On the other hand, as compared with controls, STZ-injected animals presented with significant higher value for collagen maturity (17%, p = 0.0048) and collagen glycation (99%, p = 0.0121), while collagen integrity was significantly lower by 170% (p = 0.0121). This study demonstrated the profound effect of early T1DM on the organic compartment of the bone matrix in newly forming bone. Further studies in humans are required to ascertain whether T1DM also lead to similar effect on the quality of the bone matrix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  14. Chia YY, Liong SY, Ton SH, Kadir KB
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2012 Feb 29;677(1-3):197-202.
    PMID: 22227336 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.12.037
    The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) are influenced by active glucocorticoids which are activated by 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) while hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) influences the activities of 11-βHSD1 in a cofactor manner. Dysregulation of PEPCK and H6PDH has been associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Sixteen male Sprague Dawley rats, fed ad libitum, were assigned to two groups, control and treated, with the treated group being given GA at 100mg/kg for one week. Blood and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscle, liver and kidney were examined. GA treatment led to an overall significant decrease in blood glucose while HOMA-IR. PEPCK activities decreased in the liver but increased in the visceral adipose tissue. H6PDH activities also decreased significantly in the liver while 11β-HSD1 activities decreased significantly in all studied tissues except for subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipocytes in the subcutaneous and visceral depots showed a reduction in size. Though increased glycogen storage was seen in the liver, no changes were observed in the kidneys and muscles. Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and probably by reduction of H6PDH, 11β-HSD1 and a selective decrease in PEPCK activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*
  15. Bakar MH, Sarmidi MR, Kai CK, Huri HZ, Yaakob H
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014 Dec 02;15(12):22227-57.
    PMID: 25474091 DOI: 10.3390/ijms151222227
    A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor) upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  16. Umar A, Ahmed QU, Muhammad BY, Dogarai BB, Soad SZ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Aug 19;131(1):140-5.
    PMID: 20600771 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.06.016
    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic potential of the leaves of Tetracera scandens Linn. Merr. (Dilleniaceae) in vivo with regard to prove its efficacy by local herbalists in the treatment of diabetes frailties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  17. Nyam KL, Chow CF, Tan CS, Ng ST
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2017;19(7):607-617.
    PMID: 29199582 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017021186
    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although scientific evidence supporting its therapeutic efficacy is lacking, the use of the tiger's milk mushroom (TGM; Lignosus rhinocerotis), which is native to tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, has been found to contain a very large amount of potential antioxidants. In this study, rats were weighed and then intravenously injected with 35 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were left for 1 week before blood glucose concentrations were measured to determine the onset of diabetes before the next procedure was conducted. Rats with blood glucose exceeding 7.0 mmol/L were considered diabetic and were included in the experiment. All groups were fed their respective treatments twice daily for 2 months throughout the experiment. Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of freeze-dried TGM powder, such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and catalase (CAT) activities, were investigated in liver samples. The biological compounds present in the freeze-dried TGM powder was found to exhibit antidiabetic properties by significantly reducing elevated blood glucose concentrations to a normal range (3.0-7.0 mmol/L) in Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and increasing the body weight of the rats. Freeze-dried TGM powder was also found to possess antioxidant activity by significantly increasing GSH, CAT, and SOD activities while reducing LPO (P < 0.05). THis study shows that freeze-dried TGM powder exhibits significant antidiabetic properties and may be a potential supplement in ameliorating diabetic complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  18. Noor H, Ashcroft SJ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1989 Nov;27(1-2):149-61.
    PMID: 2693839
    In Malaysia, an aqueous extract of Tinospora crispa stems is taken orally to treat diabetes mellitus. In the present study, normal and alloxan-diabetic rats were used to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of the extract. A hypoglycaemic effect was observed in moderately diabetic rats with concomitant improvement in insulinaemia. After a 2-week treatment with the extract (4 g/l in the drinking water), these rats also showed improvement in glucose tolerance. Moreover, acute intravenous treatment with the extract (50 mg/kg) caused an increase in plasma insulin levels. The data support the traditional belief that T. crispa extract could improve diabetic conditions by virtue of its action on the endocrine pancreas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
  19. Hassan Z, Yam MF, Ahmad M, Yusof AP
    Molecules, 2010;15(12):9008-23.
    PMID: 21150821 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15129008
    Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr (family Compositae) is cultivated in Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, for medicinal purposes. This study evaluated the in vivo hypoglycemic properties of the water extract of G. procumbens following 14 days of treatment and in vitro in RIN-5F cells. Glucose absorption from the intestines and its glucose uptake in abdominal skeletal muscle were assessed. The antidiabetic effect of water extract of G. procumbens leaves was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed in diabetic rats treated with G. procumbens water extract for 14 days. In the IPGTT, blood was collected for insulin and blood glucose measurement. After the IPGTT, the pancreases were collected for immunohistochemical study of β-cells of the islets of Langerhans. The possible antidiabetic mechanisms of G. procumbens were assessed through in vitro RIN-5F cell study, intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by muscle. The results showed that G. procumbens significantly decreased blood glucose levels after 14 days of treatment and improved outcome of the IPGTT. However, G. procumbens did not show a significant effect on insulin level either in the in vivo test or the in vitro RIN-5F cell culture study. G. procumbens also showed minimal effects on β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. However, G. procumbens only significantly increased glucose uptake by muscle tissues. From the findings we can conclude that G. procumbens water extract exerted its hypoglycemic effect by promoting glucose uptake by muscles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism
  20. Mohamed EA, Yam MF, Ang LF, Mohamed AJ, Asmawi MZ
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2013 Feb;6(1):31-40.
    PMID: 23433053 DOI: 10.1016/j.jams.2013.01.005
    Orthosiphon stamineus is a popular folk medicine widely used to treat many diseases including diabetes. Previous studies have shown that the sub-fraction of chloroform extract was able to inhibit the rise of blood glucose levels in a glucose tolerance test. This study was carried out to evaluate the chronic effect and possible mechanism of action of the bioactive chloroform sub-fraction of O. stamineus using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in vitro methods. Administration of the chloroform extract sub-fraction 2 (Cƒ2-b) at a dose of 1 g/kg twice daily on diabetic rats for 14 days showed a significant lowering (p < 0.05) of the final blood glucose level compared to the pretreatment level. However, there were no significant differences in the plasma insulin levels post-treatment compared to the pretreatment levels for all doses of Cƒ2-b. Conversely, Cƒ2-b at a concentration of 2 mg/mL significantly increased (p < 0.001) the glucose uptake by the rat diaphragm muscle. The increase in glucose uptake was also shown when the muscle was incubated in a solution containing 1 IU/mL of insulin or 1 mg/mL of metformin. Furthermore, the effect of this sub-fraction on glucose absorption in the everted rat jejunum showed that Cƒ2-b at concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL and, 2 mg/mL significantly reduced the glucose absorption of the jejunum (p < 0.05-0.001). Similarly, the absorption of glucose was also inhibited by 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL of metformin (p < 0.001). These results suggest that the effect of Cƒ2-b may be due to extra-pancreatic mechanisms. There was no evidence that the plant extract stimulated the release of insulin in order to lower the blood glucose level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Glucose/metabolism
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